Thymophylla pentachaeta, also known as fiveneedle pricklyleaf,golden dyssodia or dogweed, is a perennial or subshrub in the Asteraceae family. The species is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico.
Asteraceae or Compositae is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Four varieties are recognised:
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean. Informally, it measures how far a set of (random) numbers are spread out from their average value. Variance has a central role in statistics, where some ideas that use it include descriptive statistics, statistical inference, hypothesis testing, goodness of fit, and Monte Carlo sampling. Variance is an important tool in the sciences, where statistical analysis of data is common. The variance is the square of the standard deviation, the second central moment of a distribution, and the covariance of the random variable with itself, and it is often represented by , , or .
In probability theory and statistics, a covariance matrix, also known as auto-covariance matrix, dispersion matrix, variance matrix, or variance–covariance matrix, is a matrix whose element in the i, j position is the covariance between the i-th and j-th elements of a random vector. A random vector is a random variable with multiple dimensions. Each element of the vector is a scalar random variable. Each element has either a finite number of observed empirical values or a finite or infinite number of potential values. The potential values are specified by a theoretical joint probability distribution.
In statistics, originally in geostatistics, kriging or Gaussian process regression is a method of interpolation for which the interpolated values are modeled by a Gaussian process governed by prior covariances. Under suitable assumptions on the priors, kriging gives the best linear unbiased prediction of the intermediate values. Interpolating methods based on other criteria such as smoothness need not yield the most likely intermediate values. The method is widely used in the domain of spatial analysis and computer experiments. The technique is also known as Wiener–Kolmogorov prediction, after Norbert Wiener and Andrey Kolmogorov.
The nm command ships with a number of later versions of Unix and similar operating systems. nm is used to examine binary files and to display the contents of those files, or meta information stored in them, specifically the symbol table. The output from nm distinguishes between various symbol types. For example, it differentiates between a function that is supplied by an object module and a function that is required by it. nm is used as an aid for debugging, to help resolve problems arising from name conflicts and C++ name mangling, and to validate other parts of the toolchain.
Vector autoregression (VAR) is a stochastic process model used to capture the linear interdependencies among multiple time series. VAR models generalize the univariate autoregressive model by allowing for more than one evolving variable. All variables in a VAR enter the model in the same way: each variable has an equation explaining its evolution based on its own lagged values, the lagged values of the other model variables, and an error term. VAR modeling does not require as much knowledge about the forces influencing a variable as do structural models with simultaneous equations: The only prior knowledge required is a list of variables which can be hypothesized to affect each other intertemporally.
Adenophyllum cooperi, is a North American species of perennial flowering plants in the sunflower family. It is, native to the Mojave Desert in the southwestern United States, in the States of California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah.
Pentachaeta is a genus of the Asteraceae family; the entire genus is endemic to California. Of the six species members, at least one, Pentachaeta bellidiflora, is classified as an endangered species. The etymology of the genus name derives from Greek: Penta = five + chaeta = bristle, referring to the pappus scales of P. aurea. It was combined in Chaetopappa, but later work led to the genus being recognized as definitely separate. It is most closely related to Rigiopappus and Tracyina. Pygmydaisy is a common name for Pentachaeta.
Pentachaeta bellidiflora, the white-rayed pentachaeta or whiteray pygmydaisy, is a Californian wildflower in the genus Pentachaeta of the (Asteraceae) family. It is included in both the state and federal lists of endangered species.
Thymophylla is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the marigold tribe within the sunflower family. Pricklyleaf is a common name for plants in this genus.
Dogweed is a common name for several plants formerly included in the genus Dyssodia. Plants referred to as dogweed include species in the genera:
Dyssodia Cav. is a small genus of flowering plants in the daisy family. Most dyssodias are now treated as members of other related genera, including Thymophylla or Adenophyllum, with Dyssodia as genus synonym. Dyssodia papposa is usually retained in this genus. The name is derived from the Greek δυσοδια (dusodia), meaning "ill-smelling".
Layia pentachaeta is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common name Sierra tidytips, or Sierra layia.
Pentachaeta lyonii, the Lyon's pentachaeta or Lyon's pygmydaisy, is an annual plant in the aster family. It is endemic to southern California, where it is now known only from a few areas on the heavily developed coastline of Los Angeles and Ventura Counties. This is a federally listed endangered species.
Thymophylla tenuiloba, also known as the bristleleaf pricklyleaf, Dahlberg daisy, small bristleleaf pricklyleaf, golden fleece, or shooting star, is a bushy, multi-branched flowering annual from the family Asteraceae. Native to south central Texas and northern Mexico, it produces a large number of small, yellow flowers and demonstrates a trailing habit. It is tolerant of heat and dry conditions and is sometimes sold as a summertime annual plant in areas beyond its native range.
Pentachaeta aurea is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names golden-rayed pentachaeta, golden chaetopappa, and golden leastdaisy. It is native to southern California, where it grows in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains and the Peninsular Ranges, and northern Baja California. It is an annual herb with a hairy stem reaching a maximum height near 36 centimeters from a slender taproot. The narrow linear leaves are up to 5 centimeters long but only a few millimeters wide and may be very hairy. The inflorescence is a solitary flower head, with up to 22 heads per plant. The flower head bears many yellow, brownish, or whitish ray florets 3 to 12 millimeters long, and has a center of many five-lobed yellow to reddish disc florets. The fruit is an achene tipped with a pappus of bristles.
Pentachaeta exilis is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name meager pygmydaisy. It is endemic to California, where it is known from the North Coast Ranges to the southern Central Valley, San Joaquin Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills. It is a member of grassland and woodland plant communities.
Pentachaeta alsinoides, the tiny pygmydaisy, is a species of flowering plant in the aster family endemic to California. It is an annual, low, slender, diffuse, somewhat villous; leaves filiform or nearly so; disk flowers reddish, ray flowers inconspicuous.
Adenophyllum wrightii is a North American species of flowering plants in the daisy family known by the common names San Felipe dogweed, San Felipe dyssodia and Wright's dogweed. It is native to Mexico and the US States of Arizona and New Mexico. The species was long thought to be extinct in New Mexico, but live populations were rediscovered in the state in 1999.
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory. As of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers. The University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group.
Pima County is a county in the south central region of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, the population was 980,263, making it Arizona's second-most populous county. The county seat is Tucson, where nearly all of the population is centered. The county is named after the Pima Native Americans who are indigenous to this area.
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