Trochidae

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Trochidae
Trochus tiaratus.JPG
A shell of Coelotrochus tiaratus
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Vetigastropoda
Order: Trochida
Superfamily: Trochoidea
Family: Trochidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Subfamilies

9 subfamilies [1]

Synonyms

Stomatiidae

The Trochidae, common name top-snails or top-shells, are a taxonomic family of very small to large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Vetigastropoda (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi from 2005).

Contents

This family is commonly known as the "top-snails" because in many species the shell resembles a toy spinning top.

Anatomy

The animal is similar in general form to the Turbinidae. The top snails are characterized by some primitive traits: a heart with two atria. They have retained only one kidney and the second osphradium has been lost in the course of evolution. The mantle cavity contains a single gill.

Along the side of the foot are three or more pairs of sensory epipodial tentacles. The head has a short, broad rostrum. The intertentacular lobes are simple or digitated, separate or united across the front, sometimes obsolete. The jaws are developed or absent. [2]

The radula is rhipidoglossate. The rhachidian teeth are always present and well-developed. The lateral teeth generally number 5 on each side, sometimes more numerous. The marginal teeth are narrow and very numerous.

Description

The length of an adult shell varies between 5 mm and 130 mm. There is also a wide variation in the shape of the shell. This goes from low auriform (ear-shaped) with a wide aperture to the long, slender conical forms of typical top shells. The shape may also be subglobose, turbinate or helicoid. Their height may vary between 3 mm and 152 mm. The shell contains only a few whorls. These have a highly variable exterior, ranging from smooth or glossy to sculptured.

The internal shell is nacreous. They have a brown, entirely corneous, circular, multispiral operculum which fits the aperture snugly. The operculum is formed of numerous gradually increasing whorls with a central nucleus. The aperture may be entire, tetragonal or rounded and has no reflected lip. The peristome is generally not continuous.

These shells are often brightly colored and adorned with darker bands.

The Trochidae differ from the Turbinidae in having a corneous, never calcareous, operculum, which is always multispiral. [2]

Habitat

Most species in the family live either in the intertidal zone or in the shallow subtidal zone, but some live in deeper water. They are usually abundant on solid, suitable substrates, like rocky shores and reefs. [3]

Distribution

This family has a worldwide distribution in tropical, temperate and arctic waters. Members of this family are among the most common marine snails along the rocky shores of Europe.

Ecology

Life cycle

The Trochidae are dioecious, and the fertilization occurs externally by the release of eggs and sperm. [3] Top snail eggs are laid individually or in gelatinous egg masses in the water. Individuals may hatch as free-swimming planktonic larvae or juvenile crawlers with a short swimming stage. [3]

Feeding behavior

This family of snails consists of herbivores, grazing with their radulae on rocky surfaces, feeding on algae and vegetable detritus, and more rarely by filter-feeding, as observed in the genus Umbonium . [3]

Taxonomy

2005 taxonomy

This family consists of six following subfamilies (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005):

2008 taxonomy

The family Trochidae was redefined according to Williams et al. (2008). [4] The tribes from Trochinae were raised to subfamilies, [4] Margaritinae was moved to the family Turbinidae, [4] and Halistylinae provisionally stays in Trochidae. [4]

2010 taxonomy

Williams et al. (2010) [1] added three new subfamilies to Trochidae : Alcyninae, Fossarininae and Chrysostomatinae. The subfamily Lirulariinae is now incorporated within the subfamily Umboniinae. In this study was also shown that the subfamily Margaritinae is not monophyletic. Here is also shown, which genera were placed into these three new subfamilies: [1]

Genera

Genera within the family Trochidae include:

Alcyninae Williams, Donald, Spencer & Nakano, 2010
Cantharidinae Gray, 1857
Carinotrochinae S.-Q. Zhang, J. Zhang & S.-P. Zhang, 2020
Genera brought into synonymy
Chrysostomatinae Williams, Donald, Spencer & Nakano, 2010
Genus brought into synonymy
Fossarininae Bandel, 2009
Genera brought into synonymy
Halistylinae Keen, 1958
Genus brought into synonymy
Kaiparathininae B. A. Marshall, 1993
Monodontinae Gray, 1857
Genera brought into synonymy
Stomatellinae Gray, 1840
Genera brought into synonymy
Trochinae Rafinesque, 1815
(synonym: Pyramidinae Gray, 1847)
Genera brought into synonymy

UmboniinaeH. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 - synonyms: Lirulariinae, tribe Bankiviini, tribe Isandini, tribe Talopiini and tribe Umboniini.

Main characteristics: eyes pedunculate; left tentacle attached to a frontal appendage; mantle reflected over the edge of the aperture; radula: six lateral teeth on each side; the shel is polished; the peristome is incomplete; the umbilicus is generally closed by a callosity [15]

Genera brought into synonymy

Other genera within the family Trochidae include: [26] [27] [28]

Unassigned

Genera brought into synonymy

Related Research Articles

Turbonillinae Subfamily of gastropods

Turbonillinae is a subfamily of mostly minute parasitic sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Pyramidellidae, the pyrams and their allies.

Pyramidellinae Subfamily of sea snails

Pyramidellinae is a taxonomic subfamily of minute sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Pyramidellidae, the pyrams and their allies.

<i>Tegula</i> (gastropod) Genus of small to medium-sized sea snails

Tegula is a genus of small to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Tegulidae.

