Stock footage

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Stock footage, and similarly, archive footage, library pictures, and file footage is film or video footage that can be used again in other films. Stock footage is beneficial to filmmakers as it saves shooting new material. A single piece of stock footage is called a "stock shot" or a "library shot". [1] Stock footage may have appeared in previous productions but may also be outtakes or footage shot for previous productions and not used. Examples of stock footage that might be utilized are moving images of cities and landmarks, wildlife in their natural environments, and historical footage. Suppliers of stock footage may be either rights managed or royalty-free. Many websites offer direct downloads of clips in various formats.

Contents

History

Stock footage companies began to emerge in the mid-1980s, offering clips mastered on Betacam SP, VHS, and film formats. Many of the smaller libraries that specialized in niche topics such as extreme sports, technological or cultural collections were bought out by larger concerns such as Corbis or Getty Images over the next couple of decades.

Films and television

Stock footage can be used to integrate news footage or notable figures into a film. For instance, the Academy Award-winning film Forrest Gump used stock footage extensively, modified with computer-generated imagery to portray the lead character meeting such historic figures such as John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, and John Lennon.

Videographer captures stock footage of a passing train outside Las Vegas: photograph by Patty Mooney. Videographer and Las Vegas Train.jpg
Videographer captures stock footage of a passing train outside Las Vegas: photograph by Patty Mooney.

News programs use film footage from their libraries when more recent images are not available. Such usage is often labeled on-screen with an indication that the footage being shown is file footage.

Television and movies series also often recycle footage taken from previous installments. For instance, the Star Trek franchise kept a large collection of starships, planets, backgrounds, and explosions, which would appear on a regular basis throughout Star Trek's five series and ten films, being used with minimal alteration. That kept production costs down as models, mattes, and explosions were expensive to create. The advances in computer graphics in the late 1990s and early 2000s helped to significantly reduce the cost of Star Trek's production, and allowed for a much wider variety of shots than previous model and painting based visuals. Other films that re-used film footage from previous productions include Transformers: Dark of the Moon , Blade Runner , Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones , Hitman , Jaws: The Revenge , Halloween II , Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix , and Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure . [2]

Some series, particularly those made for children, such as Power Rangers or Teletubbies , reuse footage that is shown in many episodes.[ citation needed ] Meant for a young audience, the approach increases viewers' familiarity between shows. This introduces problems such as the requirement to, for example, wear the same clothing and inconsistency can sometimes become a problem. When cleverly filmed it is possible to avoid many of these problems.

Many broadcast shows use stock-footage clips as establishing shots of a particular city, which imply that the show is shot on location when in fact, it may be shot in a backlot studio. One or two establishing shots of an exotic location such as the Great Wall of China, Easter Island, or French Polynesia will save production companies the major costs of transporting crew and equipment to those actual locations. [3]

Stock footage is often used in commercials when there is not enough money or time for production. More often than not these commercials are political or issue-oriented in nature. [4] Sometimes it can be used to composite moving images that create the illusion of having on-camera performers appear to be on location. The term B-roll may refer to stock footage or newly shot scenes. [5]

Stock footage that appears on television screens or monitors shown in movies or television shows is referred to as "playback". In Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy , which was written by and starring Will Ferrell as a San Diego news anchor, the studio purchased archival 1970s clips from San Diego stock footage firm New & Unique Videos. The playback footage of a hurricane featured in Disney's Smart House came from the vaults of the same San Diego firm. [6]

One of the most common uses of stock footage is in documentaries. Use of stock footage allows the filmmaker to tell the story of historical events such as World War II Why We Fight series, to document modern underwater archaeology activities, or to supplement content in natural history documentaries. Budgets may not be sufficient to keep a production crew on site for long term projects, and stock footage allows the producer to pick the moments in time that are most important to the story or to give context to historical events. [7]

Several films that would otherwise be completely lost have surviving footage due to the film being used as a stock footage. For example, The Cat Creeps has some scenes preserved in the movie Boo, and scenes from Queen of the Night Clubs are preserved as stock footage in Winner Take All. If not for the use of stock footage, these films would be lost entirely. [8]

Stock Footage are also used in live reality TV shows such as I'm a Celebrity . Most of the stock footage used in that show is footage that is related to jungle creatures and insects. There is one stock video in particular that lasts for four seconds and excites people: a short video of a spider catching a fly and spinning it in a web. The makers of the stock footage added some cartoon sounds to the video to entertain people. [9]

In recent months, stock footage of studio audience applause and reactions have been used in TV shows in place of a live studio audience due to the current COVID-19 crisis.

Corporate usage

The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing Band, USMC, performs in San Diego, 2011: still shot from stock footage clip. Military Band San Diego 2011.JPG
The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing Band, USMC, performs in San Diego, 2011: still shot from stock footage clip.

Companies throughout the world use stock footage in their video productions for in-house meetings, annual conventions, seminars, and other events. It has become popular to videotape interviews of CEOs and other VIPs using a green screen backdrop. When the green is keyed out during post-production, stock footage or stock shots are inserted, to impart a particular message.

