Tobacco Policy in Armenia is the attempt by the Armenian authorities to regulate smoking in Armenia. Tobacco laws and regulations are controlled by the Ministry of Health of Armenia. Armenian men tend to be the most common tobacco users, as 42.5% of men over the age of 15 smoke.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the three leading health risk factors in Armenia are: “alcohol use, road traffic injuries, and tobacco use.”Armenia ranks first in Europe and sixth in the world with more than 70% of the population being cigarette smokers. In 2004, Armenia joined the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the National Tobacco Program was approved by Armenia's Parliament. A bill was proposed to abolish the promotion and sale of tobacco products to minors, ban smoking in public places (such as universities and hospitals), enforce stricter regulations on tobacco companies and raise prices on all tobacco products to promote healthy lifestyles among all individuals in the country.
The first “National Tobacco Control Law on Tobacco Realization, Consumption, Production and Usage Limitations” was signed into law in 2005 by President Robert Kocharyan.Although the law is in place to prohibit smoking in public places, regulate distribution of cigarettes by manufacturers, and improve public health and awareness of the health hazards of smoking, a lack of enforcement has rendered this law unsuccessful.
Tobacco use in Armenia is most commonly seen in men, although, over the years, women have started to smoke cigarettes as well, allowing for the emergence of a new market directed towards female smokers. According to the most recent WHO reports, an estimated 52.5% of men and 1.5% of women over the age of 15 are smokers.With smoking gaining popularity among women, tobacco companies are given an opportunity for a new market targeting female smokers. Large tobacco companies produce thin, colored, menthol flavored cigarettes especially designed for female smokers. Although there is a ban on the sale and advertisement of tobacco products to those who are underage (under the age of 18) adolescents have also begun smoking at higher rates, starting as young as thirteen years of age due to a lack of enforcement of this ban. This increasing trend in cigarette smoking has led to major health risks such as various lung diseases, risk of heart attacks, an increased risk of malignant tumors and allergies.
Per the FCTC's requirements, the 2005 law that was signed by President Kocharyan also imposed regulations on public advertisement of tobacco products and proposed a complete ban of advertisements by 2010. According to the FCTC's requirements the law also mandated proper labeling of cigarette packs to inform the public about the health risks associated with smoking. The warning label on cigarette packs reads “Smoking is Hazardous Health” and serves as a warning label for smokers.
The Ministry of Health of Armenia is in control of laws and regulations associated with tobacco use. As of 2016, the current Minister of the department is Levon Altunyan. The Ministry plans to have stricter regulations on the production, sale and consumption of all tobacco products as recently reported by Altunyan.
An anti-smoking law was passed by the Armenian parliament in February 2020. It bans smoking while driving cars or buses and imposes a ban on tobacco advertising. The ban on smoking in cafes, restaurants and other public catering facilities will enter into force in March 2022. The ban on smoking in half-closed premises of public catering facilities will come into force in May 2024. Meanwhile, the ban on smoking in hotels came into force in May 2020.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the smoke that is produced. The smoke may be inhaled, as is done with cigarettes, or simply released from the mouth, as is generally done with pipes and cigars. The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica and South America. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century by European colonists, where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.
Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks to individuals and wider society associated with using tobacco products. It is an example of the concept of harm reduction, a strategy for dealing with the use of drugs. Tobacco smoking is widely acknowledged as a leading cause of illness and death, and reducing smoking is vital to public health.
The Tobacco Products Control Act was introduced in South Africa in 1993, where smoking has been rated the second highest health concern, after HIV/AIDS.
The use of tobacco for smoking in New Zealand has been subjected to government regulation for a number of decades. On 10 December 2004, New Zealand became the third country in the world to make all indoor workplaces including bars and restaurants smoke-free.
Smoking in Japan, though historically less restricted by law than in many other nations, has significantly changed in recent years. Tobacco use has been in nearly constant decline since 1996 and the decline has been mainly accelerating in recent years.
Tobacco politics refers to the politics surrounding the use and distribution of tobacco.
Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes. Since most cigarettes and cigars and hookahs contain/use tobacco, tobacco control also impacts these. E-cigarettes do not contain tobacco itself, but (often) do contain nicotine. Tobacco control is a priority area for the World Health Organization (WHO), through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. References to a tobacco control movement may have either positive or negative connotations.
The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, is a federal statute in the United States that was signed into law by President Barack Obama on June 22, 2009. The Act gives the Food and Drug Administration the power to regulate the tobacco industry. A signature element of the law imposes new warnings and labels on tobacco packaging and their advertisements, with the goal of discouraging minors and young adults from smoking. The Act also bans flavored cigarettes, places limits on the advertising of tobacco products to minors and requires tobacco companies to seek FDA approval for new tobacco products.
