|UN Security Council |
Darfur in Sudan
|Date||29 July 2011|
|Subject||The situation in Sudan|
|15 voted for|
None voted against
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2003, adopted unanimously on July 29, 2011, after reaffirming all previous resolutions and statements on the situation in Sudan, the Council extended the mandate of the African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) for a further 12 months until July 31, 2012.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
Sudan or the Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It houses 37 million people (2017) and occupies a total area of 1,861,484 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile.
The resolution allowed more time for the United Nations to decide how many troops were needed in the region.
The Council recalled that there would be no peace without justice and the need to end impunity. It expressed support to the African Union-United Nations peace process hosted in Qatar, though regretted that some groups had refused to participate. Furthermore, the signing of the "Doha Document for Peace in Darfur" between the Sudanese government and Liberation and Justice Movement (JLM) was welcomed, and the relevant parties were urged to agree a permanent ceasefire.
Justice, in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that which is just and the philosophical discussion of that which is just. The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, and many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness. Often, the general discussion of justice is divided into the realm of social justice as found in philosophy, theology and religion, and, procedural justice as found in the study and application of the law.
Impunity means "exemption from punishment or loss or escape from fines". In the international law of human rights, it refers to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice and, as such, itself constitutes a denial of the victims' right to justice and redress. Impunity is especially common in countries that lack a tradition of the rule of law, suffer from corruption or that have entrenched systems of patronage, or where the judiciary is weak or members of the security forces are protected by special jurisdictions or immunities.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
Meanwhile, the resolution expressed concern about the deteriorating situation in parts of Darfur, through ceasefire violations, attacks by rebel groups, airstrikes by the Sudanese government, intertribal fighting, attacks on humanitarian and United Nations personnel and the displacement of tens of thousands of civilians, as reported by the Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.There was also concern about renewed hostilities between the Sudanese government and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army's (SLM/A), Minni Minnawi and Abdul Wahid factions, and the Justice and Equality Movement.
Darfur is a region in western Sudan. Dar is an Arabic word meaning home of - the region was named Dardaju while ruled by the Daju, who migrated from Meroë c. 350 AD, and it was then renamed Dartunjur when the Tunjur ruled the area. Darfur was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. Because of the war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003.
An airstrike or air strike is an offensive operation carried out by attack aircraft. Air strikes are commonly delivered from aircraft such as fighters, bombers, ground attack aircraft, and attack helicopters. The official definition includes all sorts of targets, including enemy air targets, but in popular usage the term is usually narrowed to a tactical (small-scale) attack on a ground or naval objective. Weapons used in an airstrike can range from aircraft cannon and machine gun bullets, air-launched missiles and cruise missiles, to various types of bombs, glide bombs and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers. It is also commonly referred to as an air raid.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General serves as the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. The role of the United Nations Secretariat, and of the Secretary-General in particular, is laid out by Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter.
The preamble of the resolution reaffirmed that there could be no military solution to the conflict, and all violations of human rights and international humanitarian law were condemned. It was concerned at the implications of the situation on countries in the region and therefore encouraged Sudan, Chad, and the Central African Republic to co-operate to bring about peace in Darfur.
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are often thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to participate in science and culture, the right to work, and the right to education.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war. It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants.
Chad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. It is the fifth largest country in Africa and the second-largest in Central Africa in terms of area.
UNAMID's Chapter VII mandate was extended until the end of July 2012.The peacekeeping operation was instructed to protect civilians and ensure the delivery of humanitarian aid, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the Sudanese government.
Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace. It allows the Council to "determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression" and to take military and nonmilitary action to "restore international peace and security".
In international law, a mandate is a binding obligation issued from an inter-governmental organization to a country which is bound to follow the instructions of the organization.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths and reduces the risk of renewed warfare.
The Secretary-General was asked to work closely with the African Union and other parties and to report on the progress of the peace process and the mandate of UNAMID. The Council demanded that UNAMID be given a radio license in order to communicate freely with all stakeholders in Darfur, in line with the status of forces agreement. All violations of human rights were condemned and again concern was expressed at the situation in Darfur; parties to the conflict had to take steps to protect civilians.
Meanwhile, the resolution called for co-operation between UNAMID and other peacekeeping operations in the region, including the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan and the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei.
