Walt Disney Concert Hall

Last updated

Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall, LA, CA, jjron 22.03.2012.jpg
USA Los Angeles Metropolitan Area location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Location within the Los Angeles metropolitan area
USA California location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall (California)
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall (the United States)
Location111 South Grand Avenue
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Coordinates 34°03′19″N118°15′00″W / 34.05528°N 118.25000°W / 34.05528; -118.25000 Coordinates: 34°03′19″N118°15′00″W / 34.05528°N 118.25000°W / 34.05528; -118.25000
Public transit LAMetroLogo.svg   LACMTA Circle B Line (Red).svg    LACMTA Circle D Line (Purple).svg   Civic Center/Grand Park (Regional Connector future)
Owner Los Angeles Music Center
Type Concert hall
Seating typeReserved
Capacity 2,265
OpenedOctober 24, 2003
Construction cost$130 million (plus $110 million for parking garage)
Architect Frank Gehry
Structural engineer Cosentini Associates
Los Angeles Philharmonic, Los Angeles Master Chorale
Venue website]

The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, California, is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center and was designed by Frank Gehry. It opened on October 24, 2003. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, and 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves, among other purposes, as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale. The hall is a compromise between a vinyard-style seating configuration, like the Berliner Philharmonie by Hans Scharoun, [1] and a classical shoebox design like the Vienna Musikverein or the Boston Symphony Hall. [2]


Lillian Disney made an initial gift of $50 million in 1987 to build a performance venue as a gift to the people of Los Angeles and a tribute to Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city. Both Gehry's architecture and the acoustics of the concert hall, designed by Minoru Nagata, [3] the final completion supervised by Nagata's assistant and protege Yasuhisa Toyota, [4] have been praised, in contrast to its predecessor, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. [5]


Disney Hall midway through construction, July 14, 2001. 2001-0714-DisneyHall-construction.jpg
Disney Hall midway through construction, July 14, 2001.

The project was initiated in 1987, when Lillian Disney, widow of Walt Disney, donated $50 million. Frank Gehry delivered completed designs in 1991. Construction of the underground parking garage began in 1992 and was completed in 1996. The garage cost had been $110 million, and was paid for by Los Angeles County, which sold bonds to provide the garage under the site of the planned hall. [6] Construction of the concert hall itself stalled from 1994 to 1996 due to lack of fundraising. Additional funds were required since the construction cost of the final project far exceeded the original budget. Plans were revised, and in a cost-saving move the originally designed stone exterior was replaced with a less costly stainless steel skin. [7] :114 The needed fundraising restarted in earnest in 1996, headed by Eli Broad and then-mayor Richard Riordan. Groundbreaking for the hall was held in December 1999. Delay in the project completion caused many financial problems for the county of LA. The County expected to repay the garage debts by revenue coming from the Disney Hall parking users. [6]

Upon completion in 2003, the project cost an estimated $274 million; the parking garage alone cost $110 million. [6] The remainder of the total cost was paid by private donations, of which the Disney family's contribution was estimated to $84.5 million with another $25 million from The Walt Disney Company. By comparison, the three existing halls of the Music Center cost $35 million in the 1960s (about $190 million in today's dollars).


The auditorium Disney Concert Hall (10920404614).jpg
The auditorium

As construction finished in the spring of 2003, the Philharmonic postponed its grand opening until the fall and used the summer to let the orchestra and Master Chorale adjust to the new hall. Performers and critics agreed that it was well worth this extra time taken by the time the hall opened to the public. [8] During the summer rehearsals a few hundred VIPs were invited to sit in including donors, board members and journalists. Writing about these rehearsals, Los Angeles Times music critic Mark Swed wrote the following account:

When the orchestra finally got its next [practice] in Disney, it was to rehearse Ravel's lusciously orchestrated ballet, Daphnis and Chloé. ... This time, the hall miraculously came to life. Earlier, the orchestra's sound, wonderful as it was, had felt confined to the stage. Now a new sonic dimension had been added, and every square inch of air in Disney vibrated merrily. Toyota says that he had never experienced such an acoustical difference between a first and second rehearsal in any of the halls he designed in his native Japan. Salonen could hardly believe his ears. To his amazement, he discovered that there were wrong notes in the printed parts of the Ravel that sit on the players' stands. The orchestra has owned these scores for decades, but in the Chandler no conductor had ever heard the inner details well enough to notice the errors. [8]

