Tiger salamander

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Tiger salamander
Salamandra Tigre.png
Several in captivity
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Family: Ambystomatidae
Genus: Ambystoma
Species:
A. tigrinum
Binomial name
Ambystoma tigrinum
(Green, 1825)
Synonyms [2]
  • Siren operculata Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 (invalid)
  • Proteus neocaesariensis Green, 1818 (invalid)
  • Axolotus philadelphicus Jarocki, 1822 (invalid)
  • Salamandra tigrina Green, 1825 (basionym)
  • Salamandra ingens Green, 1831
  • Salamandra lurida Sager, 1839
  • Ambystoma episcopus Baird, 1850 "1849"
  • Siredon harlanii Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854
  • Ambystoma bicolor Hallowell, 1858 "1857"
  • Amblystoma conspersum Cope, 1859 Amblystoma obscurum
  • Baird in Cope, 1868 "1867" Amblystoma xiphias
  • Cope, 1868 "1867" Amblystoma copeianum
  • Hay, 1885

The tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) is a species of mole salamander [2] and one of the largest terrestrial salamanders in North America. [3]

Contents

Description

Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Tiger Salamander-Florida.jpg
Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)
Ambystoma tigrinum. Video Clip
Biofluorescence in Ambystoma tigrinum Ambystoma tigrinum biofluorescence - 41598 2020 59528 Fig1 (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Biofluorescence in Ambystoma tigrinum

These salamanders usually grow to a length of 6–8 in (15–20 cm) with a lifespan of around 12–15 years. [4] They are characterized by having markings varying in color on the back of their head, body, and tail. [5] The coloring of these spots range from brownish yellow to greenish yellow, while the rest of their back is black or dark brown. [3] They have short snouts, thick necks, strong legs, and lengthy tails. [6] Their diet consists largely of small insects, snails, [7] slugs, [7] frogs, and worms, although it is not rare for an adult to turn cannibalistic and consume its own kind. [5] Cannibalism in these salamanders can almost always be traced back to a large volume of competing predators and lack of prey in the area. [8] If the opportunity presents itself, tiger salamanders will even feed on other smaller salamander species, snakelets (baby snakes), and newborn mice. [7]

Illinois citizens voted for the eastern tiger salamander as state amphibian in 2004, and the legislature enacted it in 2005. [9]

Habitat

Tiger salamanders habitats range from woodlands crowded with conifer and deciduous trees to grassy open fields. [3] These amphibians are secretive creatures who spend most of their lives underground in burrows, making them difficult to spot. [4] One significant requirement these salamanders need to thrive is loose soil for burrowing. [10] Tiger salamanders are almost entirely terrestrial as adults, and usually only return to the water to breed. The ideal breeding condition for tiger salamanders ranges from wetlands, such as cattle ponds and vernal pools, to flooded swamps. [5] This species is most commonly found on the Atlantic coast from New York down to Florida. [11] They are known, however, to be the widest ranging species of salamander in North America and have been found in smaller populations from coast to coast. [6] Ambystoma tigrinum populations occurring in northern and eastern regions of the United States are thought to be native populations as evidence from a study uncovered the species in these regions seem to be from relict populations. The species which occur on the west coast of the United States are not necessarily native occurring to the region and occur as a result of introduction for sport fishing bait, which has resulted in hybridization. [12] Though tiger salamanders aren't indicators of an ecosystem, they are good indicators of a healthy environment because they need good moist soil to burrow in. But pond disturbance, invasive fish, and road construction threaten the annual population. [13]

Breeding

Like all ambystomatids, they are extremely loyal to their birthplaces, and will travel long distances to reach them. However, a single tiger salamander has only a 50% chance of breeding more than once in its lifetime. In a study conducted in South Carolina, breeding migrations of adult tiger salamanders began in late October or November for males and November through February for females. [14] The tiger salamander's ideal breeding period is somewhere between the late winter and early spring, once the ground is warm enough and the water is thawed. [10] Males nudge a willing female to initiate mating, and then deposit a spermatophore on the lake bottom. About 48 hours after insemination, the female is ready to deposit her eggs in the breeding pool. [10] One female can lay up to 25-30 eggs per egg mass. She carefully attaches the eggs to secure twigs, grass, and leaves at the bottom of the pool to ensure her eggs safety. [15] In about 12–15 days time, the eggs will be fully hatched and ready to mature in the pool. [15] It takes a tiger salamander approximately 3 months to reach full maturity and leave the breeding pool. [15] Large-scale captive breeding of tiger salamanders has not been accomplished, for unknown reasons.

The larva is entirely aquatic, and is characterized by large external gills [16] [17] and a prominent caudal fin that originates just behind the head, similar to the Mexican axolotl. Limbs are fully developed within a short time of hatching. Some larvae, especially in seasonal pools and in the north, may metamorphose as soon as feasible. These are known as small morph adults. Other larvae, especially in ancestral pools and warmer climates, may not metamorphose until fully adult size. These large larvae are usually known as 'waterdogs', [18] and are used extensively in the fishing bait and pet trades. Some populations may not metamorphose at all, and become sexually mature while in their larval form. These are the neotenes, and are particularly common where terrestrial conditions are poor.

Diseases

Although immune themselves, tiger salamanders transmit Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , which is a major worldwide threat to most frog species by causing the disease chytridiomycosis. [19] Tiger salamanders also carry ranaviruses, which infect reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Using tiger salamander larvae as fishing bait appears to be a major source of exposure and transport to wild populations. Severe mortality of tiger salamander larvae sometimes occurs from recurring ranavirus infections.

The California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) [20] (listed at Vulnerable), the barred tiger salamander (A. mavortium), and the plateau tiger salamander (A. velasci) were all once considered subspecies of A. tigrinum, but are now considered separate species. Genetic studies made it necessary to break up the original A. tigrinum population, though some hybridization between groups occurs.

The California Tiger Salamander is now federally listed as an endangered species mostly due to habitat loss; however, very few studies have been performed on this species. [21]

The axolotl is also a relative of the tiger salamander. [22] [23] Axolotls live in a paedomorphic state, retaining most characteristics of their larval stage for their entire lifespans. While they never metamorphose under natural conditions, metamorphosis can be induced in them, resulting in a form very similar to the plateau tiger salamander. This is not, however, their natural condition, and dramatically shortens their lifespan.

Related Research Articles

Neoteny, also called juvenilization, is the delaying or slowing of the physiological, or somatic, development of an organism, typically an animal. Neoteny is found in modern humans compared to other primates. In progenesis or paedogenesis, sexual development is accelerated.

Salamander Order of amphibians

Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by their lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All ten extant salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela. Salamander diversity is highest in eastern North America and most species are found in the Holarctic realm, with some species present in the Neotropical realm.

Axolotl Species of salamander

The axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, is a paedomorphic salamander closely related to the tiger salamander. Axolotls are unusual among amphibians in that they reach adulthood without undergoing metamorphosis. Instead of taking to the land, adults remain aquatic and gilled. The species was originally found in several lakes underlying what is now Mexico City, such as Lake Xochimilco and Lake Chalco. These lakes were drained by Spanish settlers after the conquest of the Aztec Empire, leading to the destruction of much of the axolotl’s natural habitat.

Mole salamander Genus of amphibians

The mole salamanders are a group of advanced salamanders endemic to North America. The group has become famous due to the presence of the axolotl, widely used in research due to its paedomorphosis, and the tiger salamander which is the official amphibian of many states, and often sold as a pet.

Spotted salamander Species of amphibian

The spotted salamander or yellow-spotted salamander is a mole salamander common in eastern United States and Canada. The spotted salamander is the state amphibian of Ohio and South Carolina. This salamander ranges from Nova Scotia, to Lake Superior, to southern Georgia and Texas. Its embryos have been found to have symbiotic algae living in and around them, the only known example of vertebrate cells hosting an endosymbiont microbe.

