I Lombardi alla prima crociata

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I Lombardi
Opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Lombardi Partenza.jpg

"The departure of the Lombards for the Crusade"
Librettist Temistocle Solera
Language Italian
Based on Tommaso Grossi's epic poem, The Lombards in the First Crusade
Premiere11 February 1843 (1843-02-11)
Teatro alla Scala, Milan

I Lombardi alla Prima Crociata (The Lombards on the First Crusade) is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on an epic poem by Tommaso Grossi, which was "very much a child of its age; a grand historical novel with a patriotic slant". [1] Its first performance was given at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan on 11 February 1843. Verdi dedicated the score to Maria Luigia, the Habsburg Duchess of Parma, who died a few weeks after the premiere.

Opera artform combining sung text and musical score in a theatrical setting

Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

Giuseppe Verdi 19th-century Italian opera composer

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.

Libretto text used for an extended musical work

A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet.


In 1847, the opera was significantly revised to become Verdi's first grand opera for performances in France at the Salle Le Peletier of the Paris Opera under the title of Jérusalem .

Grand opera opera genre

Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events. The term is particularly applied to certain productions of the Paris Opéra from the late 1820s to around 1850; 'grand opéra' has sometimes been used to denote the Paris Opéra itself.

Salle Le Peletier theatre of the Paris Opera from 1821 to 1873

The Salle Le Peletier or Lepeletier was the home of the Paris Opera from 1821 until the building was destroyed by fire in 1873. The theatre was designed and constructed by the architect François Debret on the site of the garden of the Hôtel de Choiseul on the rue Lepeletier. Due to the many changes in government and management during the theatre's existence, it had a number of different official names, the most important of which were: Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique (1821–1848), Opéra-Théâtre de la Nation (1848–1850), Théâtre de l'Académie Nationale de Musique (1850–1852), Théâtre de l'Académie Impériale de Musique (1852–1854), Théâtre Impérial de l'Opéra (1854–1870), and Théâtre National de l'Opéra (1870–1873).

Paris Opera the primary opera company of France

The Paris Opera is the primary opera and ballet company of France. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra, and shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and officially renamed the Académie Royale de Musique, but continued to be known more simply as the Opéra. Classical ballet as it is known today arose within the Paris Opera as the Paris Opera Ballet and has remained an integral and important part of the company. Currently called the Opéra National de Paris, it mainly produces operas at its modern 2700-seat theatre Opéra Bastille which opened in 1989, and ballets and some classical operas at the older 1970-seat Palais Garnier which opened in 1875. Small scale and contemporary works are also staged in the 500-seat Amphitheatre under the Opéra Bastille.

Composition history

Title page of an 1843 libretto of I Lombardi Giuseppe Verdi, Lombardi alla prima crociata. Libretto, 1843 - Restoration.jpg
Title page of an 1843 libretto of I Lombardi

The plot complications of Tasso's original drama required the librettist to make significant changes; the historical characters portrayed in the original do not appear and the story becomes that of a fictional family and its involvement in the Crusades. Julian Budden's analysis of the opera's origins notes: "In 1843 any subject where Italians were shown united against a common enemy was dangerous, especially in Austrian Milan. Yet strangely enough it was not the police but the church that took exception to I Lombardi", [2] since the Archbishop of Milan had heard rumours that the work contained specific elements of Catholic ritual. However, given Verdi's refusal to make any changes to the music, it is fortunate that the result of the police chief's investigations of the archbishops complaints required only very minor alterations.

Julian Medforth Budden was a British opera scholar, radio producer and broadcaster. He is particularly known for his three volumes on the operas of Giuseppe Verdi, a single-volume biography in 1982 and a single-volume work on Giacomo Puccini and his operas in 2002. He is also the author of numerous entries in the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

Performance history

Carlo Guasco, the original Oronte Carlo Guasco.jpg
Carlo Guasco, the original Oronte
Erminia Frezzolini, the original Giselda Erminia Frezzolini.jpg
Erminia Frezzolini, the original Giselda

19th century

While the premiere performance was a popular success, critical reactions were less enthusiastic and inevitable comparisons were made with Nabucco. However, one writer noted: "If [Nabucco] created this young man's reputation, I Lombardi served to confirm it.". [3] Budden himself disagrees with this contemporary view, noting that "Nabucco is all of a piece, a unity, however crude; I Lombardi is an agglomeration of heterogeneous ideas, some remarkable, some unbelievably banal." [2]

