|Un giorno di regno|
|Melodramma giocoso by Giuseppe Verdi|
King Stanislaus I of Poland who is impersonated by the opera's protagonist
|Other title||Il finto Stanislao|
|Based on||Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval's play, Le faux Stanislas|
5 September 1840
Teatro alla Scala, Milan
Un giorno di regno, ossia Il finto Stanislao (A One-Day Reign, or The Pretend Stanislaus, but often translated into English as King for a Day) is an operatic melodramma giocoso in two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto written in 1818 by Felice Romani. Originally written for the Bohemian composer Adalbert Gyrowetzthe libretto was based on the play Le faux Stanislas written by the Frenchman Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval in 1808. Un giorno was given its premiere performance at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan on 5 September 1840.
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
Dramma giocoso is a genre of opera common in the mid-18th century. The term is a contraction of dramma giocoso per musica and describes the opera's libretto (text). The genre developed in the Neapolitan opera tradition, mainly through the work of the playwright Carlo Goldoni in Venice. A dramma giocoso characteristically used a grand buffo scene as a dramatic climax at the end of an act. Goldoni's texts always consisted of two long acts with extended finales, followed by a short third act. Composers Baldassare Galuppi, Niccolò Piccinni, and Joseph Haydn set Goldoni's texts to music.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.
After the success of his first opera, Oberto in 1839, Verdi received a commission from La Scala impresario Merelli to write three more operas. Un giorno was first of the three, but he wrote the piece during a period when first his children and then his wife died and its failure in 1840 caused the young composer to almost abandon opera. It was not until he was enticed to write the music for the existing libretto of what became Nabucco that Verdi restarted his career.
Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio is an opera in two acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on an existing libretto by Antonio Piazza probably called Rocester.
La Scala is an opera house in Milan, Italy. The theatre was inaugurated on 3 August 1778 and was originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala. The premiere performance was Antonio Salieri's Europa riconosciuta.
Bartolomeo Merelli was an Italian impresario and librettist, best known as the manager of the La Scala Milan opera house between 1829 and 1850, and for his support for the young Giuseppe Verdi.
After Oberto and after Merelli returned from Vienna in early 1840, he needed a comedy to be written for the autumn season. Asked to select a libretto by Romani which already existed, Verdi notes that he did not like any of them but "because the matter was of some urgency, I chose the one which seemed to me to be the least bad".
Premiere and other 19th century performances
The first performance at La Scala on 5 September 1840 was a failure, and La Scala cancelled the remaining scheduled performances. They did not revive the work until 2001. Verdi would not attempt another operatic comedy until the end of his career with Falstaff .
Falstaff is a comic opera in three acts by the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was adapted by Arrigo Boito from Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor and scenes from Henry IV, parts 1 and 2. The work premiered on 9 February 1893 at La Scala, Milan.
At the premiere Verdi was seated in the orchestra pit, and thus heard the audience reaction directly. Along with the critics, Verdi acknowledged that the failure was partly due to his own personal circumstances, since his two children (the first in 1838, the second in 1839) and then, in June 1840, his wife Margherita Barezzi had died,all during the period leading up to and during its composition. A contributing factor was that the only singers La Scala's impresario had available were those assembled for an opera seria, Otto Nicolai's Il templario , and they had no experience with comedy: "The cast had been assembled chiefly for the performance of the season's most successful novelty, Il templario , Nicolai's version of Ivanhoe". Other factors which have been noted include the large size of La Scala itself (noted by George Martin as "too big for the piece") plus the rather old-fashioned nature of the work which was written in a style that was rapidly going out of fashion. In fact, in summary, Budden notes that "by the side of Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore or Don Pasquale , it cuts a clumsy figure".
Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai was a German composer, conductor, and one of the founders of the Vienna Philharmonic. Nicolai is best known for his operatic version of Shakespeare's comedy The Merry Wives of Windsor as Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor. In addition to five operas, Nicolai composed lieder, works for orchestra, chorus, ensemble, and solo instruments.
Il templario is an Italian-language opera by the German composer Otto Nicolai from a libretto written by Girolamo Maria Marini based on Walter Scott's Ivanhoe.
L'elisir d'amore is a comic opera in two acts by the Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti. Felice Romani wrote the Italian libretto, after Eugène Scribe's libretto for Daniel Auber's Le philtre (1831). The opera premiered on 12 May 1832 at the Teatro della Canobbiana in Milan.
Other productions in Italy during Verdi's lifetime seemed to fare better; it was given in Venice in 1845 (as Il finto Stanislao, where it did well),in Rome in 1846, and Naples (also as Il finto Stanislao) in 1859.
20th century and beyond
In the U.S., the opera received its premiere on 18 June 1960, while in the UK, the premiere took place on 21 March 1961. It was part of the San Diego Opera's June 1981 "Verdi Festival".
With the temporary shutdown of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in 1999, the Royal Opera gave a concert performance at the Royal Festival Hall. Russian baritone Vladimir Chernov sang the "King" with John Del Carlo as Baron Kelbar; Susanne Mentzer sang Giuletta.This presentation was followed in 2001 with a staged production at the Buxton Festival in England.
In October 2012, the Bilbao-based ABAO society, one which plans to present all of Verdi's works, presented the opera under conductor Alberto Zedda.
Sarasota Opera presented the new critical edition of the opera in March 2013, the 29th work of the complete Verdi canon (in all its versions) to be presented by the company.Dr. Francesco Izzo, Co-Director of the American Institute for Verdi Studies and the critical edition's editor, notes that:
The Glimmerglass Festival presented the opera in a new English adaptation during the 2013 Festival.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere Cast, 5 September 1840 |
(Conductor: - Eugenio Cavallini)
|Cavaliere di Belfiore, a French officer |
impersonating Stanislao of Poland
|Barone di Kelbar, the usurper||bass||Raffaele Scalese|
|The Marchesa del Poggio, a young widow, |
the Baron's niece, in love with Belfiore
|Giulietta di Kelbar, the Baron's daughter||mezzo-soprano||Luigia Abbadia|
|Edoardo di Sanval, a young official, |
la Rocca's nephew
|La Rocca, Treasurer to the Estates of |
|Count Ivrea, Commandant of Brest, |
engaged to the Marchesa
|Delmonte, esquire to the false Stanislao||bass||Napoleone Marconi|
|Servants, chambermaids, vassals of the Baron|
[The Polish monarch, King Stanisław Leszczyński, an historical figure during the War of Succession, lost his throne after the Saxon invasion at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. He regained it in 1733, but was again deposed in 1736 and went into exile in France. The opera is set in 1733 when Stanislaw returned to Poland leaving a French officer, the Cavaliere di Belfiore, to impersonate him in France.]
Scene 1: A gallery in the home of Baron Kelbar
Belfiore, impersonating the Polish king Stanislaus, is a guest at the home of Baron Kelbar and he comments to himself on his change of fortune: Compagnoni di Parigi...Verrà purtroppo il giorno / "If only my old comrades in Paris could see me now, the most dissolute officer in the regiment turned philosopher king."The Baron has recently arranged a political alliance by betrothing his daughter, Giulietta, to La Rocca, the Brittany Treasurer, but Giulietta prefers La Rocca's nephew, Edoardo. Another undesired marriage involves Baron Kelbar's niece, the Marchesa del Poggio, a young widow who is in love with Belfiore. She has become engaged to the Count of Ivrea because Belfiore has been unable to commit himself to marrying her, in spite of the fact that he does love her.
Knowing of the Marchesa's imminent arrival and concerned that she might reveal his false identity as the King, Belfiore writes to Stanislaw and asks to be released from his commitment. Edoardo reveals his predicament to the "King" and begs to be taken to Poland with him in order to forget about the woman he loves. In addition, when the Marchesa arrives and, upon being introduced to Belfiore as "the King", she pretends not to recognize him. Likewise, he pretends not to recognize her, but she is determined to test him by proclaiming her love for the Count: Grave a core innamorato...Se dee cader la vedova / " ".
