Tikki Tikki Tembo

Last updated
Tikki Tikki Tembo
Cover of Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel.jpg
Author Arlene Mosel
Illustrator Blair Lent
CountryUnited States
Genre Children's picture book
Publisher Holt, Rinehart and Winston
Publication date
Media typePrint (hardcover)
ISBN 0805006621
OCLC 303376
LC Class PZ8.1.M8346 Ti

Tikki Tikki Tembo is a 1968 picture book written by Arlene Mosel and illustrated by Blair Lent. [1] The book tells the story of a Chinese boy with a long name who falls into a well. It is an origin myth story about why Chinese names are so short today.



Tikki Tikki Tembo is set in ancient China and invents an ancient Chinese custom whereby parents honor their first-born sons with long, elaborate names that everyone is obliged to say completely no nicknames, no shortening of any kind while second-born sons are typically given short, unimportant names. A boy named Tikki Tikki Tembo-no Sa Rembo-chari Bari Ruchi-pip Peri Pembo ("The Most Wonderful Thing in the Whole Wide World") and his little brother Chang ("Little or Nothing") are playing very close to a well at their house that their mother has warned them to avoid. Chang falls in the well and his older brother runs to their mother and tells her Chang has fallen down the well. Their mother tells him to get the Old Man with the Ladder. He goes and tells the Old Man. Chang is rescued and then recovers quickly. Some time later, the boys are again playing near the well. This time, the older brother falls in. Chang runs to their mother and tries to tell her that "Tikki Tikki Tembo-no Sa Rembo-chari Bari Ruchi-pip Peri Pembo has fallen into the well." At first, she cannot hear him so he says it again. However, because Chang is out of breath from running, he sputters and then mispronounces the name. His mother insists that he repeat the namebut with respect. He tries repeatedly until finally, his mother tells Chang to get the Old Man with the Ladder. Chang goes to the Old Man with the Ladder. Initially, the old man does not respond because he is asleep. When Chang tries to wake him up, the Old Man with the Ladderannoyedtries to fall back asleep. After Chang breathlessly repeats his brother's predicament, the Old Man goes with Chang to save his brother from the well. They get Tikki Tikki Tembo-no Sa Rembo-chari Bari Ruchi-pip Peri Pembo from the well, but because of the long time he was in the well, it takes longer for him to recover. The end of the story says that this is why the Chinese have short names.


The book received accolades upon publication. The Kirkus Review found the illustrations to be "a skillful counterpoint of diminutive detail and spacious landscape and a fine setting for a sprightly folktale." [2] The book won a 1968 Boston Globe–Horn Book Award in the Picture Book category. [3]

In 1997, The New York Times selected it as one of the 59 children's books of the previous 50 years. [4] In a 1999–2000 National Education Association online survey of children, the book was one of the "Kids' Top 100 Books". [5] Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association listed the book as one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". [6] In a 2008 online poll of "Top 100 Picture Books" by School Library Journal , the book ranked 35th; in a similar 2012 poll, the book ranked 89th. [7] [8] According to the publisher, over one million copies of the book had been sold by 2013. [9]

The 2009 audio book version of the story received a Parents' Choice Foundation rating of "Approved". [10]

Criticisms and inaccuracies

Cultural activists and chinese citizens criticized the book for "reinforc[ing] the stereotype that Asian names sound like nonsense syllables", [11] especially as the name of the title character is nothing like actual Chinese. [12] [13] [14]


The publisher states that the author "first heard the story ... as a child" and that the book is "her own" retelling of it. [9] There are previous stories also set in China. However, the story is thought to have originated in Japan rather than China. [15]

Similar tales have been introduced to the United States several times.

From Japan

In 1900, a poem "Teki-teki-no. A little Jap tragedy" by Jerome Davis Greene appeared on The Century Magazine . [16] A child

"Teki-teki-no, teki-suri-ombo, so-take-nudo, Harima-no-betto, Cha-wan-chaus'no, Fushimi-no-Esuke"

drowns in the well. No sibling is mentioned in this version. [16] Jerome Davis Greene was an American born in Yokohama, Japan. He moved to the United States and later became a businessman [17] and organizer of Japanese studies. [18]

"The long-life name" (Illustration by Tekisui Ishii,1918) Everyland magazine July 1918 p195 The long-life name.jpg
"The long-life name" (Illustration by Tekisui Ishii ,1918)

Japanese Novelist Etsu Inagaki Sugimoto introduced a tale called "The long-life name" in a 1918 issue of the children's magazine Everyland. It tells that a child was given a long name, in a wish to live for long. But the child

"Het-toko het-toko hengo-no-kami, ik-kai nui-do waniudo, gaga-no fun-nai-sama, oodep-po kodep-po, sasara dep-po hibashi, ja-jan-janjan"

drowns in the well. Sugimoto notes that she learned this tale during her childhood from her nurse. [19]

Non-Japanese elements

First part of "Tiki-Tiki-Tembo", a story published in 1924 Tiki-Tiki-Tembo in 1924 Through Story-Land with the Children.jpg
First part of "Tiki-Tiki-Tembo", a story published in 1924

In 1924, the National Association of Junior Chautauquas published a book that contained a story by an anonymous author entitled "Tiki-Tiki-Tembo"; the story concerned a boy "in old Japan" named:

"Tiki-tiki-tembo-no sa rembo-Hari bari broohski-Peri pen do-Hiki pon pom-Nichi no miano-Dom bori ko" [20]

and his neglected sibling "Choi". After falling into the well, the title character "never grew up to be a fine Japanese man." [20] It concludes that "And now in old[ sic ] Japan, boys are given tiny short names such as 'Su', 'Foy', 'Wang', or 'Sing' ". [21] There are some non-Japanese elements in this version. [22] A book published in 1968 (the same year as Tikki Tikki Tembo) reprinted the 1924 version of the story. [21]

An early instance of Chinese setting [23] is a 1941 [Note 1] audio recording titled "Long-Name-No-Can-Say", adapted and narrated by Paul Wing. [24] 1941 was in a time of strong anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States. [25]

A boy named
"Nicki Nicki Tembo No So Rembo Ooma Moochi Gamma Gamma Goochi"
is fat and mean. He has 7 siblings: 6 elder sisters "Humph", "Lumph", "Mumph", "Bumph", "Dumph", "Gumph", and a younger brother "Yen". "Nicki Nicki Tembo[...]" falls into a well, but is eventually rescued. [23]

Another recording titled "Sticky Sticky Stembo" was written by Selma R. Rich in 1953. [26]


There was a wave of publications through 1959 to 1961: a song by the Brothers Four, Shari Lewis's recording, a reissue of Paul Wing's recording, a book by Bryna Untermeyer, and possibly a narration on TV. [27]

The Brothers Four's song "Sama Kama Wacky Brown" (lyrics by Ed Warren), [28] from their eponymous first album in 1960, [29] sings about

"Eddie Koochy Katcha Kama Tosa Neera Tosa Noka Sama Kama Wacky Brown"

who "fell into the deep, dark well" and drowned. [30] The song is sometimes called "Eddie Brown". [30]

Lamb Chop's puppeteer Shari Lewis [31] released a story record "Tiki Tiki Timbo" around 1959. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] In the song, the older brother's name is

"Tiki Tiki Timbo No Sin Nimbo Hoi Boi Boski Poi Pon Do Hiki Pon Pon Niki No Mi Ah Dom Poi"

and his younger brother is "Choi". Tiki Tiki Timbo drowns in the well. [34]

The 1960 reissue of Paul Wing's "Long-Name-No-Can-Say" narration [37] is an omnibus with another fairytale that also has 7 supportive characters: Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. [38]

A story published in 1961, called "The Little Boy With the Long Name", featured an older brother named

"Sticky Sticky Stumbo Nos E Rumbo E Pro Pennyo Hara Bara Brisko Nicky Prom Po Nish No Mennyo Dumbricko", [39] [40]

named so in a belief that long name causes longevity. The story ends with the boy's death by drowning. [40] The editor of this version is Bryna Ivens Untermeyer.

1967–1969 saw another wave: an LP record containing the 1961 Untermeyer's "Sticky Sticky Stumbo" version, [41] Mosel's book, a reprint of the 1924 anonymous version, [21] and Monty Python's TV show (1969 in UK, [42] around 1974 in the US [43] ).

The Child with a Long Name

Japanese folklore studies classify Tikki Tikki Tembo-like tales as tale type NMS 638 The Child with a Long Name. [44] :737 [45]

A typical specimen in Japanese folklore (reported in 1932):

The first child was given a convenient short name Chotto, but it soon dies. The parents think it must be because the name was too short, so they give their next child a long name:
Itchōgiri nichōgiri chōnai chōzaburō gorogoroyamano gorohēsaku atchiyama kotchiyama torino tossaka tateeboshi tonkarabyō
One day the child falls into a well. His friend goes to a house nearby and asks for a ladder, but the old woman there is deaf, so by the time the friend manages to bring the ladder, the child with a long name is dead. [44] :737–738 [46]

Opinions vary regarding the similarity between NMS 638 The Child with a Long Name in Japan and folklore in other cultures. Keigo Seki assigns no equivalent Aarne–Thompson index (AT index), a comprehensive code system of European folktales. [47] Koji Inada (folklorist)  [ ja ] considers it partially similar to AT 1562A [48] Barn is Burning. [49] Inada finds no equivalent type indice in Korean folklore studies or in Chinese folklore studies. [48] Folklorist D. L. Ashliman does not assign any AT index either, but remarks that the pattern in Tikki Tikki Tembo follows AT2021A The Death of the Little Hen  [ de ]. [50]

History in Japan

A precursor, fables and jokes about people with long names, appeared at least by the 15th century. A manuscript written around 1490 has a fable about a nun who made up a "long" dharma name: "Ashakumyōkan", for herself. [51] The manuscript is based on an earlier book of Buddhist fables. [52] The nun's invention is a combination of Buddhist saints, deities and concepts. The moral is that such naming is a sign of greed, which is against Buddhist teachings. [51]

An early full-formed version of The Child with a Long Name is the story published in 1703, "Yoku kara shizumu fuchi" ('Sunk down the waters for greed'), in a printed book of jokes created by rakugo comedian Yonezawa Hikohachi. [53]

