Vught

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Vught
Vught, kerk1 foto4 2011-05-30 13.35.JPG
Church in Vught
Vught gemeentevlag.svg
Flag
Vught wapen.svg
Coat of arms
Netherlands location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Vught
2010-NL-P10-Noord-Brabant-positiekaart-gemnamen.jpg
Red pog.svg
Vught
Coordinates: 51°39′N5°18′E / 51.650°N 5.300°E / 51.650; 5.300 Coordinates: 51°39′N5°18′E / 51.650°N 5.300°E / 51.650; 5.300
Country Netherlands
Province North Brabant
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Roderick van de Mortel (VVD)
Area
[2]
  Total34.44 km2 (13.30 sq mi)
  Land33.48 km2 (12.93 sq mi)
  Water0.96 km2 (0.37 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
5 m (16 ft)
Population
(August 2017) [4]
  Total26,434
  Density790/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Vughtenaar
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
5260–5266
Area code 0411, 073
Website vught.nl

Vught (Dutch pronunciation: [vɵxt] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands, and lies just south of the industrial and administrative centre of 's-Hertogenbosch. Many commuters live in the municipality, and the town of Vught was once named "Best place to live" by the Dutch magazine Elsevier .[ citation needed ]

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

s-Hertogenbosch City and municipality in North Brabant, Netherlands

's-Hertogenbosch, colloquially known as Den Bosch, is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968. It is the capital of the province of North Brabant.

Contents

Population centres

Topography

Gem-Vught-OpenTopo.jpg

Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Vught, June 2015

History

Early history

The first mention of Vught in the historical record dates to the eleventh century. By the fourteenth century, the Teutonic Order had acquired the parish and set up a commandery (feudalism) across from the Saint Lambert Church. In 1328, the residents of Vught were granted the right of municipality by the Duke of Brabant.

Teutonic Order Medieval military order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly the Teutonic Order, is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Eighty Years War

During the Eighty Years War Vught was the site of struggles between Catholic interests and the troops of William of Orange. The Saint Lambert Church was made into a Reformed Protestant church in the year 1629, after the troops of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, were victorious in 's-Hertogenbosch.

William the Silent founder of the Dutch Republic, stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, leader of the Dutch Revolt

William I, Prince of Orange, also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn, or more commonly known as William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland.

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of Holland

Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch, was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. He was the grandfather of William III of England.

World War II

Watchtowers and barbed wire fences at Herzogenbusch concentration camp in Vught NM Kamp Vught Wachttoren.JPG
Watchtowers and barbed wire fences at Herzogenbusch concentration camp in Vught

Vught is known for having been the site of a transit/concentration camp (Herzogenbusch) built by Nazi Germany during its occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. It was part of Camp Herzogenbusch, but usually better known as "Kamp Vught" (Camp Vught). The camp held male and female prisoners, many of them Jewish and political activists, captured in Belgium and the Netherlands. The guard staff included SS men and a few SS women, headed by Oberaufseherin Margarete Gallinat. The SS initially used this location as a transit camp to gather mostly Jewish prisoners for classification and transportation to camps in Poland and other areas.

Female guards in Nazi concentration camps

The Aufseherinnen were female guards in German concentration camps during the Holocaust. Of the 55,000 guards who served in German concentration camps, about 3,700 were women. In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek from Ravensbrück. The year after, the Nazis began conscripting women because of a guard shortage. The German title for this position, Aufseherin means female overseer or attendant. Later female guards were dispersed to Bolzano (1944–45), Kaiserwald-Riga (1943–44), Mauthausen, Stutthof (1942–45), Vaivara (1943–44), Vught (1943–44), and at other Nazi concentration camps, subcamps, work camps, detention camps, etc.

Oberaufseherin Margarete Gallinat was the chief supervisor at Kamp Vught, Netherlands. She later became a supervisor at Ravensbrück concentration camp.

A group of women were severely punished for standing up for another female prisoner. Seventy-four women were pushed into a cell room of barely nine square meters and held there for over fourteen hours. Ten of the women died, and several suffered permanent physical or mental damage. The camp commander responsible was demoted by Himmler to the regular rank of soldier and sent to the Hungarian front; he died there in 1945.

Dutch underground members Corrie and Betsie ten Boom were held at Vught in 1944, before being sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp. Vught was also a transition camp for many of the female laborers at the Agfa Kamerawerke in München-Giesing, where they built ignition and camera devises. Poncke Princen, who would later become known for going over to the Indonesian guerrillas opposing Dutch rule, was imprisoned at Vught for his anti-Nazi activities.

Corrie ten Boom Dutch resistance hero and writer

Cornelia Arnolda Johanna "Corrie" ten Boom was a Dutch watchmaker and later a writer who worked with her father Casper ten Boom, her sister Betsie ten Boom and other family members to help many Jews escape the Nazi Holocaust during World War II by hiding them in her home. They were caught and she was arrested and sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp. Her most famous book, The Hiding Place, is a biography that recounts the story of her family's efforts and how ten Boom found hope while imprisoned at the concentration camp.

