Xylariaceae

Last updated

Xylariaceae
Xylaria hypoxylon.jpg
Xylaria hypoxylon
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Sordariomycetes
Order: Xylariales
Family: Xylariaceae
Tul. & C. Tul
Genera

See text

The Xylariaceae are a family of mostly small ascomycetous fungi. It is one of the most commonly encountered groups of ascomycetes and is found throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world. They are typically found on wood, seeds, fruits, or plant leaves, some even associated with insect nests. Most decay wood and many are plant pathogens.

One example of this family is King Alfred's Cake ( Daldinia concentrica ).

Phylogenetic analyses published in 2009 suggest that there are two main lineages in this family, Hypoxyloideae and Xylarioideae. [1]

Genera

This is a complete list of genera in the Xylariaceae, based on the 2007 Outline of Ascomycota. A question mark before the genus name indicates that the placement of that taxon in this family is uncertain. [2]

Amphirosellinia Annulohypoxylon Anthostomella Appendixia Areolospora ? Ascotricha Ascovirgaria Astrocystis Barrmaelia Biscogniauxia Calceomyces Camillea Chaenocarpus Collodiscula Creosphaeria Cyanopulvis Daldinia Discoxylaria ? Emarcea Engleromyces Entoleuca Entonaema Euepixylon Fasciatispora Fassia Gigantospora Guestia Halorosellinia Helicogermslita Holttumia Hypocopra Hypoxylon Induratia Jumillera Kretzschmaria Kretzschmariella Leprieuria ? Leptomassaria Lopadostoma Muscodor Myconeesia Nemania Nipicola Obolarina Occultitheca Ophiorosellinia Pandanicola Paramphisphaeria ? Paucithecium Phylacia Pidoplitchkoviella Podosordaria Poroleprieuria Poronia Pyrenomyxa (=Pulveria) Rhopalostroma Rosellinia Sabalicola Sarcoxylon ? Sclerodermatopsis ? Seynesia Spirodecospora Stereosphaeria Stilbohypoxylon Striatodecospora Stromatoneurospora Thamnomyces Theissenia Thuemenella Vivantia Wawelia Whalleya Xylaria Xylocoremium Xylotumulus

A representative of the genus Hypoxylon Hypoxylon sp.jpg
A representative of the genus Hypoxylon

Related Research Articles

Flowering plant The clade of seed plants that produce flowers

The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae, or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within their seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion and sperma ("seed").

Poales Order of monocotyledonous flowering plants

The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges. Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales.

Rosales Order of flowering plants

Rosales is an order of flowering plants. It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales. It contains about 7,700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank. The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families.

Arecaceae Family of flowering plants known as palms

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial flowering plants in the monocot order Arecales. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs, tree-like and stemless plants, all commonly known as palms. Those having a tree-like form are called palm trees. Currently 181 genera with around 2,600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts.

Beech Genus of flowering plants in the family Fagaceae

Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America. Recent classifications recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, distinctive for their low branches, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. The European beech is the most commonly cultivated.

Ebenaceae Family of flowering plants

The Ebenaceae are a family of flowering plants belonging to order Ericales. The family includes ebony and persimmon among about 768 species of trees and shrubs. It is distributed across the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world. It is most diverse in the rainforests of Malesia, India, tropical Africa and tropical America.

Buxales Order of eudicot flowering plants

The Buxales are a small order of eudicot flowering plants, recognized by the APG IV system of 2016. The order includes the family Buxaceae; the families Didymelaceae and Haptanthaceae may also be recognized or may be included in the Buxaceae. Many members of the order are evergreen shrubs or trees, although some are herbaceous perennials. They have separate "male" (staminate) and "female" (carpellate) flowers, mostly on the same plant. Some species are of economic importance either for the wood they produce or as ornamental plants.

Sapindaceae Family of flowering plants

The Sapindaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales known as the soapberry family. It contains 138 genera and 1858 accepted species. Examples include horse chestnut, maples, ackee and lychee.

Saponins, also referred to selectively as triterpene glycosides, are bitter-tasting usually toxic plant-derived organic chemicals that have a foamy quality when agitated in water. They are widely distributed but found particularly in soapwort, a flowering plant, and the soapbark tree. They are used in soaps, medicinals, fire extinguishers, speciously as dietary supplements, for synthesis of steroids, and in carbonated beverages. Structurally, they are glycosides, sugars attached to another organic molecule, usually a steroid or triterpene, a steroid building block. Saponins are both water and fat soluble, which gives them their useful soap properties. Some examples of these chemicals are glycyrrhizin, licorice flavoring; quillaia(alt. quillaja), a bark extract used in beverages; and squalene, a vaccine adjuvant.