A stepmother renames her sons. The stepson whom she hates is given a short name Nyozegamo, and her precious own son is given a long Anokutarasambyakusambodai. One day, Nyozegamo falls into a river, but people swiftly rescue him. Another day, the mother's own son is swept by the river. She cries "Somebody, please! Anokutarasambyakusambodai is drowning!", but the boy is lost while she was calling out. [53] [54]

The punchline is a Japanese pun involving the word sambyaku. [53]


A printed book of horror stories published in 1805 contains "Isshini imyōo tsukete kōkai seshi hanashi" ('A tale of a man who named his son with a strange name, and regretted it'). [55]

A man wishes to name his first son with a unique and long name. He consults a Confucian scholar, who recommends the name Mr. Daigaku shuki shouku shi teishino iwaku daigakuwa kōshino ishonishite shogaku tokuirunomon hyōe. A tutor of Japanese poetry sneers at this, opposing such use of foreign language to name a Japanese's son. The tutor proposes Nagakiyono tōnonefurino minamezame naminaminori funeno otono yoshibē, a traditional poem of good fortune. The scholar and the tutor starts quarrelling, so the father decides to make the name by himself. He solemnly declares it will be:
Tekitekini tekisuru onbō Sōrinbō sōtaka nyūdō Harimano bettō chawan chausuno hikigino Hyokosuke.
One day, the boy falls into a well. People panic to rescue the boy, but for every message they recite the long name. The boy dies, "blue and swollen". [56] [55]

The story gives no explanation of the origin or meanings of "Tekitekini[...]". The book was written by a storywriter and storyteller with pen name Tozuisha. [55]

Other early records of this name include an 1893 book of fairy tales, where the child's name is Nīteki surionbō[...], [57] and a lullaby Tekiteki onbō[...] in an 1898 catalog of folk songs. [58] Polymath Minakata Kumagusu reported in 1913 a tongue twister Chiki chiki onbō[...] he learned 30 years ago, although this was played as a tongue twister, not a tale. [59]


" Jugemu " is a very popular version in Japan today as of 2005. [60] It is a rakugo comedy, and a 1912 document suggests that it may have existed since the mid-19th century. [61] Extant records of the name "Jugemu" date back to 1884, [62] and the full story from 1912. [63] A typical version in 2022 goes: [64]

A child is named
Jugemu Jugemu Gokō-no surikire Kaijarisuigyo-no Suigyōmatsu Unraimatsu Fūraimatsu Kūnerutokoro-ni Sumutokoro Yaburakōji-no burakōji Paipopaipo Paipo-no Shūringan Shūringan-no Gūrindai Gūrindai-no Ponpokopī-no Ponpokonā-no Chōkyūmei-no Chōsuke
One day he hits his friend's head, causing a bump. The friend protests to Jugemu's parents. But while reciting Jugemu's name, the bump heals, so evidence is lost. [64]

"Jugemu" differs from typical The Child with a Long Name-type tales in that Jugemu himself does not suffer at all.

According to a memoire published in 1927, there was another rakugo performed around the 1880s. [65]

The first child is named by a Shinto priest, but dies in infancy. So the parents ask a Buddhist priest to name their second child. The name is:
Animanimanimamane shiresharite shyamiyashyai taisentemokutemokute aishabisoishabi shaeashae shamiyaarokyabashabishyani abendaranebite atandahareshite ukuremukure arareharare shugyashiasanmasanbi budabikkiridjitchi darumaharishude sogyanekushane bashabashashudaimandarā [66]
It is taken from a dharani (Buddhist chants in Sanskrit). One day the child falls into a well and drowns.

The punchline is a black humor relating Buddhist chants to Japanese funerals. [65] [67] [68]


Systematic collection of Japanese folklore began in the 1910s. [69] A summary compilation published in 1958 lists 66 samples of The Child with a Long Name-type folktales in Japan. [44]


Examples of the short-named child's name are Chiyori (1914, folklore) [70] and Chon (1921, children's literature). [71]

Remarks like "That's why now people won't use too long names." can be seen in Japanese versions, such as a fairytale in an 1896 children's magazine. [72]

Editions and translations

Scholastic records released an LP record of the story in 1968. [73] Weston Woods Studios produced a filmstrip and cassette tape version in 1970, which was later distributed on VHS and DVD. [74] [75] [76]

Translations of the book include:

A White House 2003 Christmas decoration depicting a scene from Tikki Tikki Tembo WhiteHouseTikkiTikkiTembo2003.jpg
A White House 2003 Christmas decoration depicting a scene from Tikki Tikki Tembo

The Gamma Goochee

A 1965 pop rock song "(You Got) The Gamma Goochee" by Gamma Goochee Himself [79] (John Mangiagli) [80] [81] chants

"Nicki Nicki Nimbo No So Limbo Oo Ma Moochi Gamma Gamma Goochee"

of "Long-Name-No-Can-Say". The song was covered by The Kingsmen (1965) [82] which ranked #98 in Cashbox (magazine) singles. [83] It was covered by other musicians too, [81] :23 such as The Persian Market (spelled "The Gamma Goochie"), [84] and Joe Walsh (1991). [85]

Monty Python

British comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus aired a sketch "Johann Gambolputty  [ de ]": [86]