Budden notes that "for many years I Lombardi enjoyed the same kind of popularity as Nabucco, [4] but he states that it did not fare well in Venice the following year and that it received few performances outside of Italy. However, within Italy, the opera was presented in Lucca in the summer of 1843, in Florence and Lucca in the autumn, and during the 1843/44 carnival season it was given in Trieste and Turin, while performances in 1845 were presented in Bologna and later, in the 1845/46 season, in Palermo and Mantua, in Macerata in the summer of 1846 and various other cities well in to the 1850s. Even in the late 1880s, well after Jérusalem had been given, it was presented in Florence. [5]

<i>Jérusalem</i> Opera by Giuseppe Verdi

Jérusalem is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was to be an adaptation and partial translation of the composer's original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata. It was the one opera which he regarded as the most suitable for being translated into French and, taking Eugène Scribe's advice, Verdi agreed that a French libretto was to be prepared by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz, who had written the libretto for Donizetti's most successful French opera, La favorite. The opera received its premiere performance at the Salle Le Peletier in Paris on 26 November 1847. The maiden production was designed by Paul Lormier (costumes), Charles Séchan, Jules Diéterle and Édouard Desplechin, and Charles-Antoine Cambon and Joseph Thierry.

This "was the first of Verdi's operas to be heard in the United States, at Palmo's Opera House", [6] on 3 March 1847 in New York. In the prior year the opera's British premiere had taken place on 12 May 1846 at Her Majesty's Theatre in London, [7] Verdi having been invited there by the theatre's impresario, Benjamin Lumley: ".....I will go to London to write an opera" [8] he had written, but in the end, illness prevented him from doing so. [9]

Palmos Opera House former theater in Manhattan, New York City

Palmo's Opera House was a 19th-century theatre in Manhattan, New York that was located on Chambers Street between Broadway and Centre Street. It was one of the earliest opera houses in New York before it was converted into one of the earliest Broadway theatres. The theatre was conceived by Ferdinand Palmo, an Italian immigrant and successful restaurateur in New York City. It was located inside the former Stoppani's Arcade Baths building. Modest alteration to the building was done in 1843 to convert the building into a theater.

Her Majestys Theatre theatre in London

Her Majesty's Theatre is a West End theatre situated on Haymarket in the City of Westminster, London. The present building was designed by Charles J. Phipps and was constructed in 1897 for actor-manager Herbert Beerbohm Tree, who established the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the theatre. In the early decades of the 20th century, Tree produced spectacular productions of Shakespeare and other classical works, and the theatre hosted premieres by major playwrights such as George Bernard Shaw, J. M. Synge, Noël Coward and J. B. Priestley. Since the First World War, the wide stage has made the theatre suitable for large-scale musical productions, and the theatre has accordingly specialised in hosting musicals. The theatre has been home to record-setting musical theatre runs, notably the First World War sensation Chu Chin Chow and the current production, Andrew Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera, which has played continuously at Her Majesty's since 1986.

Benjamin Lumley British opera manager

Benjamin Lumley was a Canadian-born British opera manager and solicitor. Born Benjamin Levy, he was the son of a Jewish merchant Louis Levy.

However, with Italy approaching unification in the 1850s and in the decade following it in 1861, I Lombardi 's call to peoples' patriotic instincts seemed to keep it alive, albeit that, by 1865 when Arrigo Boito saw a performance, he remarked that the opera was beginning to show its age. [4]

20th century and beyond

I Lombardi was presented in 1930 at La Scala in Milan as the season's opening production. [10]

I Lombardi was given by the Opera Orchestra of New York in a concert version under the direction of Eve Queler at Carnegie Hall, New York, on July 12, 1972. Soloists included José Carreras, Renata Scotto, and Paul Plishka.