Turbinidae Family of gastropods

Turbinidae, the turban snails, are a family of small to large marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Trochoidea.

Calliostomatidae Family of gastropods

Calliostomatidae is a family of sea snails within the superfamily Trochoidea and the clade Vetigastropoda.

Fissurellidae Family of limpet-like sea snails

Fissurellidae, common name the keyhole limpets and slit limpets, is a taxonomic family of limpet-like sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Vetigastropoda. Their common name derives from the small hole in the apex of their cone-like shells. Although superficially resembling "true" limpets, they are in fact not closely related to them.

Neritidae Family of gastropods

Neritidae, common name the nerites, is a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized saltwater and freshwater snails which have a gill and a distinctive operculum.

Nassariidae Family of gastropods

The Nassariidae, Nassa mud snails (USA), or dog whelks (UK), are a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Neogastropoda.

Columbellidae Family of gastropods

The Columbellidae, the dove snails or dove shells, are a family of minute to small sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the order Neogastropoda.

Lottiidae Family of gastropods

Lottiidae is a family of sea snails, specifically true limpets, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Lottioidea and the clade Patellogastropoda.

Solariellidae Family of gastropods

Solariellidae is a family of small sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Trochoidea.

Liotiidae Family of gastropods

Liotiidae is a family of small sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Vetigastropoda.

Phasianellidae Family of gastropods

Phasianellidae common name the "pheasant shells" or "pheasant snails" is a family of small sea snails with calcareous opercula, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Vetigastropoda.

Cylichnidae Family of gastropods

Cylichnidae, common name the "chalice bubble snails" or "canoe bubble snails" is a family of sea snails or bubble snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Cylichnoidea.

<i>Cerithidea</i> Genus of gastropods

Cerithidea is a genus of medium-sized sea snails or mud snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Potamididae, the horn snails.

Colloniidae Family of gastropods

Colloniidae is a family of small sea snails with calcareous opercula, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Vetigastropoda.

Emarginulinae Subfamily of limpet-like sea snails

The subfamily Emarginulinae, common name keyhole limpets and slit limpets, is a taxonomic subfamily of limpet-like sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Fissurellidae, the keyhole limpets and slit limpets.

Skeneidae Family of gastropods

The Skeneidae are a speciose family of minute to small marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Trochoidea.

Cantharidinae Subfamily of gastropods

The Cantharidinae are a taxonomic subfamily of very small to large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Trochidae, common name top snails.

Ancillariidae Family of gastropods

The Ancillariidae is a taxonomic family of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Olivoidea.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Williams S. T., Donald K. M., Spencer H. G. & Nakano, T. (2010). "Molecular systematics of the marine gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae (Mollusca: Superfamily Trochoidea)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54(3): 783-809. doi : 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.11.008
  2. 1 2 Tryon (1889), Manual of Conchology XI, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
  3. 1 2 3 4 Poutiers, J. M. (1998). Gastropods in: FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes: The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific Volume 1. Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods. Rome, FAO, 1998. page 399.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Williams S. T., Karube S. & Ozawa T. (September 2008) "Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined". Zoologica Scripta 37(5): 483-506. doi : 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00341.x
  5. WoRMS (2009). Osilinus Philippi, 1847. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138594 on 2010-04-29
  6. WoRMS (2010). Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=225460 on 2010-04-30
  7. WoRMS (2009). Diloma. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=391149 on 2010-04-29
  8. WoRMS (2009). Pseudostomatella Thiele, 1921. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205955 on 2010-04-30
  9. WoRMS (2009). Stomatella Lamarck, 1816. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=180896 on 2010-04-30
  10. WoRMS (2009). Stomatia. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=206609 on 2010-04-30
  11. WoRMS (2010). Stomatolina. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=203940 on 2010-04-30
  12. WoRMS (2009). Gena Gray, 1840. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=204526 on 2010-04-30
  13. WoRMS (2009). Cantharidella Pilsbry, 1889. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species;2010-04-29
  14. WoRMS (2009). Clanculus Montfort, 1810. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138587 on 2010-04-22
  15. Harmer & Shipley, The Cambridge natural history v. 3 (1895)
  16. WoRMS (2009). Ethalia H. & A. Adams, 1854. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=391536 on 2010-04-29
  17. WoRMS (2009). Ethaliella Pilsbry, 1905. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=413461 on 2010-04-29
  18. WoRMS (2010). Ethminolia Iredale, 1924. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=298153 on 2010-04-29
  19. WoRMS (2009). Isanda H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205323 on 2010-04-29
  20. WoRMS (2009). Lirularia Dall, 1909. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=413459 on 2010-04-29
  21. WoRMS (2010). Monilea Swainson, 1840. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=206049 on 2010-04-29
  22. WoRMS (2009). Pseudominolia Herbe, 1992. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=180893 on 2010-04-30
  23. WoRMS (2009). Rossiteria. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=391537 on 2010-04-29
  24. WoRMS (2009). Umbonium Link, 1807. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=205005 on 2010-04-29
  25. WoRMS (2009). Vanitrochus. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=391538 on 2010-04-29
  26. Checklist of Mollusca Archived 2007-02-21 at the Wayback Machine
  27. "Trochidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  28. Powell A. W. B., New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1979 ISBN   0-00-216906-1
  29. WoRMS (2009). Callumbonella Thiele, 1924. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138586 on 2010-04-29