In a biography program of a German baroque composer named
"Johann Gambolputty de von Ausfern-schplenden-schlitter-crasscrenbon-fried-digger-dingle-dangle-dongle-dungle-burstein-von-knacker-thrasher-apple-banger-horowitz-ticolensic-grander-knotty-spelltinkle-grandlich-grumblemeyer-spelterwasser-kurstlich-himbleeisen-bahnwagen-gutenabend-bitte-ein-nürnburger-bratwustle-gerspurten-mitz-weimache-luber-hundsfut-gumeraber-shönendanker-kalbsfleisch-mittler-aucher von Hautkopft of Ulm",
Johann's last surviving relative is interviewed, whose name is
"Karl Gambolputty de von Ausfern..."
But while Karl and the interviewer are reciting Johann's full name, Karl dies. The interviewer digs a grave for Karl. [86]

The episode was first aired in 1969 in the UK, [42] and around 1974 in the U.S. [43]

See also



  1. Mosel was born in 1921 (Mosel, Arlene at Library of Congress), so she was around 20 years old in 1941.

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  14. Wu, Sabrina (2022) 1:11-2:30 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b29AbIbVoDE
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    • p225: Jerome Davis Greene and May Tevis married in April 1900, the same month that the poem was published.
    • pp256–228: secretary and administrative positions in various organizations.
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  20. 1 2 anonymous (1924). "Tiki-Tiki-Tembo". In National Association of Junior Chautauquas (ed.). Through Story-Land with the Children. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co. pp. 31–34. LCCN   24022123. OCLC   8693565.
  21. 1 2 3 Hardendorff, Jeanne B., ed. (1968). "Tiki-Tiki-Tembo" . The Frog's Saddle Horse and Other Tales. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott. pp. 40–45. LCCN   68010772. OCLC   436253.
    • Quote from Acknowledgements: "'Tiki-Tiki-Tembo' was previously published in Through Story-Land with the Children, National Association of Junior Chautauquas, copyright 1924 by Fleming H. Revell Co."
    • p45: "Through Story-Land with the Children, National Association of Junior Chautauquas."
  22. In modern Japanese phonology, "ti", "br", "fo", "ng" stop, and "si" are foreign sounds. (KITA, Yoko (2019-03-11). "Japanese Learners of English and Japanese Phonology" (pdf). Research Bulletin of Naruto University of Education. 34. p211 line 13, p210 line 28, p211 line 16, 19, 13. doi: 10.24727/00028113 . ISSN   1880-7194.)
  23. 1 2 Tunc, Tanfer Emin; Marino, Elisabetta, eds. (2010). Positioning the New: Chinese American Literature and the Changing Image of the American Literary Canon. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 181. ISBN   9781443825474. (URL is Google Books)
  24. "Bluebird B-636 (10-in. double-faced). Long-Name-No-Can-Say (Album BC-50)". Discography of American Historical Recordings . Archived from the original on 2022-07-08. Retrieved 2022-07-08. Primary Performers:Paul Wing (speaker); Other Information:Release Date: 10/17/1941
  25. Bailey, Thomas Andrew (1964) [1948]. The man in the street; the impact of American public opinion on foreign policy. Glencester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith. pp. 122 line 15. hdl: 2027/mdp.39015002365792 .
  26. "Catalog of copyright entries". Catalogue of Copyright Entries. Part 3, Musical Compositions. Washington: Library of Congress. series 3, volume 7, part 5B, number 1, Unpublished music, January–June 1953: 1539. 1953. hdl:2027/uiug.30112058540573. Sticky Sticky Stembo; w m Selma R. Rich; (C) Sage Music, Inc.; 9Feb53; EU303370
  27. Catalog of copyright entries. Vol. series 3, volume 14, parts 3–4, number 2, Dramas and works prepared for oral delivery, July–December 1960. Washington: Library of Congress. 1961. p. 2132. hdl:2027/pst.000059864509. Tiki Tiki Tembo; dramatized and narrated by Shirley Brown on TV. (C) Shirley B. Brown; 23Aug60 (inner cover)
  28. "Catalog of copyright entries". Catalog of Copyright Entries.musical Compositions. Washington: Library of Congress. series 3, volume 13, part 5, number 2, Music, July–December 1959: 1539. 1960. hdl:2027/mdp.39015039642106. Sama Kama Wacky Brown; w Ed Warren, m George Goehring; (C) Joy Music, Inc.; 25Sep59; KU592340