Theaceae

Theaceae, the tea family, is a family of flowering plants comprising shrubs and trees, including the economically important tea plant, and the ornamental camellias. It can be described as having from seven to 40 genera, depending on the source and the method of circumscription used. The family Ternstroemiaceae has been included within Theaceae; however, the APG III system of 2009 places it instead in Pentaphylacaceae. Most but not all species are native to China and East Asia.

Xylotheque

A xylotheque or xylothek is special form of herbarium that consists of a collection of authenticated wood specimens. It is also known as a xylarium. Traditionally, xylotheque specimens were in the form of book-shaped volumes, each made of a particular kind of wood and holding samples of the different parts of the corresponding plant. While the terms are often used interchangeably, some use xylotheque to refer to these older collections of wooden 'books' and xylarium for modern collections in which some or all of the specimens are in simpler shapes, such as blocks or plaques with information engraved on their surfaces. Many countries have at least one xylotheque with native flora, and some also house flora from other parts of the world. They are valuable to specialists in forestry, botany, conservation, forensics, art restoration, paleontology, archaeology, and other fields.

Oedemeridae

The family Oedemeridae is a cosmopolitan group of beetles commonly known as false blister beetles, though some recent authors have coined the name pollen-feeding beetles. There are some 100 genera and 1,500 species in the family, mostly associated with rotting wood as larvae, though adults are quite common on flowers. The family was erected by Pierre André Latreille in 1810.

<i>Xylaria</i>

Xylaria is a genus of ascomycetous fungi commonly found growing on dead wood. The name comes from the Greek xýlon meaning wood.

<i>Xylaria polymorpha</i>

Xylaria polymorpha, commonly known as dead man's fingers, is a saprobic fungus. It is a common inhabitant of forest and woodland areas, usually growing from the bases of rotting or injured tree stumps and decaying wood. It has also been known to colonize substrates like woody legume pods, petioles, and herbaceous stems. It is characterized by its elongated upright, clavate, or strap-like stromata poking up through the ground, much like fingers. The genus Xylaria contains about 100 species of cosmopolitan fungi. Polymorpha means "many forms". As its name suggests, it has a very variable but often club-shaped fruiting body (stroma) resembling burned wood.

<i>Biscogniauxia nummularia</i>

Biscogniauxia nummularia is a plant pathogen in the family Xylariaceae, known as the beech tarcrust. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin "nummus" meaning a coin, referring to the often rounded and coin-like encrustations.

Spalting

Spalting is any form of wood coloration caused by fungi. Although primarily found in dead trees, spalting can also occur in living trees under stress. Although spalting can cause weight loss and strength loss in the wood, the unique coloration and patterns of spalted wood are sought by woodworkers.

<i>Xylaria hypoxylon</i>

Xylaria hypoxylon is a species of fungus in the family Xylariaceae. It is known by a variety of common names, such as the candlestick fungus, the candlesnuff fungus, carbon antlers, or the stag's horn fungus. The fruit bodies, characterized by erect, elongated black branches with whitened tips, typically grow in clusters on decaying hardwood. The fungus can cause a root rot in hawthorn and gooseberry plants.

Curtis Gates Lloyd

Curtis Gates Lloyd was an American mycologist known for both his research on the gasteroid and polypore fungi, as well as his controversial views on naming conventions in taxonomy. He had a herbarium with about 60,000 fungal specimens, and described over a thousand new species of fungi. Along with his two brothers John Uri Lloyd and Nelson Ashley Lloyd, he founded the Lloyd Library and Museum in Cincinnati.

<i>Xylocoremium</i>

Xylocoremium is a fungal genus in the family Xylariaceae. The monotypic genus was circumscribed in 1984.

<i>Xylaria longipes</i>

Xylaria longipes, commonly known as dead moll's fingers, is a species of fungus in the family Xylariaceae.

References

  1. Tang AM, Jeewon R, Hyde KD (2009). "A re-evaluation of the evolutionary relationships within the Xylariaceae based on ribosomal and protein-coding gene sequences" (PDF). Fungal Diversity. 34: 127–55.
  2. "Myconet". Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-21.