The African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) was an African Union (AU) peacekeeping force operating primarily in the country's western region of Darfur with the aim of performing peacekeeping operations related to the Darfur conflict. It was founded in 2004, with a force of 150 troops. By mid-2005, its numbers were increased to about 7,000. Under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564, AMIS was to "closely and continuously liaise and coordinate ... at all levels" its work with the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). AMIS was the only external military force in Sudan's Darfur region until UNAMID was established. It was not able to effectively contain the violence in Darfur. A more sizable, better equipped UN peacekeeping force was originally proposed for September 2006, but due to Sudanese government opposition, it was not implemented at that time. AMIS' mandate was extended repeatedly throughout 2006, while the situation in Darfur continued to escalate, until AMIS was replaced by UNAMID on December 31, 2007.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564, adopted on 18 September 2004, after recalling resolutions 1502 (2003), 1547 (2004) and 1556 (2004), the Council threatened the imposition of sanctions against Sudan if it failed to comply with its obligations on Darfur, and an international inquiry was established to investigate violations of human rights in the region.
The War in Darfur, also nicknamed the Land Cruiser War, is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president, Omar al-Bashir, for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1679, adopted unanimously on May 16, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1556 (2004), 1564 (2004), 1574 (2004), 1590 (2005), 1591 (2005), 1593 (2005), 1663 (2005) and 1665 (2006) on the situation in Sudan, the Council endorsed a decision by the African Union Peace and Security Council to move ahead with a United Nations peacekeeping force in Darfur as soon as possible.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1591, adopted on 29 March 2005, after recalling resolutions 1547 (2004), 1556 (2004), 1564 (2004), 1574 (2004), 1585 (2005), 1588 (2005) and 1590 (2005) on the situation in Sudan, the Council placed a travel ban and asset freeze on those "impeding the peace process" in Darfur.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706, adopted on August 31, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, including resolutions 1556 (2004), 1564 (2005), 1574 (2004), 1590 (2004), 1591 (2005), 1593 (2004), 1663 (2006), 1665 (2006) and 1679 (2006), the Council expanded the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) to include deployments in Darfur to enforce the Darfur Peace Agreement.
The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769, adopted unanimously on July 31, 2007, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Sudan, the Council established the joint African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) in an attempt to end the violence in Darfur, for an initial period of twelve months.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1922, adopted unanimously on May 12, 2010, after recalling resolutions 1769 (2007), 1778 (2007), 1834 (2008), 1861 (2009) and 1913 (2010), the Council noted that the situation in the region of Darfur in Sudan, Chad and the Central African Republic constituted a threat to international peace and security, and therefore extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) for a further two weeks until May 26, 2010, pending further discussions on its future.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1935, adopted unanimously on July 30, 2010, after reaffirming all previous resolutions and statements on the situation in Sudan, the Council extended the mandate of the African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) for a further 12 months until July 31, 2011 and demanded an end to fighting and attacks on United Nations personnel and civilians.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1547, adopted unanimously on 11 June 2004, after welcoming the commitment of the Sudanese government and Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) to work towards a full ceasefire and peace agreement to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, the Council established a United Nations Advance Team in Sudan to prepare for a future United Nations operation following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The brief reference to the situation in the Darfur region divided Council members, with Algeria, China and Pakistan against a mention of Darfur and the other two-thirds of the Council supporting its inclusion.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1945, adopted on October 14, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, the Council extended the mandate of an expert panel monitoring an arms embargo and other sanctions on groups that "impede peace in Sudan" until October 19, 2011.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1556, adopted on 30 July 2004, after recalling resolutions 1502 (2003) and 1547 (2004) on the situation in Sudan, the Council demanded that the Sudanese government disarm the Janjaweed militia and bring to justice those who had committed violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in Darfur.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1574, adopted unanimously at a meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, on 19 November 2004, after recalling resolutions 1547 (2004), 1556 (2004) and 1564 (2004), the Council welcomed political efforts to resolve the conflicts in Sudan and reiterated its readiness to establish a mission to support the implementation of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1590, adopted unanimously on 24 March 2005, after recalling resolutions 1547 (2004), 1556 (2004), 1564 (2004), 1574 (2004), 1585 (2005) and 1588 (2005) on the situation in Sudan, the Council established the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) for an initial period of six months.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1978, adopted unanimously on April 27, 2011, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) until July 9, 2011 and announced its intention to create a successor mission.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1663, adopted unanimously on March 24, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, particularly 1627 (2005) and 1653 (2006), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) for six months until September 24, 2006.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1714, adopted unanimously on October 6, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, particularly resolutions 1590 (2005), 1627 (2005), 1653 (2006), 1653 (2006), 1663 (2006), 1679 (2006), 1706 (2006) and 1709 (2006), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) until April 30, 2007.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1881 was unanimously adopted on 30 July 2009.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1841 was unanimously adopted on 15 October 2008.
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