|Part of Libyan Civil War|
Situation as of 1 March
Areas controlled by Anti-Gaddafi forces
|Anti-Gaddafi forces|| Libyan Arab Jamahiriya |
Mercenaries from Eastern Europe and Black Africa
|Casualties and losses|
|300 -700 killed||Unknown|
The 2011 Tripoli clashes were a series of confrontations between Libyan anti-government demonstrators and forces loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi in the capital city of Tripoli at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War. During the early days of the uprising, there was significant unrest in the city, but the city remained under the control of the government.
Gaddafi had ruled Libya since overthrowing the Libyan monarchy in 1969.As the Arab Spring caused revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, which both border Libya, Gaddafi was reportedly still in full control, being the longest-ruling non-royal head of state. However, the protestors wanted democracy, and Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, worse than Tunisia or Egypt.
On 17 February 2011, it was reported that supporters of the Libyan opposition had taken to the streets and Green Square during the Day of Revolt.
On 20 February, it was claimed that snipers fired on crowds to control Green Square, as protesters started fires at police stations and the General People's Congress building.Reportedly, the state television building was also set on fire on 21 February. On the morning of 21 February, activists claimed that protesters surrounded Gaddafi's Bab al-Aziza compound and were trying to storm it, but were forced back by heavy gunfire that killed up to 80 people. On 22 February, it was stated that the justice ministry at al-Shuhadaa square and the Shaabia headquarters were attacked.
Tripoli's Mitiga International Airport may have been taken by the protesters on 25 February.The Tajura district of Tripoli rose up against control by the Gaddafi government on 25 February. However, it was quickly confronted by government troops who reportedly fired on the protestors and killed 25 of them.
The National Transitional Council formed by the rebels in Benghazi, their interim capital, said through their spokesman Hafiz Ghoga that "we will help liberate other Libyan cities, in particular Tripoli through our national army, our armed forces, of which part have announced their support for the people."Various countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States, were considering creating a no-fly zone under United Nations guidance, which would prevent warplanes being used and mercenaries being flown in. The Russian foreign minister rejected the idea and instead supported sanctions, while the Chinese spokesman said their priority was, "for the violence to end, to avoid casualties and to make constructive efforts to help Libya return to peace and stability" and likewise rejected the no-fly zone. On 1 March, British prime minister David Cameron backtracked from his comments regarding the no-fly zone. Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam, who is British-educated, accused Cameron of wanting to be a hero, and described Cameron's military threats as "like a joke". He also stated that if military action was taken, "we are ready we are not afraid."
Gaddafi loyalists remained in control in Tripoli, and on 1 March it was reported that many shops were closed and the few banks that opened had queues outside.Also on 1 March, a convoy of twenty government aid trucks left Tripoli with food and medicine for the rebel-held eastern city of Benghazi.
On 25 February, Gaddafi made a public speech in Green Square, stating "We will fight them and we will beat them. Sing, dance and prepare yourselves. If needs be, we will open all the arsenals."
On the night of 17–18 March, following United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, more clashes occurred between protesters and pro-Gaddafi forces in Tripoli in several different areas. Protests were also planned for 18 March.However, instead, protests against the UN military intervention and in support of Gaddafi's government took place over the coming days.
In late March, postgraduate law student and Gaddafi opponent Iman al-Obeidi was gang-raped by pro-Gaddafi forces in Tripoli, escaped and reported the event to foreign reporters at the Rixos Al Nasr hotel, and was detained and released several times by pro-Gaddafi forces,attracting worldwide support, and giving interviews with the anti-Gaddafi Libya TV and other media in early April.
An anti-Gaddafi street protest took place in the Fashloom suburb of Tripoli on 7 April.At a small anti-Gaddafi protest at dawn on 9 April, the participants released a protest statement. They stated, "These are our streets, and these are our alleys, for we vow to you shameful and disgraceful Gaddafi, not you nor your battalions, nor your snipers, nor your mercenaries however many they are, will not terrify us anymore, and we will not back down on our revolution and up rise no matter how greater the sacrifice."
