Suona la tromba

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Cover of the score of "Suona la tromba" published in 1865 in the series Euterpe Patria Suona la tromba score.jpg
Cover of the score of "Suona la tromba" published in 1865 in the series Euterpe Patria

"Suona la tromba" (The trumpet sounds) or "Inno popolare" (Hymn of the people) was a secular hymn composed by Giuseppe Verdi in 1848 to a text by the Italian poet and patriot Goffredo Mameli. The work's title comes from the opening line of Mameli's poem. It has sometimes been referred to as "Grido di guerra" and "Euterpe Patria".

Giuseppe Verdi Italian opera composer

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.

Goffredo Mameli poet, patriot and writer from Italy

Goffredo Mameli, an Italian patriot, poet, and writer was a notable figure in the Italian Risorgimento. He is also the author of the lyrics of Il Canto degli Italiani, the national anthem.



The piece begins with the line: "Suona la tromba, ondeggiano le insegne gialle e nere." ("The trumpet sounds, the yellow and black flags are waving."), a reference to the yellow and black flag of the Austrian Empire. It was commissioned by Giuseppe Mazzini as a new battle hymn for the Revolution of 1848 when Italian nationalists sought independence from the Austrian Empire which controlled large portions of northern Italy. He persuaded Verdi to compose the music for it when Verdi visited Milan in May 1848, shortly after the Austrians had been driven from the city and other parts of Lombardy. Mazzini commissioned the text from Mameli in June, asking him for a poem that would become the Italian "Marseillaise" and quoted Verdi's wish that the new anthem would "make the people forget both the poet and the composer". [1] Mameli finished the poem in late August, and Mazzini immediately sent it to Verdi who was living and working in Paris at the time. Verdi sent the finished work, composed for a three part male chorus without accompaniment, to Mazzini on 18 October 1848. In the accompanying letter Verdi wrote:

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867

The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Giuseppe Mazzini Italian patriot, politician and philosopher

Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy, and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century. He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.

Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states organized revolts

The 1848 Revolutions in the Italian states, part of the wider Revolutions of 1848 in Europe, were organized revolts in the states of the Italian peninsula and Sicily, led by intellectuals and agitators who desired a liberal government. As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control. During this time period of 1848, Italy was not a unified country, and was divided into many states, which, in Northern Italy, were ruled by the Austrian Empire. A desire to be independent from foreign rule, and the conservative leadership of the Austrians, led Italian revolutionaries to stage revolution in order to drive out the Austrians. The revolution was led by the state of the Kingdom of Sardinia. Also, the uprisings in the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, particularly in Milan, forced the Austrian General Radetzky to retreat to the Quadrilatero (Quadrilateral) fortresses.

I send you the hymn, and even if it is a bit late, I hope it will arrive in time. I have tried to be as popular and easy as I can be. Make use of it as you see fit: even burn it if you do not think it worthy. [2] [3]

Publication and performance history

In his letter to Mazzini of 18 October 1848, Verdi had recommended that if Mazzini wished to publish the hymn, he give it to Carlo Pozzi, an affiliate of Verdi's publisher Casa Ricordi. However, before the music reached Mazzini, the Austrian Empire had regained its lost territories and Milan's musical life was once again under the control of the Austrian censors. The numerous patriotic songs and anthems that had been published by Casa Ricordi and Casa Lucca during the brief revolution were withdrawn, with some of those editions destroyed. [1] Mazzini did not try to have "Suona la tromba" officially published at that time, although in late 1848 a few copies of it were printed and circulated in Florence by the short-lived Associazione Nazionale per la Costituente Italiana (National Association for the Italian Constitution). [4] [5] Mameli died in 1849 at the age of 22. His earlier poem "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians) later became the Italian National anthem.

Casa Ricordi music publishing company

Casa Ricordi is a publisher of primarily classical music and opera. Its classical repertoire represents one of the important sources in the world through its publishing of the work of the major 19th-century Italian composers such as Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Giuseppe Verdi, and, later in the century, Giacomo Puccini, composers with whom one or another of the Ricordi family came into close contact.

Il Canto degli Italiani the national anthem of Italy

"Il Canto degli Italiani" is the national anthem of Italy. It is best known among Italians as the "Inno di Mameli", after the author of the lyrics, or "Fratelli d'Italia", from its opening line. The words were written in the autumn of 1847 in Genoa, by the then 20-year-old student and patriot Goffredo Mameli. Two months later, they were set to music in Turin by another Genoese, Michele Novaro. The hymn enjoyed widespread popularity throughout the period of the Risorgimento and in the following decades. Nevertheless, after the Italian Unification in 1861, the adopted national anthem was the "Marcia Reale", the official hymn of the House of Savoy composed in 1831 by order of King Charles Albert of Sardinia. After the Second World War, Italy became a republic, and on 12 October 1946, "Il Canto degli Italiani" was provisionally chosen as the country's new national anthem. It was made official on 4 December 2017 de jure.

