Church in Vught
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Roderick van de Mortel (VVD)|
|• Total||34.44 km2 (13.30 sq mi)|
|• Land||33.48 km2 (12.93 sq mi)|
|• Water||0.96 km2 (0.37 sq mi)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
|• Density||788/km2 (2,040/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||0411, 073|
Vught (Dutch pronunciation: [vɵxt] (
Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Vught, June 2015
The first mention of Vught in the historical record dates to the eleventh century. By the fourteenth century, the Teutonic Order had acquired the parish and set up a commandery (feudalism) across from the Saint Lambert Church. In 1328, the residents of Vught were granted the right of municipality by the Duke of Brabant.
During the Eighty Years War Vught was the site of struggles between Catholic interests and the troops of William of Orange. The Saint Lambert Church was made into a Reformed Protestant church in the year 1629, after the troops of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, were victorious in 's-Hertogenbosch.
Vught is known for having been the site of a transit/concentration camp (Herzogenbusch) built by Nazi Germany during its occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. It was part of Camp Herzogenbusch, but usually better known as "Kamp Vught" (Camp Vught). The camp held male and female prisoners, many of them Jewish and political activists, captured in Belgium and the Netherlands. The guard staff included SS men and a few SS women, headed by Oberaufseherin Margarete Gallinat. The SS initially used this location as a transit camp to gather mostly Jewish prisoners for classification and transportation to camps in Poland and other areas.
A group of women were severely punished for standing up for another female prisoner. Seventy-four women were pushed into a cell room of barely nine square meters and held there for over fourteen hours. Ten of the women died, and several suffered permanent physical or mental damage. The camp commander responsible was demoted by Himmler to the regular rank of soldier and sent to the Hungarian front; he died there in 1945.
Dutch underground members Corrie and Betsie ten Boom were held at Vught in 1944, before being sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp. Vught was also a transition camp for many of the female laborers at the Agfa Kamerawerke in München-Giesing, where they built ignition and camera devises. Poncke Princen, who would later become known for going over to the Indonesian guerrillas opposing Dutch rule, was imprisoned at Vught for his anti-Nazi activities.
Vught was liberated by the Canadians at the end of the war, but only after German guards killed several hundred prisoners held there, mainly by firing squad.
After World War II, the camp was first used as a prison for Germans and collaborators. Some of the camp has been preserved as a national monument related to the Nazi occupation during World War II. (See photo.)
The barracks of Camp Vught were later adapted into a number of home units to house Indonesian Moluccan exiles, former soldiers of the Netherlands armed forces and their families who were transferred to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence.
In addition, a prison called Nieuw Vosseveldwas built on part of the site of Camp Vught. In the beginning, it chiefly held young offenders. Today it is used for high-risk criminals. To this end, the prison was equipped with a high security unit, or EBI, in 1993.
On 2 April 2007 Roderick van de Mortel (VVD) was appointed mayor of Vught. The current aldermen are Peter Pennings (GB, also vice mayor), Saskia Heijboer-Klapwijk (VVD) and Wilbert Seuren (D66).
Just outside the town border lies the lake IJzeren Man (literally translated Iron Man). It was named after the machine that dug it in the years 1890 to 1915. The sand was needed as fill for the expansion of the nearby city of 's-Hertogenbosch. The lake is about 2 kilometers long, has a small island and is now mainly used for recreation.
Vught has a castle, called Maurick; its history dates to the 13th century. In 1629 the castle was occupied by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. Frederick Henry wanted to have the castle as his headquarters for his siege of 's-Hertogenbosch. The castle has been adapted to house a restaurant, which has been recognised with one Michelin Star.
Vught is home to the Bredero barracks, which houses the Ministry of Defence's CBRN defense training center.
Ewald Marggraff was a well-to-do nobleman who lived in Vught in the twentieth century. He became a hermit, but had studied law and acquired a large amount of land and several buildings. He frequently argued with the local authorities, mostly over land issues. He chose to let all his properties deteriorate, which officials opposed, but letting his lands go enabled them to return to natural habitat. Animal species lived on his land that had disappeared elsewhere. His land holdings in and around the town of Vught were never open to the general public. On 7 December 2003 Marggraff's manor (Zionsburg) burned down; his body was found later in the entrance hallway near the front door.
Marggraff's surviving sisters founded a non-profit corporation, Marggraff stichting, to take over and manage their late brother's extensive landholdings for public use. The organisation has opened up the land for public access, allowing people from around the region to hike in the forests.
The non-profit also has plans to rebuild Marggraff's manor. In cooperation with SIX Architects BNA from Zeist, The Netherlands, it developed design and use plans, which are now under consideration by the local authorities.
From 1953, part of the former detention camp was developed as a juvenile prison. Today it contains 15 separate units, holding 2400 prisoners. PI Vught has a prison with the status of a high-security unit. Amongst the criminals imprisoned there are:
Vught has a railway station with connections to Amsterdam/Utrecht via 's-Hertogenbosch, Maastricht via Eindhoven, Tilburg and Nijmegen. Highway 2 / and Highway 65 / intersect at Vught. As well as two Arriva buslines connecting Vught to the Jeroen Bosch Hospital, school district and central station, all located in neighbouring Den Bosch.
's-Hertogenbosch, colloquially known as Den Bosch, is a city and municipality in the Netherlands with a population of 152,968. It is the capital of the province of North Brabant.