According to local residents interviewed by Reuters, several attacks by local Tripoli residents against military checkpoints and a police station in Tripoli took place during the first full week of April, with gunfights being heard at night. An exiled anti-Gaddafi Libyan who kept in daily contact with people from the suburb of Tajoura stated, "There have been attacks by Tripoli people and a lot of people have been killed on the Gaddafi army side." Hundreds of young men suspected of being Gaddafi opponents were imprisoned in late March and early April. According to one resident interviewed by Reuters, pro-Gaddafi forces controlled most of the major roads and intersections in the suburbs, while smaller streets deeper in the city's outskirts, like Tajura, were under opposition control.
On 9 May, an opposition newspaper, Brnieq, reported a "full-scale" uprising in the suburbs of the Tripoli by anti-Gaddafi forces who had been supplied with light weapons by defecting security forces. Protesters planned to head towards the centre of the city.A Libyan official denied the report and said that it was peaceful in Tripoli. Reuters correspondent in the center of the city heard no gunfire. The following day, Al Jazeera reported that opposition members had hoisted their flag at the Mitiga air base in eastern Tripoli before withdrawing. On 13 May, there were anti-government protests again.
Al Jazeera English reported on 30 May that "unprecedented protests" occurred in Tripoli. Large demonstrations such as those had previously been limited by the heavy security presence, indicating the growing boldness of the populace of Tripoli. The protesters were eventually dispersed by live fire from security forces.
By June, there were ongoing guerrilla attacks on military checkpoints in the city.
Rebels made significant military advances from their stronghold in the Nafusa Mountains, taking large parts of the coastal town of Zawiya, roughly 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of Tripoli, seizing parts of the Libyan Coastal Highway, preventing military supplies and fuel reaching Tripoli from Tunisia. They also claimed to have seized Gharyan to the south, cutting off supplies to Tripoli from there also, seemingly in an attempt to cut off, and then besiege, the capital. On 20 August, it was reported that the Battle of Tripoli had started and that heavy gunfire and explosions were occurring in parts of the city, and that clashes were ongoing in the eastern suburb of Tajoura. Text messages were sent out to Tripoli residents by the government, demanding they go out to the streets to fight against "agents with weapons".
Zawiya, officially Zawia, is a city in northwestern Libya, situated on the Libyan coastline of the Mediterranean Sea about 47 km (29 mi) west of Tripoli, in the historic region of Tripolitania. Zawiya is the capital of the Zawiya District.
The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya which was fought between forces which were loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and rebel groups that were seeking to oust his government. It erupted with the Libyan Revolution, also known as the 17 February Revolution. The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and finally ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council.
The Battle of Misrata, also known as the Siege of Misrata, was a battle of the 2011 Libyan Civil War for the control of Misrata. It was fought between troops loyal to the government of Muammar Gaddafi, and anti-Gaddafi rebels who held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya. Following the initial stages of the uprising, the Libyan government took back most towns in the west of the country, leaving Misrata the only major city under rebel control in Tripolitania. The city soon became the site of one of the war's major battles and the suffering of its citizens gained worldwide attention.
The Libyan Civil War began on 17 February 2011 as a civil protest and later evolved into a widespread uprising. By mid-August, anti-Gaddafi forces effectively supported by a NATO-led international coalition were ascendant in Tripolitania, breaking out of the restive Nafusa Mountains in the south to mount an offensive toward the coast and advancing from Misrata on loyalist-held cities and villages from the north and east.
The Khamis Brigade, formally the 32nd Reinforced Brigade of the Armed People, was a regime security brigade of the Libyan Armed Forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi, the official leader of Libya from 1969 until 2011. The 32nd Brigade was commanded by Gaddafi's youngest son, Khamis Gaddafi and was called "the most well-trained and well-equipped force in the Libyan military" and "the most important military and security elements of the regime" in leaked U.S. memos.
The National Transitional Council of Libya, sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding elections to a General National Congress on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.
Khamis Gaddafi was the seventh and youngest son of former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, and the military commander in charge of the Khamis Brigade of the Libyan Army. He was part of his father's inner circle. During the Libyan Civil War in 2011, he was a major target for opposition forces trying to overthrow his father.
Estimates of deaths in the Libyan Civil War vary with figures from 2,500 to 25,000 given between March 2 and October 2, 2011. An exact figure is hard to ascertain, partly due to a media clamp-down by the Libyan government. Some conservative estimates have been released. Some of the killing "may amount to crimes against humanity" according to the United Nations Security Council and as of March 2011, is under investigation by the International Criminal Court.