  29. The Brothers Four (LP recording). New York: Columbia. 1960. LCCN   93705344. OCLC   15100364. CL 1402.
  30. 1 2 Waltz, Robert B.; Engle, David G. "Sama Kama Wacky Brown". The Traditional Ballad Index (hosted on California State University, Fresno website). Archived from the original on 2022-06-29. Retrieved 2022-06-30. (California State University, Fresno Folklore Home Page, The Traditional Ballad Index)
  31. "Puppeteer Shari Lewis Dies". CBS News. 1998-08-03. Archived from the original on 2021-05-09. Retrieved 2022-07-08.
  32. Santi, Steve (2000). "Little Golden Records". Collecting Little golden books (4 ed.). Iola, WI: Krause Publications. pp. 225, 278. ISBN   0873418727. (URL is archive.org)
    • p278: record number 555
    • p225: date range: #550-#600 in 1959
  33. Duskin; Barer; Melnik (1959). (B-side) Tiki-Tiki-Timbo (78 rpm recording). New York: Golden Record. OCLC   975979584. R555B. (A-side: Aren't You Glad You're You?)
  34. 1 2 Duskin; Barer; Melnik (1959). (B-side) Tiki-Tiki-Timbo (45 rpm recording). New York: Golden Record. OCLC   24641298. FF555B. (A-side: Aren't You Glad You're You?)
  35. "Tiki-Tiki-Timbo". Hi Kids! (LP recording). New York: Golden Record. 1959. OCLC   13491820. GLP 39.
  36. "Reviews of this week's LP's – Children's – Hi Kids!". Billboard . 1959-10-12. p. 26 via Google Books.
  37. B-636, LBY-1044, CAL-1044 and CAS-1044 are all from an identical take (recording revision).
  38. Cramer, H. Long-Name-No-Can-Say (Nicki Nicki Tembo) A Chinese fable., Wing, Paul (narrator)
    Featured in the omnibus LP album: Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; also Long-Name-No-Can-Say (LP recording). Children's Bluebird Records. Camden, NJ: RCA Victor. 1960. OCLC   16120265. LBY-1044., Day, Dennis (narrator)
  39. BetteJo. "Sticky Sticky Stumbo Revisited." Being BetteJo blog, September 23, 2008.
  40. 1 2 Untermeyer, Bryna; Untermeyer, Louis, eds. (1961). "The Little Boy With the Long Name". Big and Little Creatures. The Golden Treasury of Children's Literature. Vol. 1. Golden Press. pp. 164–169. LCCN   62004314. OCLC   6431887.
  41. Untermeyer, Louis (1967). Discovering rhythm and rhyme in poetry (LP record). Caedmon. Event occurs at 27:36. LCCN   r67-3991. OCLC   3929285. TCP 1156. Side 1: [...] The little boy with the long name (Bryna Ivens Untermeyer)
  42. 1 2 "TV shows Monty Python's Flying Circus, Series 1". Monty Python's official website. Archived from the original on 2022-05-31. Retrieved 2022-07-04. Episode 6 (Original air date: 23 Nov. 1969) Johann Gambolputty … of Ulm
  43. 1 2 Peppard, Alan (25 August 2011). "Alan Peppard: Bob Wilson hailed in KERA documentary". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 2022-07-04.
  44. 1 2 3 Seki, Keigo (1958-06-30). 638 長い名の子[638 Child with a long name]. Nihon mukashibanashi shūsei日本昔話集成 第3部 笑話 2[Compilation of Japanese Folktales]. Vol. 3 Jokes part 2. Kadokawa Shoten. pp. 737–744. OCLC   25013059. JPNO   22912993.
    • pp737-738: typical specimen from Niigata prefecture (新潟 南蒲原郡葛巻村)
      • p740: citation for 新潟 南蒲原郡葛巻村: 加無波良 p103
      • p911: 加無波良 = 加無波良譚 by 文野白駒. Tokyo, Showa 7 (=1932 CE)
  45. Many other 3-digit type-codes exist.
  46. Full English translation of the specimen: Mayer, Fanny Hagin (1985). Ancient Tales in Modern Japan: An Anthology of Japanese Folk Tales. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 243. ISBN   0253307104. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. (pdf)
  47. Seki, Keigo (1980-03-31). 長い名の子 638[Child with a long name 638]. Nihon mukashibanashi taisei日本昔話大成 第10巻(笑話 3). Vol. 10. Kadokawa Shoten. p. 186. ISBN   404530410X. OCLC   25019329. JPNO   80020333.
  48. 1 2 Inada, Koji (1988-09-15). タイプ・インデックスの比較・対照表 857 長い名の子[Type indice comparison table. 857 Child with a long name]. Nihon mukashibanashi tsūkan日本昔話通観[General survey and analysis of Japanese folktales]. Vol. 28 Type index. 同朋舎. pp. 661, 718. ISBN   4810407128.
  49. "Linked ATU Tales: ATU 1200 - 1999 Anecdotes and Jokes". University of Missouri Libraries Library Guides – Folktale and Folk Motif Indexes. Archived from the original on 2022-03-15. Retrieved 2022-07-04. ATU 1562A "The Barn is Burning"