The hall met with laudatory approval from nearly all of its listeners, including its performers. In an interview with PBS, Esa-Pekka Salonen, former Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, said, "The sound, of course, was my greatest concern, but now I am totally happy, and so is the orchestra," [9] and later said, "Everyone can now hear what the L.A. Phil is supposed to sound like." [10] This remains one of the most successful grand openings of a concert hall in American history.[ citation needed ]

The walls and ceiling of the hall are finished with Douglas-fir while the floor is finished with oak. Columbia Showcase & Cabinet Co. Inc., based in Sun Valley, CA, produced all of the ceiling panels, wall panels and architectural woodwork for the main auditorium and lobbies. [11] The Hall's reverberation time is approximately 2.2 seconds unoccupied and 2.0 seconds occupied. [12]

Regional Connector tunnel

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority has an agreement with the Los Angeles Music Center to use the most advanced noise-suppression measures for construction of the Regional Connector Transit Corridor subway under 2nd Street where it passes the hall and the Colburn School of Music. Metro will use procedures to ensure that the rumble of trains does not intrude on the sound quality of recordings made in the venues or mar audiences' musical experience within this sensitive stretch of the tunnel. Metro will also build an elevated walkway from the station to the concert hall. [13]

Reflection problems

Walt Disney Concert Hall sign Walt Disney Concert Hall Logo.JPG
Walt Disney Concert Hall sign
The exterior of Founders room after panels were re-surfaced. Disneyext.jpg
The exterior of Founders room after panels were re-surfaced.

Originally, Frank Gehry had designed the Disney Concert Hall with a facade of stone, because "at night stone would glow," he told interviewer Barbara Isenberg. "Disney Hall would look beautiful at night in stone. It would have just been great. It would have been friendly. Metal at night goes dark. I begged them. No, after they saw Bilbao, they had to have metal." [14]

After the construction, modifications were made to the Founders Room exterior; while most of the building's exterior was designed with stainless steel given a matte finish, the Founders Room and Children's Amphitheater were designed with highly polished mirror-like panels. The reflective qualities of the surface were amplified by the concave sections of the Founders Room walls. Some residents of the neighboring condominiums suffered glare caused by sunlight that was reflected off these surfaces and concentrated in a manner similar to a parabolic mirror. The resulting heat made some rooms of nearby condominiums unbearably warm, caused the air-conditioning costs of these residents to skyrocket and created hot spots on adjacent sidewalks of as much as 140 °F (60 °C). [15] There was also the increased risk of traffic accidents due to blinding sunlight reflected from the polished surfaces. After complaints from neighboring buildings and residents, the owners asked Gehry Partners to come up with a solution. Their response was a computer analysis of the building's surfaces identifying the offending panels. In 2005 these were dulled by lightly sanding the panels to eliminate unwanted glare. [16]

Concert organ

The stage and organ before a concert WD concert hall stage.jpg
The stage and organ before a concert

The design of the hall included a large concert organ, completed in 2004, which was used in a special concert for the July 2004 National Convention of the American Guild of Organists. The organ had its public debut in a non-subscription[ clarification needed ] recital performed by Frederick Swann on September 30, 2004, and its first public performance with the Philharmonic two days later in a concert featuring Todd Wilson. [17]

The organ's façade was designed by architect Frank Gehry in consultation with organ consultant and tonal designer Manuel Rosales. Gehry wanted a distinctive, unique design for the organ. He would submit design concepts to Rosales, who would then provide feedback. Many of Gehry's early designs were fanciful, but impractical: Rosales said in an interview with Timothy Mangan of The Orange County Register , "His [Gehry's] earliest input would have created very bizarre musical results in the organ. Just as a taste, some of them would have had the console at the top and pipes upside down. There was another in which the pipes were in layers of arrays like fans. The pipes would have had to be made out of materials that wouldn't work for pipes. We had our moments where we realized we were not going anywhere. As the design became more practical for me, it also became more boring for him." Then, Gehry came up with the curved wooden pipe concept, "like a logjam kind of thing," says Rosales, "turned sideways." This design turned out to be musically viable. [18]

The organ was built by the German organ builder Caspar Glatter-Götz under the tonal direction and voicing of Manuel Rosales. It has an attached console built into the base of the instrument from which the pipes of the Positive, Great, and Swell manuals (keyboards) are playable by direct mechanical, or "tracker" key action, with the rest playing by electric key action; [19] this console somewhat resembles North-German Baroque organs, and has a closed-circuit television monitor set into the music desk. It is also equipped with a detached, movable console, which can be moved about as easily as a grand piano, and plugged in at any of four positions on the stage, this console has terraced, curved "amphitheatre"-style stop-jambs resembling those of French Romantic organs, and is built with a low profile, with the music desk entirely above the top of the console, for the sake of clear sight lines to the conductor. From the detached console, all ranks play by electric key and stop action. [20]