Free speech in the media during the Libyan civil war describes the ability of domestic and international media to report news inside Libya free from interference and censorship during the civil war.
The Battle of Gharyan was a battle in the Libyan Civil War between rebel anti-Gaddafi forces and forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi for control of the Tripolitanian city of Gharyan located at the eastern edge of the Nafusa Mountains.
The Nafusa Mountains campaign was a series of battles in the Libyan Civil War, fought between loyalist pro-Gaddafi forces and rebel anti-Gaddafi forces in the Nafusa Mountains and, at a later period, in the surrounding plains of western Libya. The mountain range is of strategic importance due to its close proximity to the capital of Tripoli. Along with the city of Misrata, the Nafusa Mountains region was one of the major rebel strongholds in Tripolitania.
The Battle of Ajdabiya was an armed battle in and near the city of Ajdabiya that took place as part of the Libyan Civil War. It was fought between anti-government rebels and military forces loyal to the Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Following the Second Battle of Brega, in which pro-Gaddafi forces captured the town, Ajdabiya was the only major rebel-held city left en route to the rebel capital of Benghazi. The battle for Ajdabiya had been cited as a potential turning point in the conflict on which the fate of the whole rebellion against the Gaddafi government may be decided. On 26 March 2011, Libyan rebels, backed by extensive allied air raids, seized control of the frontline oil town of Ajdabiya from Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's forces. During the first phase of the battle, pro-Gaddafi forces seized the strategic road junction leading to Benghazi and Tobruk, and captured most of the city. The city centre remained in rebel hands, but was surrounded by pro-government forces and cut off from outside assistance. After the second phase, anti-Gaddafi forces recaptured the road junction and cleared loyalist forces from the city, sending them retreating down the Libyan Coastal Highway towards Sirte.
The Second Battle of Zawiya or Zawia was a battle in the Libyan Civil War between rebel anti-Gaddafi forces and forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi for control of the Tripolitanian city of Zawia.
The Libyan Civil War began on 15 February 2011 as a chain of civil protests and later evolved into a widespread uprising against the regime of Muammar Gaddafi. On 25 February, most of eastern Libya was reported to be under the control of protesters and rebel forces. Gaddafi remained in control of the cities of Tripoli, Sirte and Sabha. By 15 March, however, Gaddafi's forces had retaken more than half a dozen lost cities. Except for most of Cyrenaica and a few Tripolitania cities the majority of cities had returned to Gaddafi government control.
The timeline of the First Libyan Civil War begins on 15 February 2011 and ends on 20 October 2011. It begins with a series of peaceful protests, similar to others of the Arab Spring, later becoming a full-scale civil war between the forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi's government and the anti-Gaddafi forces. The conflict can roughly be divided into two periods before and after external military intervention authorized by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The First Battle of Zawiya or Zawia was a battle during the Libyan Civil War between army units and militiamen loyal to Muammar Gaddafi and anti-Gaddafi forces for control of the city of Zawia.
The 2011 Libyan rebel coastal offensive was a major rebel offensive of the Libyan Civil War. It was mounted by anti-Gaddafi forces with the intention of cutting off the supply route from Tunisia for pro-Gaddafi loyalist forces in Tripoli.
The Battle of Tripoli was a military confrontation in Tripoli, Libya, between loyalists of Muammar Gaddafi, the longtime leader of Libya, and the National Transitional Council, which was attempting to overthrow Gaddafi and take control of the capital. The battle began on 20 August 2011, six months after the Libyan Civil War started, with an uprising within the city; rebel forces outside the city planned an offensive to link up with elements within Tripoli, and eventually take control of the nation's capital.
The Libyan Civil War began on 15 February 2011 as a civil protest and later evolved into a widespread uprising. However, by 19 March, Libyan forces under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi were on the brink of a decisive victory over rebels in Libya's east. That day, leading NATO members acted on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 which authorized member states "to take all necessary measures... to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding an occupation force".
The Libyan Civil War began on 17 February 2011 as a civil protest and later evolved into a widespread uprising. After a military intervention led by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States on 19 March turned the tide of the conflict at the Second Battle of Benghazi, anti-Gaddafi forces regrouped and established control over Misrata and most of the Nafusa Mountains in Tripolitania and much of the eastern region of Cyrenaica. In mid-May, they finally broke an extended siege of Misrata.