California tiger salamander Species of amphibian

The California tiger salamander is a vulnerable amphibian native to California. It is a mole salamander. Previously considered to be a subspecies of the tiger salamander, the California tiger salamander was recently designated a separate species again. The California tiger salamander distinct population segment (DPS) in Sonoma County and the Santa Barbara County DPS are listed as federally endangered, while the Central California DPS is listed as federally threatened. The Sonoma County, south San Joaquin, and the Santa Barbara County DPS have diverged from the rest of the California tiger salamander populations for over one million years, since the Pleistocene and they may warrant status as separate species.

Jefferson salamander Species of amphibian

The Jefferson salamander is a mole salamander native to the northeastern United States, southern and central Ontario, and southwestern Quebec. It was named after Jefferson College in Pennsylvania.

Alpine newt Species of amphibian

The alpine newt is a species of newt native to continental Europe and introduced to Great Britain and New Zealand. Adults measure 7–12 cm (2.8–4.7 in) and are usually dark grey to blue on the back and sides, with an orange belly and throat. Males are more conspicuously coloured than the drab females, especially during breeding season.

Frosted flatwoods salamander Species of amphibian

The frosted flatwoods salamander is a small, elongated species of mole salamander. It has a small, indistinct head, short legs, and a long, rounded tail. Typical coloration consists of a background of brownish- to purplish-black overlaid with narrow gray or silvery-white reticulations, bands, or diffuse spotting. The gilled aquatic larvae are distinctly colored, having a series of bold brown and yellow longitudinal stripes.

Long-toed salamander Species of amphibian

The long-toed salamander is a mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. This species, typically 4.1–8.9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long when mature, is characterized by its mottled black, brown, and yellow pigmentation, and its long outer fourth toe on the hind limbs. Analysis of fossil records, genetics, and biogeography suggest A. macrodactylum and A. laterale are descended from a common ancestor that gained access to the western Cordillera with the loss of the mid-continental seaway toward the Paleocene.

Santa Cruz long-toed salamander Subspecies of amphibian

The Santa Cruz long-toed salamander is an endangered subspecies of the long-toed salamander, which is found only close to a few isolated ponds in Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties in California. It has a black body, broken yellow or orange irregular striping along its spine, and a tail fin well evolved for swimming. Like other mole salamanders, it is found near pools or slow-moving streams and has a very secretive lifestyle, making it difficult to find.

Marbled salamander Species of amphibian

The marbled salamander is a species of mole salamander found in the eastern United States.

The Puerto Hondo stream salamander or Michoacan stream salamander, Ambystoma ordinarium, is a mole salamander from the Cordillera Volcánica within the Mexican state of Michoacán.

Boreal chorus frog Species of amphibian

The boreal chorus frog is a species of chorus frog native to Canada from central Quebec to eastern British Columbia and north to the Northwest Territories and the southern portion of the Yukon. It occurs in the USA throughout Montana, northwestern Wisconsin, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Utah.

<i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i> Species of fungus

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, also known as Bd or the amphibian chytrid fungus, is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

Small-mouth salamander Species of amphibian

The small-mouth salamander is a species of mole salamander found in the central United States, from the Great Lakes region in Michigan to Nebraska, south to Texas, and east to Tennessee, with a population in Canada, in Pelee, Ontario. It is sometimes referred to as the Texas salamander, porphyry salamander, or the narrow-mouthed salamander. The Kelley's Island salamander was synonymized with A. texanum in 1995.

<i>Ambystoma talpoideum</i> Species of salamander

Ambystoma talpoideum, the mole salamander, is a species of salamander found in much of the eastern and central United States, from Florida to Texas, north to Illinois, east to Kentucky, with isolated populations in Virginia and Indiana. Older sources often refer to this species as the tadpole salamander because some individuals remain in a neotenic state. This salamander lives among the leaf litter on the forest floor, migrating to ponds to breed.