The opera was presented at the Royal Opera House in 1976 with José Carreras, Sylvia Sass and Nicola Ghiuselev [11] as well as the same year by the Bilbao-based ABAO company. The cast included Matteo Manuguerra, Cristina Deutekom, Juan Pons, as well as Carreras. [12]

Carlo Bergonzi and Paul Plishka, along with Cristina Deutekom appeared in the San Diego Opera's short-lived (1979 to 1984) summer "Verdi Festival" in June 1979 and it is claimed that this was a West Coast premiere. [13] Over the years, New York audiences have seen the opera presented first by New York City Opera in 1982. [14] Six years later, I Lombardi was given by the Opera Orchestra of New York in a concert version with Aprile Millo in April 1986 [15] and this was followed by the first performances at the Metropolitan Opera as part of its 1993/94 season with Luciano Pavarotti, Aprile Millo, and Samuel Ramey in some of the major roles.

I Lombardi was presented at the Teatro Donizetti in Bergamo in late 2001 with Dimitra Theodossiou in the cast. The Teatro Regio di Parma produced it in January 2009, also as part of a complete Verdi cycle. The Parma performance is preserved on a DVD. Sarasota Opera's "Verdi Cycle" featured the opera during its 2011 season. Hamburg State Opera presented a production by David Alden as part of a mini-festival of three Verdi operas in October/November 2013. [16]


Prosper Derivis sang Pagano in the 1843 premiere Prosper Derivis 1835.jpg
Prosper Dérivis sang Pagano in the 1843 premiere
RoleVoice typePremiere Cast, 11 February 1843 [17]
(Conductor: - Eugenio Cavallini)
Arvino, son of Lord Folco tenor Giovanni Severi
Pagano/Hermit, son of Lord Folco bass Prosper Dérivis
Viclinda, wife of Arvino soprano Teresa Ruggeri
Giselda, daughter of Arvinosoprano Erminia Frezzolini
Oronte, son of Acciano ruler of Antiochtenor Carlo Guasco
Acciano, ruler of AntiochbassLuigi Vairo
Sofia, wife of AccianosopranoAmalia Gandaglia
Pirro, Arvino's squirebassGaetano Rossi
Prior of MilantenorNapoleone Marconi
Villagers of Milan, palace guards, crusaders, pilgrims, nuns, cut-throats, harem women, warriors - Chorus


Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Verdi portrait.jpg#file
Giuseppe Verdi
Time: 1096 - 1097
Place: Milan, in and around Antioch, and near Jerusalem

Act 1: La Vendetta

Scene 1: A square outside the church of Sant' Ambrogio in Milan

The two sons of Lord Folco, Pagano and Arvino, are reconciled, having previously feuded over which man would win the hand of Viclinda. Pagano, who once threatened the life of his brother, has returned from exile. A throng gathers in front of the church of Sant'Ambrogio to celebrate. Viclinda, now Arvino's wife, and their daughter Giselda are on hand to witness the reconciliation. A crusade to the Holy Land is announced and Arvino is to lead it. Pagano secretly vents his enduring frustration to Pirro, Arvino's squire: he still desires Viclinda (Sciagurata! hai tu creduto / "Wretched woman! Did you believe that I could forget you..."). As nuns sing in the background, Pirro and a gang of cut-throats agree to help Pagano take Viclinda for himself.

Scene 2: The Folco palace

Viclinda and Giselda are concerned about Pagano and his supposed reformation. Arvino asks them to watch his elderly father, Lord Folco, who is spending the night in Arvino's chambers. Giselda prays (Aria: Salve Maria / "Hail Mary!"). Pirro and Pagano and their assassins storm the palace. Pagano draws his sword and enters Arvino's chambers. He emerges with a bloody sword and with Viclinda in his custody. Arvino suddenly appears and Pagano is shocked to learn that in the darkness he has killed his father, not his brother (Orror! / "Horror! Dreadful monster of Hell..."). A throng calls for Pagano's death, but Giselda protests against more bloodshed. So Pagano is once again sent into exile.

Act 2: L'uomo della Caverna

Scene 1: Acciano's palace in Antioch

Acciano and representatives from surrounding territories plot their continued resistance to the marauding crusaders. They have captured Giselda, who is now held captive within Acciano's harem. Sofia, Acciano's head wife and a secret Christian, enters with her son Oronte. Oronte has fallen in love with the captive Giselda (Aria: La mia letizia infondere / "Would that I could instill my gladness into her dear heart"). As Oronte sings of his love, Sofia sees Giselda as a means of converting her son to Christianity (Come poteva un angelo / "How could Heaven create an angel so pure").