In all, there are 72 stops, 109 ranks, and 6,125 pipes; pipes range in size from a few inches/centimeters to the longest being 32 feet (9.75m) (which has a frequency of 16 hertz). [20]

The organ is a gift to the County of Los Angeles from Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. (the U.S. sales, marketing, service, and distribution arm of Toyota Motor Corporation). [21] [22]

External video
Image-Disney Concert Hall by Carol Highsmith edit.jpg
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg 10 Buildings that Changed America #10 Disney Concert Hall, WTTW, [23]


The concert hall houses celebrity chef Joachim Splichal's landmark fine dining restaurant Patina designed by Belzberg Architects. Patina serves French and California cuisine.

See also

Related Research Articles

Frank Gehry Canadian–American architect

Frank Owen Gehry,, FAIA is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles.

The Los Angeles Philharmonic, commonly referred to as the LA Phil, is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California. It has a regular season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney Concert Hall, and a summer season at the Hollywood Bowl from July through September. Gustavo Dudamel is the current Music Director, Esa-Pekka Salonen is Conductor Laureate, Zubin Mehta is Conductor Emeritus, and Susanna Mälkki is Principal Guest Conductor. John Adams is the orchestra's current Composer-in-Residence.

Los Angeles Music Center Performing arts center in downtown Los Angeles, California, consisting of various theaters and concert halls

The Music Center is one of the largest performing arts centers in the United States. Located in downtown Los Angeles, The Music Center is home to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Ahmanson Theater, Mark Taper Forum, Roy and Edna Disney / CalArts Theatre, and Walt Disney Concert Hall. Each year, The Music Center welcomes more than 1.3 million people to performances by its four internationally renowned resident companies: Los Angeles Philharmonic, Los Angeles Opera, Los Angeles Master Chorale, and Center Theatre Group (CTG) as well as performances by the dance series Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at The Music Center. The center is home to on-going community events, arts festivals, outdoor concerts, participatory arts activities and workshops, and educational programs.

Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Opera house in Los Angeles, California, part of the Los Angeles Music Center, used by LA Opera

The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is one of the halls in the Los Angeles Music Center, which is one of the three largest performing arts centers in the United States. The Music Center's other halls include the Mark Taper Forum, Ahmanson Theatre, and Walt Disney Concert Hall.

Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts

The Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College is a performance hall located in the Hudson Valley hamlet of Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. The center provides audiences with performances and programs in orchestral, chamber, and jazz music, and in theater, dance, and opera. Designed by architect Frank Gehry, the 110,000-square-foot (10,000 m2) center houses two theaters, four rehearsal studios for dance, theater, and music, and professional support facilities. The building's heat and air-conditing systems are entirely powered by geothermal sources, enabling the Fisher Center to be fossil fuel free during standard operations. The total cost of the project reached $62 million and took three years to complete, opening in April 2003. The New Yorker calls it "[possibly] the best small concert hall in the United States."

Diane Disney Miller Elder and only biological child of Walt Disney and his wife Lillian Bounds Disney

Diane Marie Disney-Miller was the only biological child of Walt Disney and his wife Lillian Bounds Disney. Diane co-founded the Walt Disney Family Museum alongside her family. She was president of the Board of Directors of the Walt Disney Family Foundation. The museum, which opened in 2009, was established to promote and inspire creativity and innovation and celebrate and study the life of Walt Disney.

An organ recital is a concert at which music specially written for the organ is played.

New World Center Concert hall in Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.

The New World Center is a concert hall in the South Beach section of Miami Beach, Florida, designed by Frank Gehry. It is the home of the New World Symphony, with a capacity of 756 seats. It opened in January 2011.

Koncerthuset concert venue in Copenhagen

DR Koncerthuset by Jean Nouvel is a part of the new DR Byen, that houses the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. The concert hall and the DR Town are located in the northern part of Ørestad – an ambitious development area in Copenhagen, Denmark. The concert complex consists of four halls with the main auditorium seating 1,800 people. It is the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra. With a total surface of 25,000 m², the concert hall complex designed by Jean Nouvel includes a concert hall of 1800 people and three recording studios with variable acoustics. The scenography of the concert hall and three recording studios was designed with dUCKS scéno. The acoustic studies were realized by Nagata Acoustics. The construction, begun in February, 2003, was finished in January, 2009. The Queen of Denmark inaugurated the venue on January 17, 2009.