Public domain

One of the largest producers of public domain stock footage is the United States government. All videos produced by the United States military, NASA, and other agencies are available for use as stock footage. There are a number of companies that own the copyrights to large libraries of stock footage and charge filmmakers a fee for using it, but they rarely demand royalties. Stock footage comes from a myriad of sources including the public domain, other movies and television programs, news outlets, and purpose-shot stock footage.

Format

Evolution

Comparison of common broadcast resolutions Digital video resolutions (VCD to 4K).svg
Comparison of common broadcast resolutions

With each introduction of new standard, it requires reshooting, rerendering, or rescanning the popular footage as well as new images to show the capabilities of the next standard. Betacam SP, VHS, and early digital footage was shot in Standard Definition (SD), in 4:3 aspect ratio. Next came a higher resolution format, High Definition (HD), with a 16:9 aspect ratio, which is closer to cinema widescreen formats. Many stock-footage companies and producers were concerned that their libraries would become irrelevant. [10] Most stock footage companies & distributors now require HD 1080p footage at a minimum with many requesting 2K resolution and 4K resolution raw footage. [11] Many companies are also including Virtual Reality (VR) and 360-degree video footage. [12]

Container

Popular digital container formats include MOV (QuickTime File Format) AVI, FLV, MP4, and MXF, which are commonly used in non-linear editing system applications such as Avid, Final Cut Pro, and Adobe Premiere Pro. [13]

Libraries

Notable stock footage libraries and archives include:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Super 8 film Small film format by Kodak

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Videotape Magnetic tape used for storing video and sound simultaneously

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Cinematography Art of motion picture photography

Cinematography is the art of motion-picture photography and filming either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.

B-roll

In film and television production, B-roll, B roll, B-reel or B reel is supplemental or alternative footage intercut with the main shot. The term A-roll referring to the main footage has fallen out of use.

Getty Images, Inc., is a British-American visual media company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington. It is a supplier of stock images, editorial photography, video and music for business and consumers, with an archive of over 200 million assets. It targets three markets—creative professionals, the media, and corporate.

Branded Entertainment Network

Branded Entertainment Network (BEN) is a Los Angeles-based product placement, influencer marketing and licensing company. The company offers product placement, rights clearance, and personality rights management services for the entertainment industry.

Stock photography Photographs with the purpose of having a specific use

Stock photography is the supply of photographs which are often licensed for specific uses. The stock photo industry, which began to gain hold in the 1920s, has established models including traditional macrostock photography, midstock photography, and microstock photography. Conventional stock agencies charge from several hundred to several thousand United States dollars per image, while microstock photography may sell for around USD 25 cents. Professional stock photographers traditionally place their images with one or more stock agencies on a contractual basis, while stock agencies may accept the high-quality photos of amateur photographers through online submission.

Film colorization

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Footage Raw, unedited film or video from a motion picture

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Home movies

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FootageBank is a stock footage company based in Los Angeles, California founded by Paula Lumbard. FootageBank is dedicated to shooting and aggregating collections of video clips to serve the demand for high definition and large format content in the film and television marketplace.

FOCAL International is the trade association representing stock footage companies, post-production facilities and individuals involved in the use of footage, still images and audio in all forms of media production. It represents more than 300 companies and individuals involved in media production, asset management, preservation of historical archives, film restoration and post-production.

Pond5 is a New York–based online marketplace for royalty-free media. The company licenses stock footage, stock music, stock photography sound effects, after effects, images and 3-D models. Pond5 is reported to have the world's largest collection of stock footage, hosting more than 23.2 million clips as of August 2020.

Visual China Group

Visual China Group (VCG) is a Chinese photo and media agency. Established in 2000, it is a supplier of stock multimedia content to the commercial media industry. VCG is currently the largest stock image and media footage provider in China and third largest in the world.

References

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  3. "6 Reasons You Might Want to Start Using Stock Footage in Your Films". No Film School. April 23, 2015. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  4. Eliza Collins, Daniel Strauss (September 15, 2015). "Jeb Bush super PAC video about America uses stock footage from overseas". Politico . Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  5. "STOCK FOOTAGE PRIMER – TV Writer Podcast". www.tvwriterpodcast.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
  6. "New & Unique Videos". Productionhub.com. Archived from the original on 2017-11-13. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  7. RELTH Relth, Kj (August 14, 2013). "6 Essential Tips for Using Archival Footage". International Documentary Association . Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
  8. Obius, Rudie (March 28, 2014). "10 Movies That Recycled Footage From Other Movies". Mental Floss . Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  9. Bultitude, Nick. "I'm a Celebrity Cutscene Spider Web Catch". YouTube . Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  10. Careless, James (2010-01-06). "Does standard-def stock footage still play in a high-def game?". Digital Video magazine. Archived from the original on 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
  11. "4K Stock Footage: When 1080p Just Doesn't Cut It". Envato Blog. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  12. "Stock Footage Searches Reveal Shifting Media Trends - Studio Daily". Studio Daily. 2017-01-25. Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2017-09-26.
  13. "Video File Format Overview". dpbestflow.org. American Society of Media Photographers. Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.

Further reading