Barred tiger salamander Species of amphibian

The barred tiger salamander or western tiger salamander is a species of mole salamander that lives in lower western Canada, the western United States and northern Mexico.

The reticulated flatwoods salamander is a species of mole salamander, an amphibian in the family Ambystomatidae. The species is native to a small portion of the southeastern coastal plain of the United States in the western panhandle of Florida and extreme southwestern Georgia. The species once occurred in portions of southern Alabama but is now considered extirpated there. Its ecology and life history are nearly identical to its sister species, the frosted flatwoods salamander. A. bishopi inhabits seasonally wet pine flatwoods and pine savannas west of the Apalachicola River-Flint River system. The fire ecology of longleaf pine savannas is well-known, but there is less information on natural fire frequencies of wetland habitats in this region. Like the frosted flatwoods salamander, the reticulated flatwoods salamander breeds in ephemeral wetlands with extensive emergent vegetation, probably maintained by summer fires. Wetlands overgrown with woody shrubs are less likely to support breeding populations.

The mountain stream salamander or mountain stream siredon is a species of mole salamander that only lives in central México.

References

  1. IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2016) [errata version of 2015 assessment]. "Ambystoma tigrinum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T83293207A105179324. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  2. 1 2 Frost, Darrel R. (2021). "Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.vz.0001 . Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  3. 1 2 3 Smith, Hobart M. (1978). Amphibians of North America: a guide to field identification. New York: Golden Press. ISBN   978-0-307-63662-1. OCLC   4875093.
  4. 1 2 "Tiger Salamander". National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 2019-11-29.
  5. 1 2 3 Niemiller and Reynolds, Matthew L. and R. Graham (2011). The Amphibians of Tennessee. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press/ Knoxville. pp. 88, 89, 90. ISBN   978-1-57233-762-6.
  6. 1 2 "Tiger Salamander | National Geographic". Animals. 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2019-11-29.
  7. 1 2 3 Wentz, Alissa. "Ambystoma tigrinum (Eastern Tiger Salamander)". Animal Diversity Web.
  8. McKlean, K.I. (January 2016). "Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in Unexpected Ecological Contexts". American Midland Naturalist. no.1: 64–65. doi:10.1674/amid-175-01-64-72.1.
  9. "State Symbols". Illinois.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
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  11. "Tiger Salamanders". amphibianfoundation.org. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  12. Johnson, Jarrett R.; Thomson, Robert C.; Micheletti, Steven J.; Shaffer, H. Bradley (April 2011). "The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts?". Conservation Genetics. 12 (2): 355–370. doi:10.1007/s10592-010-0144-2. ISSN   1566-0621.
  13. Shi, Rowena. "Northwest Wildlife Preservation Society".
  14. Semlitsch, Raymond D. (16 August 1983). "Structure and Dynamics of Two Breeding Populations of the Eastern Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum". Copeia. 1983 (3): 608. doi:10.2307/1444324.
  15. 1 2 3 "Eastern Tiger Salamander | Chesapeake Bay Program". www.chesapeakebay.net. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  16. Doug Collicutt Raising Tigers! Tiger Salamanders, that is.
  17. "AmphibiaWeb - Ambystoma tigrinum". amphibiaweb.org.
  18. "Water Dogs". Arizona Highways. September 17, 2015.
  19. Verbrugghe, Elin; Van Rooij, Pascale; Favoreel, Herman; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank (November 2019). "In vitro modeling of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection of the amphibian skin". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0225224. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225224 . PMC   6855447 . PMID   31725762. S2CID   208035849.
  20. Shaffer, H. B.; S. Stanley (1991). Final report to California Department of Fish and Game. California tiger salamander surveys, 1991 (Report). Rancho Cordova, California: California Department of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division. Contract FG9422
  21. Trenham, Peter C.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Koenig, Walter D.; Stromberg, Mark R.; Ross, S.T. (1 May 2000). "Life History and Demographic Variation in the California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense)". Copeia. 2000 (2): 365. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[0365:LHADVI]2.0.CO;2.
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