Scene 2: A cave in the desert outside Antioch

A hermit waits for the arrival of the crusaders. A man appears at the cave and asks the hermit how he may receive forgiveness for his past sins. The man is Pirro, who has become a confidante of Acciano and now controls the gates of Antioch. The hermit counsels Pirro that he will achieve forgiveness if he opens the gates to the approaching crusaders. Thereafter, the crusaders, led by Arvino, appear at the cave. The hermit learns that Arvino's daughter has been captured by Acciano. The hermit assures them that they will succeed in taking Antioch.

Scene 3: Acciano's harem

The members of the harem sing of Giselda's luck in attracting the attentions of Oronte. As Giselda prays (Aria: Oh madre, dal cielo / "O mother, from heaven hear my lament") sudden shouts warn that the crusaders have invaded Antioch. Sofia rushes in to say that both Acciano and Oronte have been killed. Arvino enters with the hermit. Sofia identifies Arvino as the murderer of her husband and son. Giselda is horrified and recoils at her father's attempted embrace. She declares that this crusade was not the will of God. Arvino draws his sword and threatens to kill her for her blasphemy, but he is stopped by the hermit and Sofia. Arvino declares that his daughter has gone mad.

Act 3: La Conversione

Temistocle Solera, the librettist of the opera Temistocle Solera.jpg
Temistocle Solera, the librettist of the opera

Scene 1: The valley of Jehoshaphat; Jerusalem is in the distance

The crusaders, joined by Christian pilgrims, sing of the beauty of Jerusalem and the Holy Land. Giselda has wandered away from her father's camp. Suddenly, Oronte appears! He was merely wounded, not killed, by Arvino's sword. Giselda and Oronte decide to flee together (Duet: Oh belle, a questa misera / "O Lombard tents, fair to this unhappy girl, farewell!").

Scene 2: Arvino's tent

Arvino rages against his daughter's betrayal. Soldiers arrive to tell him that Pagano has been seen in camp and they call for his capture and death. Arvino agrees.

Scene 3: A grotto near the River Jordan

After a violin prelude, Giselda and Oronte appear. Oronte has been wounded and Giselda bitterly laments God's cruelty. The hermit appears. He tells Giselda and Oronte that their love is sinful but may be purified by Oronte's conversion and baptism. The hermit completes the baptism, and Giselda laments as Oronte dies from his wounds, promising to see her in heaven (Trio: Qual voluttà trascorrere / "What wondrous pleasure I feel").

Act 4: Il Santo Sepolcro

Scene 1: A cave, near Jersulam

As Giselda dreams, Oronte appears to her in a vision and tells her that God has granted his prayer: the crusaders will find strength in the waters of the fountain of Siloam (Aria: In cielo benedetto / "Through you, Giselda, I am blessed in heaven"). Giselda wakes and sings of her miraculous vision (Aria: Qual prodigio . . . Non fu sogno! / "A miracle!... It was not a dream").

Scene 2: The Lombards' tents

The crusaders and pilgrims are despairing that God has abandoned them in the desert (O signore, dal tetto natio / "O Lord, Thou dids't call us"). Giselda rushes in, announcing the discovery of a spring of water. As all rejoice, Arvino assures his crusaders of his confidence that they will now take Jerusalem.

Scene 3: Arvino's tent Dying from wounds, the hermit is brought in by Giselda and Arvino. The hermit reveals that he is really Pagano. In his dying moments, he confesses to Arvino his penitence for their father's murder and begs forgiveness. Arvino embraces his brother, and Pagano asks for a final view of the Holy City. As Jerusalem appears in the distance, Pagano dies, and the crusaders praise heaven (Te lodiamo, gran Dio di vittoria / "We praise Thee, great God of Victory").