North Brabant, also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands. It borders the provinces of South Holland and Gelderland to the north, Limburg to the east, Zeeland to the west, and the Flemish provinces of Antwerp and Limburg to the south. The northern border follows the Meuse westward to its mouth in the Hollands Diep strait, part of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. North Brabant has a population of 2,562,566 as of November 2019. Major cities in North Brabant are Eindhoven, Tilburg, Breda and its provincial capital 's-Hertogenbosch.
Camp Westerbork was a transit camp in Drenthe province, northeastern Netherlands, during World War II. Established by the Dutch government in the summer of 1939, Camp Westerbork was meant to serve as a refugee camp for Jews who had illegally entered the Netherlands.
Sint-Michielsgestel is a municipality and a town in the southern part of the Netherlands. It is located directly south of 's-Hertogenbosch, the capital of North Brabant province. Its name refers to archangel St. Michael.
Schoorl is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Bergen, and lies about 8 km northwest of Alkmaar. Until 2001, Schoorl was also a municipality of its own.
Cornelia Arnolda Johanna "Corrie" ten Boom was a Dutch watchmaker and later a writer who worked with her father, Casper ten Boom, her sister Betsie ten Boom and other family members to help many Jews escape the Nazis from the Holocaust during World War II by hiding them in her home. They were caught, and she was arrested and sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp. Her most famous book, The Hiding Place, is a biography that recounts the story of her family's efforts and how she found hope while she was imprisoned at the concentration camp.
The Bunker Tragedy or the Bunkerdrama was an atrocity committed by the staff at the Herzogenbusch concentration camp in the Netherlands, in January 1944 during World War II.
Helga Deen was a Jewish diarist whose diary was discovered in 2004, which describes her stay in a Dutch prison camp, Kamp Vught, where she was brought during World War II at the age of 18.
The Hiding Place is a 1971 book on the life of Corrie ten Boom, written by her and John and Elizabeth Sherrill.
Amersfoort concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp in Amersfoort, Netherlands. The official name was "Polizeiliches Durchgangslager Amersfoort", P.D.A. or Amersfoort Police Transit Camp. 37,000 prisoners were held there between 1941 to 1945. The camp was situated in the southern part of Amersfoort, on the municipal boundary between Amersfoort and Leusden in central Netherlands.
Herzogenbusch concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside Germany. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. After the war the camp was used as a prison for Germans and Dutch collaborators. Today there is a visitors' centre with exhibitions and a national monument "Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught" remembering the camp and its victims. The camp is now a museum.
The Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch also known as the Siege of Bois-Le-Duc was an action in 1629, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War in which a Dutch and English army captured the city of 's-Hertogenbosch. The city had been loyal to the King of Spain since 1579 and was part of the Spanish Netherlands.
Johann Baptist Albin Rauter was a high-ranking Austrian-born SS functionary and war criminal during the Nazi era. He was the highest SS and Police Leader in the occupied Netherlands and therefore the leading security and police officer there during the period of 1940–1945. Rauter reported directly to the Nazi SS chief, Heinrich Himmler, and also to the Nazi governor of the Netherlands, Arthur Seyss-Inquart. After World War II, he was convicted in the Netherlands of crimes against humanity and executed by firing squad.
Adrienne Minette (Mies) Boissevain-van Lennep was a Dutch feminist who was active in the Resistance before being arrested by the Nazis and sent to the Herzogenbusch concentration camp. After the war, she promoted the idea of the national liberation skirt, and some of these unusual skirts are now in Dutch museums.
Elisabeth ten Boom was a Dutch woman, the daughter of a watchmaker, who suffered persecution under the Nazi regime in World War II, including incarceration in Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she died aged 59. The daughter of Casper ten Boom, she is one of the leading characters in The Hiding Place, a book written by her sister Corrie ten Boom about the family′s experiences during World War II. Nicknamed Betsie, she suffered from pernicious anemia from her birth. The oldest of five Ten Boom children, she did not leave the family and marry, but remained at home until World War II. She is a Righteous Among the Nations.
Nieuw Vosseveld is a prison in Vught, Netherlands, part of the Custodial Institutions Agency of the Ministry of Justice and Security within the Dutch criminal justice system. Penitentiaire Inrichting Vught is now the general term used instead of Nieuw Vosseveld. Part of Nieuw Vosseveld is a maximum security prison; it holds some of Europe's most dangerous criminals including Islamic terrorists Mohammed Bouyeri and Samir Azzouz.
Berg en Dal is a municipality in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. It was formed through a merger of the municipalities of Groesbeek, Millingen aan de Rijn and Ubbergen in 2015. The resulting larger municipality maintained the name of Groesbeek until 2016, when it was renamed to Berg en Dal after the village of Berg en Dal.
Hendrika Jacoba "Kiky" Gerritsen-Heinsius (1921–1990) was recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations on 15 September 1989, and was also awarded the Verzetsherdenkingskruis by the Dutch government.
Mathilde Adrienne Eugénie Verspyck "was a brave woman who was a devoted believer in the cause of freedom, for which she later sacrificed her life," according to her U.S. Medal of Freedom award.
Maria Catharina van Grunsven (1918–2004), also known as Riet van Grunsven or Riet van de Haterd-van Grunsven, was an armed member of the Dutch Resistance during World War II. One of 21 people who became “line crossers,” special agents who helped to maintain a secret connection between occupied and liberated Netherlands across the waterways of the Biesbosch and the Merwede, she operated as a courier for part of the larger Biesbosch resistance group, and the Albrecht intelligence group. During this resistance work, she was given the aliases “Ice Block” and “Trouble.”
Bagira Systems and Van Halteren Defence have jointly been awarded a contract by the Netherlands Ministry of Defence for the simulator for its national chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training centre at Bredero barracks in Vught.
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