Cover of the 1898 Ricordi anthology, 5 Canti Popolari del 1848 5 Canti Popolari, Ricordi 1898.jpg
Cover of the 1898 Ricordi anthology, 5 Canti Popolari del 1848

Verdi's score for "Suona la tromba" languished in the Casa Ricordi archives until 1865 when Mazzini gave it to the Milanese music publisher Paolo De Giorgi who brought it out as the first in a series of patriotic songs entitled Euterpe Patria. Verdi's hymn is sometimes referred to as "Euterpe Patria", although the series also included songs by several other composers. [6] As a courtesy, De Giorgi had also asked for Verdi's approval, but Verdi was not happy with the idea and Francesco Maria Piave, acting on his behalf, tried to stop the publication. However, his 1848 letter to Mazzini in which he had written "Make use of it as you see fit" was interpreted has having given Mazzini the right to control the hymn's publication. De Giorgi then made the gesture of offering to abandon the project if Verdi agreed to write a new hymn to inaugurate a monument to the Battle of Legnano, knowing full well that Verdi would refuse. [7] The publication of "Suona la tromba" went ahead and came with a piano accompaniment arranged by Angelo Graffigna. De Georgi also published an "economy edition" of the work, under the title "Grido di guerra" (War cry). [8] [9]

Francesco Maria Piave Italian librettist

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Battle of Legnano middle ages battle

The Battle of Legnano was fought on May 29, 1176, between the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the Lombard League. The Imperial army suffered a major defeat.

There have been several subsequent arrangements of the hymn, some with orchestration, each tailored to popular tastes of the time. [10] Riccordi published the score arranged for chorus and orchestra in 1898 and also included the hymn in 5 canti popolari del 1848, an anthology of patriotic songs published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1848 uprisings. Nevertheless, "Suona la tromba" remained a relatively obscure piece until 1996. Students at the Milan Conservatory had unearthed the 1865 De Giorgi score in the conservatory's library, and it was performed by the City of Milan Chamber Choir in a broadcast by Rai 2 television on 7 February 1996. [4] In 2011, the 150th anniversary of the unification of Italy, there were multiple performances of the work in commemorative concerts, and it was recorded by the La Scala Chamber Orchestra and Chorus for the CD Musica del Risorgimento. [2]

Milan Conservatory Conservatory named after Verdi

The Milan Conservatory is a college of music in Milan.

Rai 2 one of the three main television channels broadcast by Italian public television company RAI alongside with Rai 1 and Rai 3.

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La Scala Opera house in Milan, Italy

La Scala is an opera house in Milan, Italy. The theatre was inaugurated on 3 August 1778 and was originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala. The premiere performance was Antonio Salieri's Europa riconosciuta.

The critical edition of the score, edited and annotated by Roberta Montemorra Marvin, was published by University of Chicago Press in 2007. In 2013, the Accademia Nazionale d’Arte Antica e Moderna published what is claimed to be the sole surviving copy of the score printed in Florence in 1848 and found in 2011 in the private archive of the Italian pianist and conductor Antonello Palazzolo. [5]

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  1. 1 2 Gossett, Philip (2009). "'Edizioni distrutte' and the significance of operatic choruses during the Risorgimento", in Victoria Johnson, Jane F. Fulcher, Thomas Ertman (eds), Opera and Society in Italy and France from Monteverdi to Bourdieu, pp. 181-205. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   1139464051
  2. 1 2 Daolmi, Davide (2011). *Cori patriottici e inni popolari. Milano 1848", booklet accompanying the CD Musica del Risorgimento recorded by the La Scala Chamber Orchestra.
  3. Original Italian: "Vi mando l'inno e, sebbene un po' tardi, spero vi arriverà in tempo. Ho cercato d'essere più popolare e facile che mi sia stato possibile. Fatene quell'uso che credete: abbruciatelo anche se non lo credete degno."
  4. 1 2 Foletto, Angelo (7 February 1996). "Ecco il 'Mameli-bis', L'inno firmato Verdi". La Repubblica . Retrieved 19 September 2013 (in Italian).
  5. 1 2 Accademia Nazionale d'Arte Antica e Moderna (2013). "Verdi ritrovato: L'unico esemplare sopravvissuto della versione originale dell'Inno popolare di Giuseppe Verdi". Retrieved 19 September 2013 (in Italian).
  6. Other composers whose works appeared in the series were Carlo Foldi, Giacomo Calascione, and Angelo Graffigna.
  7. Marvin, Roberta Montemorra (2007) "Introduction", Hymns/Inni (The works of Giuseppe Verdi, Series IV, Vol. 1), pp. xi-xii. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   8875928223
  8. Library of the Milan Conservatory.Grido di guerra: inno popolare / di Giuseppe Verdi : Parole di G. Mameli (LO11198904) Archived 2013-09-21 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 19 September 2013 (in Italian).
  9. Library of the Milan Conservatory.Inno popolare / di Goffredo Mameli : musicato a voci sole da Verdi (MUS0266013) Archived 2013-09-21 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 19 September 2013 (in Italian).
  10. University of Chicago, Center for Italian Opera Studies. Inno popolare "Suona la tromba"