  50. Ashliman, D. L. "Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts – Tikki Tikki Tembo". University of Pittsburgh . Archived from the original on 2021-08-29. Retrieved 2021-11-16.
  51. 1 2 Mujū Dōkyō (無住道暁) (1490) [1283]. "Volume 8, Chapter 6 佛鼻薫事, Episode 3『或女人出家ノ為ニ~』". Shasekishū 沙石集. manuscript by Kaishu (快秀). frames 242–243 of 333. Kyoto University Collection. Chōkyō 3 = approxmiately 1489 CE
  52. Watanabe, Tsunaya, ed. (1966-05-06). "Commentary". Shasekishū 沙石集. 日本古典文学大系 (in Japanese). Vol. 85. Tokyo, Japan: Iwanami Shoten Publishers. p. 27. OCLC   833346813. JPNO   56012784.
  53. 1 2 3 Transcribed text: Yonezawa Hikohachi (米沢彦八) (1966-07-05) [1703]. "Karukuchi gozen otoko (軽口御前男) volume 2 欲からしづむ淵". In Odaka, Toshio (ed.). 江戸笑話集. 日本古典文学大系 (in Japanese). Vol. 100. Tokyo, Japan: Iwanami Shoten Publishers. p. 313. OCLC   915506077.
    • p33: The book Karukuchi gozen otoko (軽口御前男) was published in Genroku 16 (1703 CE) in Osaka.
    • p313 Punchline: The mother remarks "My boy wouldn't have died if I threw away 'sambyaku'."
    • p313 Footnote 32: The sound "sambyaku" in the name can also mean "three hundreds". An old idiom "throwing away 300 mons" meant "trifle loss".
    • Note (not in book): Japanese mon (currency) was the smallest unit of currency, somewhat similar to a penny.
  54. Text data: 6巻 軽口御前男. 'Hanashibon taikei' anthology full text database (噺本大系本文データベース) (in Japanese). National Institute of Japanese Literature. 欲からしづむ淵. Archived from the original on 2021-12-12. Retrieved 2021-12-12.
  55. 1 2 3 Transcription and commentary:二流間主東随舎 (2000-10-30) [1805]. 聞書雨夜友(ききがきあまよのとも) - 一子に異名を付けて後悔せし話. In Kondo, Mizuki (ed.). Shoki Edo yomihon kaidanshū初期江戸読本怪談集[Anthology of horror stories in early-stage 'yomihon' of Edo period]. 江戸怪異綺想文芸大系 (in Japanese). Kokusho Kankokai (国書刊行会). pp. 654–657. ISBN   978-4-336-04271-2.
    • pp696-698 Commentary: (rough excerpt) the author 東随舎 is 栗原幸十郎. 栗原忠雄, 青雲軒 and 松壽館老人 are all his aliases.
  56. 松壽館老人 (1805). "Isshini imyōo tsukete kōkai seshi hanashi" 一子に異名を付けて後悔せし話. In 青雲軒主人 (ed.). Kikigakiamayonotomo聞書雨夜友 (in Japanese). Vol. 4. Edo, Japan: 瑶池堂. pp. frame 72–78 of total 96 frames. doi:10.20730/100052278 . Retrieved 2021-12-30. (Bunka 2 = approximately 1805 CE)
    • frame 73:「大学朱熹章句子程子曰大学孔子之遺書而初学入徳之門兵衛だいがくしゅきしょうくしていしのいわくだいがくはこうしのいしょにしてしょがくとくいるのもんひょうえ」様
    • frame 75:「ながきよのとをのねふりのみなめざめなみなみのりふねのをとのよしべい」
    • frame 76 (in original spelling):
    • Notes not in source:
      • The name by the Confucian is taken from the translation of a Chinese Confucian textbook about Great Learning . (Example: Zhu Xi (1766) [1189]. 大學 [Great Learning]. Shisho Shicchu (Sìshū Jízhù)四書集註 (in Chinese). Vol. 1. Kyoto, Japan: 勝村治右衞門. frame 6. doi:10.11501/2583035. A Meiwa 3 (=1766 CE) reprint of a classic Chinese textbook)
      • The poem that the tutor referred to, in its original form nakakiyono tōnonefurino minamesame naminori funeno otono yokikana, is a palindrome ( "宝船". Nihon Kokugo Daijiten Concise edition (精選版 日本国語大辞典) via Kotobank . Shogakukan. 2006. Retrieved 2022-01-11.) of Japanese morae (similar to syllables).
  57. Niwa, Teijiro (1893-11-13). "(94) Nagaina o fushi hanashi" (94) 長い名を付し話 [(94) A story of naming a long name]. Shinwa ippyakudai: katei kyokun新話一百題 : 家庭教訓[100 new stories. Home education] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 益友社. pp. 82–83. doi:10.11501/757424. (Meiji (era) 26 = 1893 CE)
    • 「ニーテキ、スリ、オン、ポー、ソータカニュドハリマノベット、茶碗茶碓に引木の伊助」
    • transcription: "Nīteki suri on bō sōtakanyudoHarimanobetto chawan chausuni hikigino Isuke"
  58. Ōwada, Tateki, ed. (1898-05-02). "A lullaby. Azumino, Shinano Province. Sung while warming the baby by the fireside" 子守唄(信濃国)安曇野郡倭村 稚児を炬燵にあてつつうたふもの. Nihon kayō ruijū (日本歌謡類聚). 続帝国文庫 (in Japanese). Vol. 2 (下巻). Tokyo, Japan: Hakubunkan. pp. 461–462. hdl:2027/keio.10810281031.
  59. Facsimile: 郷土研究(全六冊)第一冊(復刻版) (in Japanese). Vol. 2. Tokyo, Japan: 名著出版. 1975-10-25. JPNO   00028355.
    • Bibliographic information of the original magazine article: Minakata, Kumagusu (1913-08-10). 紀州俗伝(四)[Folk customs if Kishu (part 4)]. Kyōdo kenkyū (郷土研究) (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Kyōdo kenkyūsha (郷土研究社). 1 (6): (49) 369. OCLC   775579427.
    • p(49) 369: "I learned this 30 years ago from a person from Hyūga Province":