Betsie ten Boom Dutch concentration camp victim

Elisabeth ten Boom was a Dutch woman, the daughter of a watchmaker, who suffered persecution under the Nazi regime in World War II, including incarceration in Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she died aged 59. The daughter of Casper ten Boom, she is one of the leading characters in The Hiding Place, a book written by her sister Corrie ten Boom about the family's experiences during World War II. Nicknamed Betsie, she suffered with pernicious anemia from her birth. The oldest of five Ten Boom children, she did not leave the family and marry, but remained at home until World War II.

Agfa-Commando

Agfa-Commando is the widely used name for the München-Giesing - Agfa Kamerawerke satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp. By October 1944, the camp housed about five hundred women. They were used as slave laborers in the Agfa camera factory in München-Giesing, a suburb on the S.W. side of Munich 14 miles (23 km) from the main camp of Dachau. The women assembled ignition timing devices for bombs, artillery ammunition and V-1 and V-2 rockets; they used every opportunity to sabotage the production. In January 1945, citing the lack of food, the prisoners conducted a strike, an unheard-of action in a concentration camp. Production ended on 23 April 1945 and the women marched toward Wolfratshausen, where their commander eventually surrendered to advancing American troops.

Vught was liberated by the Canadians at the end of the war, but only after German guards killed several hundred prisoners held there, mainly by firing squad.

Camp in post-war times

Bezinningsruimte ("Room for reflection") at the Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught. The room shows the names of all men, women, and children who did not survive the imprisonment at the Kamp Vught. Bezinningsruimte.jpg
Bezinningsruimte ("Room for reflection") at the Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught. The room shows the names of all men, women, and children who did not survive the imprisonment at the Kamp Vught.

After World War II, the camp was first used as a prison for Germans and collaborators. Some of the camp has been preserved as a national monument related to the Nazi occupation during World War II. (See photo.)

The barracks of Camp Vught were later adapted into a number of home units to house Indonesian Moluccan exiles, former soldiers of the Netherlands armed forces and their families who were transferred to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence.

In addition, a prison called Nieuw Vosseveld [5] was built on part of the site of Camp Vught. In the beginning, it chiefly held young offenders. Today it is used for high-risk criminals. To this end, the prison was equipped with a high security unit, or EBI, in 1993.

Politics

On 2 April 2007 Roderick van de Mortel (VVD) was appointed mayor of Vught. The current aldermen are Peter Pennings (GB, also vice mayor), Saskia Heijboer-Klapwijk (VVD) and Wilbert Seuren (D66).

Landmarks and nature

Castle Maurick KasteelMaurick2.jpg
Castle Maurick
Vught, church: Vughtse toren Vught, kerk2 foto5 20-11-05-30 13.25.JPG
Vught, church: Vughtse toren

Just outside the town border lies the lake IJzeren Man (literally translated Iron Man). It was named after the machine that dug it in the years 1890 to 1915. The sand was needed as fill for the expansion of the nearby city of 's-Hertogenbosch. The lake is about 2 kilometers long, has a small island and is now mainly used for recreation.

Vught has a castle, called Maurick; its history dates to the 13th century. In 1629 the castle was occupied by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Frederick Henry wanted to have the castle as his headquarters for his siege of 's-Hertogenbosch. The castle has been adapted to house a restaurant, which has been recognised with one Michelin Star.

Vught is home to the Bredero barracks, which houses the Ministry of Defence's CBRN defense training center. [6]

Ewald Marggraff

Ewald Marggraff was a well-to-do nobleman who lived in Vught in the twentieth century. He became a hermit, but had studied law and acquired a large amount of land and several buildings. He frequently argued with the local authorities, mostly over land issues. He chose to let all his properties deteriorate, which officials opposed, but letting his lands go enabled them to return to natural habitat. Animal species lived on his land that had disappeared elsewhere. His land holdings in and around the town of Vught were never open to the general public. On 7 December 2003 Marggraff's manor (Zionsburg) burned down; his body was found later in the entrance hallway near the front door.

Marggraff's surviving sisters founded a non-profit corporation, Marggraff stichting, to take over and manage their late brother's extensive landholdings for public use. The organisation has opened up the land for public access, allowing people from around the region to hike in the forests.

The non-profit also has plans to rebuild Marggraff's manor. In cooperation with SIX Architects BNA from Zeist, The Netherlands, it developed design and use plans, which are now under consideration by the local authorities.

Department of corrections — PI Vught

From 1953, part of the former detention camp was developed as a juvenile prison. Today it contains 15 separate units, holding 2400 prisoners. PI Vught has a prison with the status of a high-security unit. Amongst the criminals imprisoned there are:

Transport

Vught has a railway station with connections to Amsterdam/Utrecht via 's-Hertogenbosch, Maastricht via Eindhoven, Tilburg and Nijmegen. Highway 2 / E25 and Highway 65 / N93 intersect at Vught. As well as two Arriva buslines connecting Vught to the Jeroen Bosch Hospital, school district and central station, all located in neighbouring Den Bosch.

Notable residents

See also

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References

  1. "Burgemeester R.J. van de Mortel" [Mayor R.J. van de Mortel] (in Dutch). Gemeente Vught. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 5261EP". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. Ebbutt, Giles (January 30, 2019). "Bagira wins Netherlands CBRN contract". Jane's Information Group. Bagira Systems and Van Halteren Defence have jointly been awarded a contract by the Netherlands Ministry of Defence for the simulator for its national chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training centre at Bredero barracks in Vught.