Royce Hall building on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles

Royce Hall is a building on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Originally designed by the Los Angeles firm of Allison & Allison and completed in 1929, it is one of the four original buildings on UCLA's Westwood campus and has come to be the defining image of the university. The brick and tile building is in the Lombard Romanesque style, and once functioned as the main classroom facility of the university and symbolized its academic and cultural aspirations. Today, the twin-towered front remains the best known UCLA landmark. The 1800-seat auditorium was designed for speech acoustics and not for music; by 1982 it emerged from successive remodelings as a regionally important concert hall and main performing arts facility of the university.

Frederick Swann American musician

Frederick L. Swann is an American church and concert organist, recording artist, choral conductor, and former president of the American Guild of Organists. Music critic Tim Smith called Swann "one of the country's most distinguished organists". He is Organist Emeritus of the Crystal Cathedral and the First Congregational Church of Los Angeles.

Yasuhisa Toyota Japanese musician

Yasuhisa Toyota is an acoustician who has been chief acoustician for over 50 projects worldwide, including the Walt Disney Concert Hall, Suntory Hall in Tokyo, the Bard College Performing Arts Center in New York, the Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg, and the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts in Kansas City. He is the company director and U.S. Representative of Nagata Acoustics of Tokyo.

Ernest Martin Fleischmann was a German-born American impresario who served for 30 years as executive director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, which he upgraded to become a top-ranked orchestra. A talented musician, he chose a career on the business aspect of music, rather than a life as a conductor.

Nagata Acoustics is an international acoustical consultancy firm. In Japan they have been involved in the design of over seventy concert halls, including the Suntory Hall, Sapporo Concert Hall, Muza Kawasaki Symphony Hall, Kyoto Concert Hall and Hyogo Performing Arts Center; other projects have included the Supreme Court, Tokyo and the sound system for the New National Theatre, Tokyo. Outside Japan they have consulted on the Walt Disney Concert Hall, the Danish Radio Concert Hall, Helsinki Music Centre, Mariinsky Concert Hall and Opera House, Elbphilharmonie, Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, Bing Concert Hall, and Philharmonie de Paris.

Manuel J. Rosales, Jr., is an American organ builder whose instruments display a strong synthesis of romantic and contemporary styles. His workshop has built over 30 pipe organs with his notable output including collaborations on the instruments at Walt Disney Concert Hall and Rice University.

Bing Concert Hall vineyard style concert hall at Stanford

Bing Concert Hall is a performing arts facility at Stanford University that opened in January 2013. The heart of the building is the oval-shaped concert hall, which has 842 seats arranged in a vineyard style surrounding the stage in terraces. All the seats are within 75 feet of the conductor, and the seats in the center section begin at the stage level. On the north side of the central concert hall is the smaller Bing Studio, which can be configured to accommodate a variety of performance types, e.g., cabaret, club, and theater.

Wing on Wing is a single-movement composition for two sopranos and orchestra by the Finnish composer Esa-Pekka Salonen. The work was commissioned by the Los Angeles Philharmonic for their inaugural season at the Walt Disney Concert Hall and was premiered June 5, 2004 by the orchestra under Salonen. The piece is dedicated to the architect Frank Gehry, the acoustician Yasuhisa Toyota, and the L.A. Philharmonic CEO Deborah Borda.

Sculpture is an orchestral composition by the Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg. The music was commissioned by the Los Angeles Philharmonic with support from the Koussevitzky Music Foundation to celebrate the orchestra's inaugural season at the Walt Disney Concert Hall. Its world premiere was given by the Los Angeles Philharmonic under the direction of Esa-Pekka Salonen on October 6, 2005.

Christoph Bull is a German composer, musician and educator, and a Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) who was the first organist to record a complete commercial album at the Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles California using the Frank Gehry co-designed Glatter-Götz/Rosales organ, 2010's "First & Grand Walt Disney Concert Hall Premiere Recording". Christoph is also the creator of Organica, a multi-media concert and recorded album series that has been performed regularly since April 1999. Dr. Bull has performed on several soundtracks for movies and television series, including the score for the 2016 remake of Ghostbusters.

Youth Orchestra Los Angeles

Youth Orchestra Los Angeles (YOLA) is the Los Angeles Philharmonic's initiative to establish youth orchestra programs in underprivileged communities throughout Los Angeles. Modeled on Venezuela's El Sistema, a program which brings classical music education to children from low-income communities, YOLA provides free instruments, music training, and academic support to nearly 800 students age 6-18. A "social project first and artistic project second," 100% of YOLA's 2016 graduating class completed high school, and 90% went on to college.


  1. Kamin, Blair (October 26, 2003). "The wonderful world of Disney". Chicago Tribune . Archived from the original on August 20, 2014.
  2. Cavanaugh, William J.; Tocci, Gregory C.; Wilkes, Joseph A. (January 1, 2010). Architectural Acoustics: Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   9780470190524.
  3. "Process | Walt Disney Concert Hall 10th Anniversary". wdch10.laphil.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  4. Painter, Karen; Crow, Thomas E. (January 1, 2006). Late Thoughts: Reflections on Artists and Composers at Work. Getty Publications. ISBN   9780892368136.
  5. Swed, Mark (October 19, 2003). "Sculpting the sound". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on August 20, 2014.
  6. 1 2 3 Manville, Michael; Shoup, Donald (October 26, 2014). "People, Parking, and Cities" (PDF). UC Transportation Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2014.
  7. Gehry, Frank (2002). gehry talks. Universe Publishing. ISBN   978-0-7893-0682-1.
  8. 1 2 Mark Swed (October 29, 2003). "Now comes the true test". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  9. "The Los Angeles Philharmonic Inaugurates Walt Disney Concert Hall". Archived from the original on August 7, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
  10. Valerie Scher (October 25, 2003). "Disney Hall opens with a bang". The San Diego Union-Tribune . Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  11. "Columbia Showcase & Cabinet Co. Inc. – An Acoustical Journey –". Archived from the original on September 4, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
  12. "Building Details and Acoustics Data" (PDF). Nagata Acoustics. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2007. Retrieved July 16, 2008.
  13. Boehm, Mike (July 2, 2014). "Metro commits to deal ensuring subway won't hurt Disney Hall acoustics". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on August 17, 2014.
  14. Craven, Jackie Craven Jackie; Writing, Doctor of Arts in. "Skins of Metal - A Hazard in Architecture". ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  15. Schiler, Marc; Valmont, Elizabeth. "Microclimactic Impact: Glare around the Walt Disney Concert Hall" (PDF). Society of Building Science Educators. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2006. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  16. Coates, Chris (March 21, 2005). "Dimming Disney Hall; Gehry's Glare Gets Buffed". Los Angeles Downtown News . Archived from the original on October 11, 2012.
  17. Johnson, Steven (September 19, 2004). "The best of the season". Los Angeles Times. ISSN   0458-3035. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  18. Timothy Mangan (September 30, 2004). "Pipe dreams at Disney Hall; The concert venue's fantastical organ is finally ready for unveiling". The Orange County Register (California).
  19. Rodriquez, Paul D. "Inside the Disney Hall Organ" (PDF). Los Angeles Times. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 28, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2019 via Rosales Organ Builders.
  20. 1 2 "Rosales Organ Builders, Opus 24 (Walt Disney Concert Hall)". Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  21. Wachtell, Esther (August 1991). "Using all the fund-raising tools: by giving its volunteers all the resources they needed to do the job, The Music Center of Los Angeles increased its campaign goal 15 percent to $ 17.6 million, despite the recession". Fund Raising Management. 22 (6): 23. ISSN   0016-268X.
  22. PAUL KARON (November 24, 1997). "Toyota ups hall donation". Daily Variety .
  23. "#10 Waltdisney Concert Hall". 10 Buildings that Changed America. WTTW. 2013. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Webpage features include a photo slideshow, video from the televised program (4:47), and "web exclusive video" (3:35).
  24. simp15.jpg Archived June 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  25. Downey, Ryan J. (October 28, 2003). "Keanu Reeves Says Goodbye To Neo At Premiere of 'The Matrix Revolutions'". MTV . Archived from the original on August 23, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  26. Honeycutt, Kirk (April 11, 2017). "Fracture review". The Hollywood Reporter . Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  27. "Iron Man | 2008". movie-locations.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  28. Ferguson, Dana (September 20, 2013). "Filming at Disney Hall: Always ready for its close-up". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  29. "The Soloist 2009 - Walt Disney Concert Hall". Casting Architecture. August 31, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  30. "Amazing Race : Ouceni et Lassana éliminés, Marilyn Monroe ressuscitée ?" [Amazing Race: Ouceni and Lassana eliminated, Marilyn Monroe resurrected?]. Purepeople (in French). November 20, 2012. Archived from the original on February 15, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  31. Struble, Cristine (April 23, 2020). "Top Chef All Stars LA Season 17 episode 6 preview: A flavor symphony". FanSided . Retrieved April 26, 2020.

Further reading