      • 「ちきちきおんぼう、それおんぼう、そえたか入道、播磨の別當べつたう焼山彌次郎やけやまやじらう、ちやかもかちやあぶるせんずり観音くわんのん久太郎別太郎きうたらうべつたらう、むこにやすつぽろぽん」
      • transcription: "Chiki chiki onbō soreonbō soetakanyūdō Harimanobettō yakeyamayajirō chakamokachāburusenzurikwannon kyūtarōbettarō mukonyasupporopon"
  60. "The Japanese Language Boom". Takarabako. The Japan Forum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2021-09-22. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  61. Biography of a rakugo performer Hayashiya Shōzō the Fifth (ja:林家正蔵#5代目). Published as a serial (literature) on a Japanese newspaper.
    • Fuku (ふく生) (1912-04-08). 怪談の正童(1)[Shōdō, virtuoso of horror rakugo (1)]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Japan. p. 3.
      • excerpts: Hayashiya Shōdō is now 89 years old. He recently changed his stage-name from Shōzō to Shōdō.
      • excerpts: When he was 18 years old (in East Asian age reckoning#Japan), he entered apprenticeship to rakugo master Hayashiya Shōzō the Second (ja:林家正蔵#2代目).
    • Fuku (ふく生) (1912-04-09). 怪談の正童(2)[Shōdō, virtuoso of horror rakugo (2)]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Japan. p. 3.
      • excerpts: He received a stage-name Shōkyō. His "Jigemu Jigemu" performance was good. Master Hayashiya Shōzō [the Second] was impressed, so adopted Shōkyō as a son.
      • excerpts: But Shōkyō became arrogant. When he was 22 years old (in East Asian age reckoning), during around the Ansei era, he ran away from Master.
    • Fuku (ふく生) (1912-04-11). 怪談の正童(4)[Shōdō, virtuoso of horror rakugo (4)]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Japan. p. 3.
      • excerpts: Years later, when Shōkyō came back, he found that Master Hayashiya Shōzō [the Second] had already died in Ansei 5.
    • Notes (not in the text):
      • The article describes that Shōkyō runaway was in Ansei era, approximately 1855–1860 CE. However, this does not match with his age "22", which is calculated to be roughly around 1845 (1912 CE - 89 years old + 22 years old =1845 CE). But in either case, the article is suggesting that "Jigemu Jigemu" existed before 1860.
      • No information about the actual storyline of the said "Jigemu Jigemu".
  62. Facsimile: 経済学釈義. Tōkyō keizai zasshi東京経済雑誌[Tokyo economist] (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha (日本経済評論社). 17 明治17年7-9月 221-233号. issue 224 p109. 1982-01-20 [1884]. hdl:2027/uc1.c2785659. NCID   AN00329943 via HathiTrust.
    • Bibliographic information of the original magazine article: 経済記者 (1884-07-26). 経済学釈義[Lecture on economics]. Tōkyō keizai zasshi (in Japanese). Keizai Zasshisha. 10 (224): 109. NCID   AN00159377. (Meiji (era) 17 = 1884 CE)
  63. San'yūtei Fukuenyū (三遊亭福円遊) (1912-06-07). "Jugemu" 寿限無. Kokkei Hyakumensō滑稽百面相 (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 三芳屋. pp. 57–65. doi:10.11501/891285.
  64. 1 2 "Jugemu, the outline" おはなしのくにクラシック – 落語「じゅげむ」あらすじ一覧. NHK for School (in Japanese). NHK. Archived from the original on 2022-06-24. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  65. 1 2 Noguchi, Fukudo (1927-11-18). 四十年前の印度旅行[My journey to India 40 years ago]. 日印協会会報 (Bulletin of Japan-India Association) (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Japan-India Association (42): 95–96. NDLBibID 000008858223.
    • pp71-102: Full text of Noguchi's travelogue.
      • p72: Noguchi leaves Kobe, Japan, on September 9, 1888, heading India.
      • pp95-96: Episode of the long-name tale.
        • p95: At Madras, Noguchi attends an international conference. For his turn of after-dinner speech, he chooses a tale he heard before at a yose (rakugo theater) in Kyoto.
        • p96: "The name the priest gave was taken from the first portion of Chapter 26 Dhāraṇī in Lotus Sutra ,"
        • p96: The original punchline is: "The father calls out his son's name. A voice is heard down from the well, bubbling 'a-dabu-dabu-dabu'." But this punchline requires knowledge of how Buddhist chants are used in Japan. So, to suit the international audience, Noguchi changed the finale to "But it was too late!"
    • Note (not in the article): This article indicates the original rakugo performance in Kyoto existed before 1888.