Rousing choruses, vocal ensembles with the varying characters differentiated through the music, and marches with the stage band are a feature of this work. The chorus "O Signore, dal tetto natio", like its counterpart the Chorus of Hebrew Slaves in Verdi's previous opera Nabucco became extremely and deservedly popular. There is an unusually extended orchestral introduction with solo violin in three sections before the "Baptism" trio "Qual voluttà trascorrere" with the solo violin also prominent in the closing section of that trio. The character of Giselda comes across with striking individuality due to the music Verdi composed for her. [18]


(Arvino, Pagano, Viclinda, Giselda, Oronte)
Opera House and Orchestra
Label [19]
1951 Aldo Bertocci,
Mario Petri,
Miriam Pirazzini,
Maria Vitale,
Gustavo Gallo
Manno Wolf-Ferrari,
Orchestra Sinfonica e Coro della Rai di Milano
Audio CD: Warner Fonit
1969Umberto Grilli
Ruggero Raimondi
Anna di Stasio
Renata Scotto,
Luciano Pavarotti
Gianandrea Gavazzeni,
Rome Opera Orchestra
Audio CD: Opera D'oro
1971Jerome Lo Monaco
Ruggero Raimondi
Desdemona Malvisi
Cristina Deutekom,
Plácido Domingo
Lamberto Gardelli,
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and Ambrosian Singers
Audio CD: Philips
Cat: 000942602
1991 José Carreras
Renata Scotto
Franco Marini
Paul Plishka,
Annette Parker,
Will Roy,
Yoshi Ito
Eve Queler,
Opera Orchestra of New York and Sarah Lawrence College Chorus
(Recorded at Carnegie Hall, July 12, 1972)
Audio CD: foyer Laudis srl Milano
Cat: 2-CF 2051
1984Carlo Bini,
Silvano Carroli,
Luisa Vannini,
Ghena Dimitrova,
José Carreras
Gianandrea Gavazzeni,
Orchestra and chorus of the Teatro alla Scala, Milan,
(Recorded at La Scala, April)
DVD: Warner Music Vision,
Cat: 0927 44927 1
Cat: D 2036
1996 Richard Leech
Samuel Ramey
Patricia Racette
June Anderson,
Luciano Pavarotti
James Levine,
Metropolitan opera Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: Decca
Cat: 455 287-2
2001Francesco Piccoli,
Giorgio Surjan,
Graziella Merrino,
Dimitra Theodossiou,
Massimo Giordano
Tiziano Severini,
Orchestra I Pommeriggi Musicali di Milano
and Coro del Circuito Lirico Lombardo,
(Recorded at performances in the
Teatro Ponchielli di Cremona, 16,18 November)
Audio CD: Dynamic CDS 390/1-2
2009Roberto di Biasio,
Michele Pertusi,
Christina Giannelli,
Dimitra Theodossiou,
Francesco Meli
Daniele Calligari,
Orchestra and Chorus on the Teatro Regio di Parma,
(Recording of a performance(s) at the Teatro Regio, January)
DVD & Blu-ray: C-Major,
Cat: 721808

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  1. Budden 1984, p. 115
  2. 1 2 Budden 1984, pp. 115 - 117
  3. Quoted in Budden 1984, p. 116
  4. 1 2 Budden 1984, pp. 134 - 135
  5. Performances of I Lombardi reported on librettodopera.it
  6. Andrew Porter, "Traces of Eternal Beauty", in the booklet accompanying the Phillips recording of I Lombardi, 1971 and 1998
  7. David Kimbell 2001, in Holden, p. 980
  8. Letter of 7 November 1845 to "a long-time admirer" Baroness Soldati, quoted in Philips-Matz 1993, p. 183
  9. Phillips-Matz 1993, pp. 184 - 186
  10. Raymond Hall 18 January 1931, "Verdi's I Lombardi Inaugurates La Scala Season; Italy's Famous Lyric Stage Revives Composer's Early Opera in Brilliant and Colorful Presentation", The New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2013 (subscription or paid access).
  11. Details from Royal Opera House, Covent Garden programme book for 25 May 1976
  12. Cast details from 1976 on ABAO.org Retrieved 6 April 2013
  13. San Diego Opera's performance history for 1979 Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine .
  14. John Rockwell 1992, "Rita Shane with "I Lombardi", New York Times, 10 April. Retrieved 9 April 2013
  15. Donal Henehan, "Opera: I Lombardi, by Verdi, at Carnegie Hall", New York Times, 21 January 1986. Retrieved 9 April 2013,
  16. Hamburg State Opera's 2013/14 season offerings
  17. List of singers taken from Budden, Vol. 1, p. 114
  18. Parker,Roger. "Lombardi alla prima crociata, I". In L. Root, Deane. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online . Oxford University Press.(subscription required)
  19. Recordings on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk