Stretcher

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EMTs using a stretcher in 2001. MS1 on stretcher.jpg
EMTs using a stretcher in 2001.
Armed escort carries the wounded to the Senegalese border, Guinea-Bissau, 1974. ASC Leiden - Coutinho Collection - F 37 - Life in Sara, Guinea-Bissau - Armed escort carrying the wounded to the Senegalese border - 1974.tif
Armed escort carries the wounded to the Senegalese border, Guinea-Bissau, 1974.

A stretcher, gurney, litter, or pram [1] is an apparatus used for moving patients who require medical care. A basic type (cot or litter) must be carried by two or more people. A wheeled stretcher (known as a gurney, trolley, bed or cart) is often equipped with variable height frames, wheels, tracks, or skids. Stretchers are primarily used in acute out-of-hospital care situations by emergency medical services (EMS), military, and search and rescue personnel. In medical forensics the right arm of a corpse is left hanging off the stretcher to let paramedics know it is not a wounded patient. They are also used to hold prisoners during lethal injections in the United States. [2]

Contents

History

Illustration of chair stretcher, "On the Transport of sick and wounded troops", 1868. Fisher's Chair Stretcher 1865. Wellcome L0002114EB.jpg
Illustration of chair stretcher, "On the Transport of sick and wounded troops", 1868.
A wounded knight is carried on a medieval stretcher. BNF Francais 9749, fo. 67v, c.1380.jpg
A wounded knight is carried on a medieval stretcher.

An early stretcher, likely made of wicker over a frame, appears in a manuscript from c.1380. [3] Simple stretchers were common with militaries right through the middle of the 20th century. [4]

Gurney

Generally spelled gurney, but also guerney or girney. [5] The first usage of the term for a wheeled stretcher is unclear, but it is believed to have been derived from Pacific Coast slang. [6] Its use in a hospital context was established by the 1930s. [7] [8]

Classification

A simple stretcher used by U.S. Marines in a training environment in December 2003. Stretcher miloufs.jpg
A simple stretcher used by U.S. Marines in a training environment in December 2003.
U.S. Marines transport a non-ambulatory patient, outside of Fallujah, Iraq in 2006 Marine CASEVAC Fallujah.jpg
U.S. Marines transport a non-ambulatory patient, outside of Fallujah, Iraq in 2006

EMS stretchers used in ambulances have wheels that makes transportation over pavement easier, and have a lock inside the ambulance and straps to secure the patient during transport. An integral lug on the stretcher locks into a sprung latch within the ambulance in order to prevent movement during transport. Modern stretchers may also have battery-powered hydraulics to raise and collapse the legs automatically. This eases the workload on EMS personnel, who are statistically at high risk of back injury from repetitive raising and lowering of patients. Specialized bariatric stretchers are also available, which feature a wider frame and higher weight capacity for heavier patients. Stretchers are usually covered with a disposable sheet or wrapping, and are cleaned after each use to prevent the spread of infection. Shelves, hooks and poles for medical equipment and intravenous medication are also frequently included.

Standard stretchers have several adjustments. The bed can be raised or lowered to facilitate patient transfer. The head of the stretcher can be raised so that the patient is in a sitting position (especially important for those in respiratory distress) or lowered flat in order to perform CPR, or for patients with suspected spinal injury who must be transported on a spinal board. The feet can be raised to what is called the Trendelenburg position, indicated for patients in shock.

Some manufacturers have begun to offer hybrid devices that combine the functionality of a stretcher, a recliner chair, and a treatment or procedural table into one device. [9]

Basic stretchers

Scoop stretcher Civiere a aubes.jpg
Scoop stretcher

Wheeled stretchers

For ambulances, a collapsible wheeled stretcher, or gurney, is a type of stretcher on a variable-height wheeled frame. Normally, an integral lug on the stretcher locks into a sprung latch within the ambulance in order to prevent movement during transport, often referred to as antlers due to their shape. It is usually covered with a disposable sheet and cleaned after each patient in order to prevent the spread of infection. Its key value is to facilitate moving the patient and sheet onto a fixed bed or table on arrival at the emergency department. Both types may have straps to secure the patient.

Other types of stretchers

See also

Related Research Articles

Emergency medical services Services providing acute medical care

Emergency medical services (EMS), also known as ambulance services or paramedic services, are emergency services that provide urgent pre-hospital treatment and stabilisation for serious illness and injuries and transport to definitive care. They may also be known as a first aid squad, FAST squad, emergency squad, ambulance squad, ambulance corps, life squad or by other initialisms such as EMAS or EMARS.

Ambulance Vehicle equipped for transporting and care for ill and wounded people

An ambulance is a medically equipped vehicle which transports patients to treatment facilities, such as hospitals. Typically, out-of-hospital medical care is provided to the patient.

Spinal board Device used in pre-hospital trauma care

A spinal board, is a patient handling device used primarily in pre-hospital trauma care. It is designed to provide rigid support during movement of a person with suspected spinal or limb injuries. They are most commonly used by ambulance staff, as well as lifeguards and ski patrollers. Historically, backboards were also used in an attempt to "improve the posture" of young people, especially girls.

Vacuum mattress Device used for patient immobilisation

A vacuum mattress, or vacmat, is a medical device used for the immobilisation of patients, especially in case of a vertebra, pelvis or limb trauma. It is also used for manual transportation of patients for short distances. It was invented by Loed and Haederlé, who called it "shell" mattress.

Casualty movement is the collective term for the techniques used to move a casualty from the initial location to the ambulance.

Vehicle extrication

Vehicle extrication is the process of removing a vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor vehicle collision, when conventional means of exit are impossible or inadvisable. A delicate approach is needed to minimize injury to the victim during the extrication. This operation is usually accomplished by using chocks and bracing for stabilization and powered rescue tools and equipment, including the Jaws of Life. Standards and regulations for organizations can be found in NFPA 1670 and for individual members in 1006.

Kendrick extrication device

A Kendrick extrication device (KED) is a device used in extrication of victims of traffic collisions from motor vehicles. Commonly carried on ambulances, a KED is typically used by an emergency medical technician, paramedic, or another first responder. It was originally designed for extrication of race car drivers. Typically used in conjunction with a cervical collar, a KED is a semi-rigid brace that secures the head, neck and torso in an anatomically neutral position. Its use is claimed to reduce the possibility of additional injuries to these regions during extrication, although its value has been questioned, as there is a lack of evidence to support its use. The original KED was designed by Richard Kendrick in 1978.

Scoop stretcher Device used for moving injured people

The scoop stretcher is a device used specifically for moving injured people. It is Ideal for carrying casualties with possible spinal injuries.

Litter (rescue basket)

A litter is a stretcher or basket designed to be used where there are obstacles to movement or other hazards: for example, in confined spaces, on slopes, in wooded terrain. Typically it is shaped to accommodate an adult in a face up position and it is used in search and rescue operations. The person is strapped into the basket, making safe evacuation possible. The person generally is further protected by a cervical collar and sometimes a long spine board, so as to immobilize the person and prevent further injury.

Emergency Medical Service in Germany is a service of public pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including ambulance service, provided by individual German cities and counties. It is primarily financed by the German health insurance companies.

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History of the ambulance

The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport patients. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic monarchs against the Emirate of Granada, and civilian variants were put into operation in the 1830s. Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances.

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Wagon-bed riding

Wagon-bed riding is a practice performec with a covered carriage containing a canvas stretcher. It is a way to enable severely disabled people to move and so alleviate complaints such as constipation and spasms.

Hospital bed

A hospital bed or hospital cot is a bed specially designed for hospitalized patients or others in need of some form of health care. These beds have special features both for the comfort and well-being of the patient and for the convenience of health care workers. Common features include adjustable height for the entire bed, the head, and the feet, adjustable side rails, and electronic buttons to operate both the bed and other nearby electronic devices.

Emergency medical services in Austria

Emergency Medical Service in Austria is a service of public pre-hospital emergency healthcare, including ambulance service, provided by individual Austrian municipalities, cities and counties. It is primarily financed by the Austrian health insurance companies.

The New York City Fire Department Bureau of Emergency Medical Services is a division of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) in charge of emergency medical services for New York City. It was established on March 17, 1996, following the merger of the FDNY and New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation's emergency medical services division. FDNY EMS provides coverage of all five boroughs of New York City with ambulances and a variety of specialized response vehicles.

Air medical services Use of air vehicles to transport patients

Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, aeroplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet aircraft.

References

  1. Morehead, Philip D. (July 2002). Stretcher. New American Roget's College Thesaurus in Dictionary Form. ISBN   9781101220085.
  2. "A Brief History of Lethal Injection". TIME.com. 10 November 2009. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008.
  3. Valère-Maxime, Facta et Dicta memorabilia traduction françaiseSimon de Hesdin (Livres I-IV). 1375.
  4. http://www.mountain.rescue.org.uk/assets/files/The%20Oracle/Equipment/Stretchers.pdf [ dead link ]
  5. Normand Louis Hoerr, ed. (1956). New Gould Medical Dictionary . Arthur Osol (2 ed.). New York: Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill.
  6. "Guerney". Carriage Monthly. Philadelphia: Ware Brothers Publishing. 40: 140. April 1904. OCLC   2448762. The Guerney is a contraction of the Guerney cab. patented by J. T. Guerney, Boston, Mass., and in modified form is now considerably used. Many vehicles on the Pacific Coast are termed "guerneys," though they are anything else.
  7. "Section 2". Hospital Management. Clissold Publishing Company. 11: 47. 1921. The base of the ordinary food and laundry gurney is used
  8. "Stolen Hospital Guerney is Found". Oakland Tribune. Ancestry.com#Newspapers.com. 11 January 1935.
  9. "Stretcher Chairs and Medical Supplies". transmotionmedical.com.
  10. "Stretchers Immobilization, Reeves Sleeve II, 122 & Dragable, Reeves Flexible Stretcher 101 & 103– Reeves EMS". www.reevesems.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  11. "the WauK board". Archived from the original on 2017-07-07. Retrieved 2014-04-06.