  66. A 1930 reprint of Noguchi1927 with corrections: Fukudō Noguchi Zenshirō (復堂 野口善四郎) (1930-01-04). "Shi jū ni-nen mae no Indo ryokō" 四十二年前の印度旅行 [My journey to India 42 years ago]. 大鼎呂 (in Japanese). 東京: 二酉社 二酉名著刊行会. pp. 68–70. doi:10.11501/1151509.
    • This book has no book-wide pagination. The travelogue's local pagination range is pp1–88.
      • p4: Noguchi leaves Kobe, Japan, on September 9, 1888, heading India.
      • pp68–70: Episode of the long-name tale.
        • p69 (corrected version of the child's name): アニマニマニママネ、シレシヤリテ、シヤミヤシヤイ、タイセンテモクテモクテ、アイシヤビソイシヤビ、シヤエアシヤエ、シヤミヤアロキヤバシヤビシヤニ、アベンダラネビテ、アタンダハレシテ、ウクレムクレ、アラレハラレ、シユギヤシアサンマサンビ、ブダビツキリヂツチ、ダルマハリシユデ、ソギヤネクシヤネ、バシヤバシヤシユダイマンダラー
  67. In modern Japan, Buddhism rites are mostly associated with funerals: Onishi, Norimitsu (2008-07-14). "In Japan, Buddhism May Be Dying Out" . New York Times. Archived from the original on 2022-01-24. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  68. "dabudabu" can mean the watery noise of drowning, or the sound of a Buddhist chant: "dabudabu" だぶだぶ. Nihon Kokugo Daijiten Concise edition (精選版 日本国語大辞典) via Kotobank . Shogakukan. 2006. Retrieved 2022-07-03. [(1-1) Depiction of sloshing; (1-5) Chanting a Buddhist chant. From "dabutsu" (from Amitābha)]
  69. NHK (日本放送協会), ed. (1948-03-01). "Nagaina no kodomo" 長い名の子供 [The Child with a Long Name]. Nihon mukashibanashi meii (日本昔話名彙) (in Japanese). 日本放送出版協会. pp. 223–224. doi:10.11501/1124189.
    • p1 Foreword by Kunio Yanagita: "the history of folktale collection in Japan is merely 30 years"
    • pp223-224: The Child with a Long Name
  70. Nakamura, Seibun (1914). 長い名. Kyōdo Kenkyū (郷土研究, Studies of native lands) (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Kyōdo Kenkyūsha (郷土研究社). 2 (5): 312–313. in facsimile: Kyōdo Kenkyū Facsimile (郷土研究(全六冊)第二冊(復刻版)) (in Japanese). Vol. 2. Tokyo, Japan: 名著出版. 1975-11-22.
    • A version from Echigo Province:「おほ入道こう入道、まっぴら入道ひら入道、へいとこへいとこへいがのこ、へめたにかめた、一ちようぎりかちようぎりか、ちよちよらのちよぎりか、しきしきあんどのへいあんじ、てんもくもくどの榮助」
    • A version from Kaga Province
      • The long name: 春の日のとりのとっさか(雞冠)立烏帽子たてえぼし
      • The short name: Chiyorisan (ちよりさん)
  71. Fujisawa, Morihiko (1921-04-18). "Chiyongiri no Chiyon-san" ちよんぎりのちよんさん [Chon the chopped-off]. Kokkei dōwa-shū滑稽童話集[Humorous fairy tale collection]. 純日本童話集 [Pure Japanese Fairy Tale Collection] (in Japanese). Vol. 1. 国民書院. pp. 1–7. doi:10.11501/968010.
    • The short name: Chon (ちょん)
    • The long name: 大入道、小入道、まっぴら入道ひら入道、背高入道、播磨の別当、へいとこへいとこへいがのこ、へめたにかめた、一丁ぎりか丁ぎりか、ちよちよらのちよぎりか二丁ぎりか、丁に丁にちょうらくに、ちょう太郎びつにちょうびつに、あの山のこの山の、ああ申すこう申す、申す申すの申し子の、しきしきあんどのへいあんじ、てんもくもくのもくぞう坊、茶碗茶臼の秘々蔵の栄助
  72. Imoyama (芋仙) (1896). "Naganatarō" 長名太郎(ながなたろう). Shōkokumin (少国民) (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: 鳴皐書院. 8 (18): 5–8. doi:10.11501/1589275. JPNO   00011372.
    • p5: The first child Hanske died of dysentery, the second Nagashi died of diphtheria, so they name the third child with a long name. The priest made the name from a dictionary, by taking the first letter on each page.
    • The name「ヘットコ、モッコ、ヘンメノコ、カミエンメ、エンメジヤ、大坂城ト、播磨ノ別當、茶碗茶ンコロ、テンコロ左衛門鶴龜」
    • p7 (excerpts): One day the child fell into the well. Calling for rescue, people recite his name. Fortunately, the name was so long that half of the name, after the "Osakajō" part, still hung outside the well. So the rescuers pulled the name to lift the boy, but it was too late. So, now people don't give too long names.
  73. Mosel, Arlene. Tikki Tikki Tembo (LP record). Narrated by George Rose with music by Joseph Raposo. Weston, CT: Weston Woods Studios, 1970. OCLC 2945747.
  74. Mosel, Arlene. Tikki Tikki Tembo (filmstrip, cassette, and booklet). Narrated by Peter Thomas with music by Howard Rovics. Weston, CT: Weston Woods Studios, 1970. OCLC 6638461.
  75. Mosel, Arlene. Tikki Tikki Tembo (VHS). Narrated by Peter Thomas with music by Howard Rovics. Weston, CT: Weston Woods Studios, 1985. OCLC 12055672.
  76. Schindel, Morton, et al. Tikki Tikki Tembo and More Favorite Tales (DVD). Narrated by Peter Thomas with music by Howard Rovics. Norwalk, CT: Weston Woods Studios, 2005. OCLC 60565621.
  77. "Cringer - Tikki Tikki Tembo No Sa Rembo Chari Bari Ruchi Pip Peri Pembo". Digital Meltd0wn Music Blog. Accessed February 3, 2013.
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