Scene 2: The Garden of Kelbar's castle
Giulietta is alone with her attendants and expresses unhappiness in having to marry an old man: ’Non san quant'io nel petto...Non vo' quel vecchio / " “. When Baron Kelbar and Treasurer La Rocca arrive, followed in succession by Belfiore and Edoardo and then the Marchesa (who was planning to help the lovers), Belfiore draws the Baron and Treasurer La Rocca away on the pretext of discussing state business, leaving the young lovers alone with the Marchesa.
Scene 3: The gallery of Kelbar’s castle
Maintaining his role as the King, Belfiore makes the Treasurer an offer of advancement which would include marriage to a rich widow. By accepting, he agrees not to marry Giulietta. When the Treasurer tells Baron Kelbar that he refuses to marry his daughter, the Baron is affronted and challenges him to a duel. To add to the confusion all around, the Marchesa immediately proposes that Giulietta and Edoardo be married immediately. However, the false King returns and proposes that he will decide on a solution that will satisfy everyone.
Scene 1: The gallery of Kelbar’s castle
Following the "King's" pronouncement, the servants are mystified and they sing a carefree chorus which leads to Edoardo seeking their support and announcing his hope of still be able to marry Giulietta: Pietoso al lungo pianto...Deh lasciate a un alma amante / " ".
Belfiore, the Treasurer, and Giulietta enter discussing the reasons for Baron Kelbar's opposition to his daughter's marriage to Eduardo. Giulietta explains that the young man's poverty is the main objection and so Belfiore immediately rules that the Treasurer must give up one of his castles and give over a sum of money to the young man, and then all will be well. The latter is somewhat reluctant to disobey his sovereign, but seeks a way out of his duel with Baron Kelbar.
Scene 2: A veranda overlooking the castle gardens
Belfiore and the Marchesa meet on the veranda, the former still unable to reveal who he really is. This incenses the lady, who boldly states that it is her intention to marry the Count of Ivrea. However, she cannot understand why Belfiore is taking so long to reveal himself and still hopes for his change of heart: (andante) Si mostri a chi l'adora... / " ". When Count Ivrea is announced, she takes a defiant stand (cabaletta): Si, scordar saprò l'infido / " ". Since Eduardo has pledged to join the "King" when he goes to Poland, Giulietta is determined to get the King to rescind the commitment. The Count enters and the Marchesa once again states that she will marry the Count. However, Belfiore immediately forbids the marriage for 'reasons of state' and announces that he and the Count must leave for Poland to deal with state business.
All express their feelings, but things come to a halt when a letter arrives for Belfiore. It is from King Stanislaw announcing his safe arrival in Warsaw and releasing Belfiore from his task of impersonating him. In return, the King has created him Marshal. Before dropping the disguise, the "King" proclaims that Giulietta and Eduardo are to be married and, having received Baron Kelbar's consent, reads the true king's letter and reveals his true rank. He expresses his love for the Marchesa and all ends happily with the prospect of two weddings.
The music of the piece shows the influence of Rossini and Donizetti. The haste in which the work was written may account for some of the uneven quality some critics have noted.With regard to the recitatives, Gossett notes that "only his youthful comic opera, Un giorno di regno (1840), uses secco recitative.
(Belfiore, Kelbar, Marchesa, Giulietta, Edoardo)
Orchestra and Chorus
|1951|| Renato Capecchi,|
Orchestra Lirica e Coro della RAI Milano
|Audio CD: Warner-Fonit|
|1973|| Ingvar Wixell,|
| Lamberto Gardelli,|
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the Ambrosian Singers
|Audio CD: Philips |
Anna Caterina Antonacci,
Orchestra and Chorus of the Teatro Regio di Parma,
(Recording of a performance on 31 January)
|DVD (Blu-ray, PAL): Unitel Classica|
Roma Sinfonietta and Belcanto Chorus,
(Recording of performances in November at the Teatro Flavio Vespasiano, Rieti)
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