Smoking in China is prevalent, as the People's Republic of China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco: there are 350 million Chinese smokers, and China produces 42% of the world's cigarettes. The China National Tobacco Corporation is by sales the largest single manufacturer of tobacco products in the world and boasts a monopoly in Mainland China generating between 7 and 10% of government revenue. Within the Chinese guanxi system, tobacco is still a ubiquitous gift acceptable on any occasion, particularly outside urban areas. Tobacco control legislation does exist, but public enforcement is rare to non-existent outside the most highly internationalized cities, such as Shanghai and Beijing. Furthermore, outside the largest cities in China, smoking is considered socially acceptable anywhere at any time, even if it is technically illegal.
The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that approximately twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of tobacco consumption in Egypt, with an estimated twenty billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country. After cigarettes, shisha water-pipes are the most common form of tobacco consumption. Many Egyptians are not fully aware of the health risks of using a water-pipe and many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes.
Smoking in Nigeria is prohibited in public places and is punishable by a fine of not less than N200 and not exceeding N1000 or to imprisonment to a term of not less than one month and not exceeding two years or to both a fine and imprisonment.
Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. According to a study in 2004, 49.4% of men and 13.1% of women smoke. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit. The Government of Ecuador plans to reduce second-hand smoke in public spaces by 2012. The tobacco industry in Ecuador includes the major players of Tabacalera Andina SA and British American Tobacco Ltd. Smoking is expected to decrease as the government enacts laws and the public becomes more aware of the dangers of smoking. Smoking is common in bars and dance clubs, but non-smoking signs in restaurants in Quito are generally respected.
Plain tobacco packaging, also known as generic, neutral, standardised or homogeneous packaging, is packaging of tobacco products, typically cigarettes, without any branding, including only the brand name in a mandated size, font and place on the pack, in addition to the health warnings and any other legally mandated information such as toxic constituents and tax-paid stamps. The appearance of all tobacco packs is standardised, including the colour of the pack.
Smoking in India has been known since at least 2000 BC when cannabis was smoked and is first mentioned in the Atharvaveda. Fumigation (dhupa) and fire offerings (homa) are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes and have been practiced for at least 3,000 years while smoking, dhumrapana (धूम्रपान), has been practiced for at least 2,000 years. Tobacco was introduced to India in the 17th century. It later merged with existing practices of smoking.
Smoking in Costa Rica is still somewhat prevalent, and according to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2015, 8.9% of the population smoked tobacco. The number of people exposed to secondhand smoke indoors while at the workplace was 6.3% while 4.9% were exposed in their own home.
Regulation of electronic cigarettes varies across countries and states, ranging from no regulation to banning them entirely. For instance, e-cigarettes were illegal in Japan, which forced the market to use heat-not-burn tobacco products for cigarette alternatives. Others have introduced strict restrictions and some have licensed devices as medicines such as in the UK. However, as of February 2018, there is no e-cigarette device that has been given a medical license that is commercially sold or available by prescription in the UK. As of 2015, around two thirds of major nations have regulated e-cigarettes in some way. Because of the potential relationship with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, e-cigarette legislation is being debated in many countries. The companies that make e-cigarettes have been pushing for laws that support their interests. In 2016 the US Department of Transportation banned the use of e-cigarettes on commercial flights. This regulation applies to all flights to and from the US. In 2018, the Royal College of Physicians asked that a balance is found in regulations over e-cigarettes that ensure product safety while encouraging smokers to use them instead of tobacco, as well as keep an eye on any effects contrary to the control agencies for tobacco.
As nicotine is highly addictive, marketing nicotine-containing products is regulated in most jurisdictions. Regulations include bans and regulation of certain types of advertising, and requirements for counter-advertising of facts generally not included in ads. Regulation is circumvented using less-regulated media, such as Facebook, less-regulated nicotine delivery products, such as e-cigarettes, and less-regulated ad types, such as industry ads which claim to discourage nicotine addiction but seem, according to independent studies, to promote teen nicotine use.
Smoking in Latvia is currently regulated through the implementation of multiple policies and laws against the use and consumption of tobacco products. Many of these regulations resulted from the Fifty-Sixth World Health Assembly in 2003, after which Latvia adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Latvia has higher prevalences of smoking tobacco in children and adults than many other European countries, where in 2014, it was reported that 37.6% of adults currently smoked tobacco. These high prevalences also occur in children, where the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2011 found that 40.5% of children in grades 7 through 9 reported current tobacco use, while 31.5% were smoking cigarettes. The percentage of children smoking tobacco decreased between the years of 2011 and 2014, where another GYTS survey indicated that 24.7% of youth from grades 7 through 9 regularly smoked tobacco.
Tobacco smoking among South Africans is quite a customary practice, but, in recent years, the percentage of smokers has decreased. This is largely due to the increase in the precaution of the dangers of smoking and enforcement of stricter legislation on the tobacco industry. In 1996, the provinces with the highest percentage and prevalence of smoking include Northern Cape (55%), Western Cape (48%) and North-West (46%). However, the number of smokers still remains stagnant. Despite the efforts to bring awareness to the risks that come with smoking, there is still a high prevalence of tobacco use in South Africa; and it is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality.