|1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&Ms Cup|
|Teams||12 (from 6 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||6 (in 4 host cities)|
|Goals scored||99 (3.81 per match)|
|Attendance||510,000 (19,615 per match)|
|Fair play award|
The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.
The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991, when the inaugural tournament, then called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China. The tournament's current format, national teams vie for 23 slots in a three-year qualification phase. The host nation's team is automatically entered as the 24th slot. The tournament proper, alternatively called the World Cup Finals, is contested at venues within the host nation(s) over a period of about one month.
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Its capital and largest city is Guangzhou. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea.
It was won by the United States, people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium. Total attendance for the tournament was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway was defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe. The United States defeated Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000
The United States women's national soccer team (USWNT) represents the United States in international women's soccer. The team is the most successful in international women's soccer, winning four Women's World Cup titles, four Olympic gold medals, eight CONCACAF Gold Cups and the gold medal at the 1999 Pan American Games. It medaled in every World Cup and Olympic tournament in women's soccer history from 1991 to 2015, before being knocked out in the quarterfinal of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The team is governed by United States Soccer Federation and competes in CONCACAF.
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is often one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can heavily influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband.
April Dawn Heinrichs was among the first players on the United States women's national soccer team, and was captain of the United States team which won the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup in 1991. She finished her international playing career with 46 caps and 35 goals. Heinrich coached the USA women's team from 2000 to 2004, under her tenure team USA finished third in 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup, won silver medal at Sydney 2000, and gold medal at Athens 2004 Olympics. In 1998 she became the first female player inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. In January 2011, Heinrichs was appointed Technical Director for women's soccer by United States Soccer Federation.
The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams. For only the first edition of the Women's World Cup, all matches lasted only 80 minutes, instead of the typical 90, and two points were awarded for a win (both of which would change in 1995).
The 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup, the second edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in Sweden and won by Norway. The tournament featured 12 women's national teams from six continental confederations. The 12 teams were drawn into three groups of four and each group played a round-robin tournament. At the end of the group stage, the top two teams and two best third-ranked teams advanced to the knockout stage, beginning with the quarter-finals and culminating with the final at Råsunda Stadium on 18 June 1995.
|Yuexiu, Guangzhou||Tianhe, Guangzhou||Panyu, Guangzhou|
|Guangdong Provincial Stadium||Tianhe Stadium||Ying Tung Stadium|
|Capacity: 25,000||Capacity: 60,000||Capacity: 15,000|
|New Plaza Stadium||Jiangmen Stadium||Zhongshan Stadium|
|Capacity: 14,000||Capacity: 13,000||Capacity: 12,000|
Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament. Each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative.
The Confederation of African Football or CAF is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.
The Nigeria national women's football team, nicknamed the Super Falcons, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation.
The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia. It has 47 member countries, mostly located on the Asian and Australian continent, but excludes the transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe and Asia – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey – which are instead members of UEFA. Three other states located geographically along the western fringe of Asia – Cyprus, Armenia and Israel – are also UEFA members. On the other hand, Australia, formerly in the OFC, joined the Asian Football Confederation in 2006, and the Oceanian island of Guam, a territory of the United States, is also a member of AFC, in addition to Northern Mariana Islands, one of the Two Commonwealths of the United States. Hong Kong and Macau, although not independent countries, are also members of the AFC.
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.
The Denmark women's national football team represents Denmark in international women's football. The team is controlled by the Danish Football Association (DBU).
The Germany women's national football team is governed by the German Football Association (DFB).
For a list of the squads that contended for the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads .
Below are the rosters for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup tournament in China.
For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off; becoming the first woman to referee a match sanctioned by FIFA.
FIFA's technical report demonstrates that, after the tournament, players and officials were undecided whether to persist with 80 minute matches, or to change to 90 minutes in line with men's football. Opinion was also divided about the suitability of using a size five football. Some teams reported difficulty in sourcing good quality equipment in the correct size.
The tournament was considered a major success in the quality of play and attendances at the games. FIFA president João Havelange wrote that:
|“||As president of FIFA it was a special pleasure for me to watch these young ladies playing with such flair and such elegance, and according to the reports of the many media representatives present, making the game truly into a celebration ... women's football is now well and truly established.||”|
The perceived success of the tournament was a significant factor in the subsequent inclusion of women's football in the 1996 Summer Olympics.Sue Lopez reported that although attendances were very high, many tickets were complimentary. The "novelty factor" of women from foreign lands playing football also encouraged local people to attend.
Teams were awarded two points for a win, one point for a draw, and none for a defeat.
| China PR ||4–0|
| Ma |
| Denmark ||3–0|
| Jensen |
| Norway ||4–0|
| Campbell |
| China PR ||2–2|
| Sun W. |
|Report|| Kolding |
| China PR ||4–1|
| Zhou |
|Report|| Nye |
| Japan ||0–1|
|Report|| Elane |
| Sweden ||2–3|
| Videkull |
|Report|| Jennings |
| Japan ||0–8|
|Report|| Videkull |
| Brazil ||0–5|
|Report|| Heinrichs |
| Japan ||0–3|
|Report|| Akers-Stahl |
| Germany ||4–0|
| Neid |
| Chinese Taipei ||0–5|
|Report|| Ferraguzzi |
| Italy ||1–0|
| Morace ||Report|
| Chinese Taipei ||0–3|
|Report|| Wiegmann |
| Chinese Taipei ||2–0|
| Lin |
|24 November — Foshan|
|27 November — Guangzhou|
|24 November — Zhongshan|
|30 November — Guangzhou|
|24 November — Guangzhou|
|27 November — Panyu|
|24 November — Jiangmen|
|29 November — Guangzhou|
| Germany ||2–1 |
| Wiegmann |
|Report|| MacKensie |
| China PR ||0–1|
|Report|| Sundhage |
| Norway ||3–2 |
| Hegstad |
|Report|| Salmaso |
| Sweden ||1–4|
| Videkull ||Report|| Svensson |
The following awards were given for the tournament:
|Golden Ball||Silver Ball||Bronze Ball|
|Golden Shoe||Silver Shoe||Bronze Shoe|
|10 goals||7 goals||6 goals|
|FIFA Fair Play Award|
There were 99 goals scored in 26 matches, for an average of 3.81 goals per match. Michelle Akers-Stahl of the United States won the Golden Shoe award for scoring ten goals.
1 own goal
Source: FIFA Technical Report
Per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws.
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The 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup was the sixth FIFA Women's World Cup competition, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It was held from 26 June to 17 July 2011 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in October 2007. Japan won the final against the United States on a penalty shoot-out following a 2–2 draw after extra time and became the first Asian team to win a senior FIFA World Cup.
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The 2006 FIFA World Cup qualification AFC Second Stage Group 4 was an AFC qualifying group for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The group was composed of China PR, Hong Kong, Kuwait and Malaysia.
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The TOSHIBA 2012 Chinese FA Cup was the 14th edition of the Chinese FA Cup. The first round matches began on 26 May 2012, and the finals took place on 10 November and 18 November 2012.
The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 30 November 1991 at Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou, China. It was played between Norway and the United States to determine the winner of the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. The United States beat Norway 2–1, with two goals from Michelle Akers-Stahl, to become winners of the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup.
The 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament, or International Women's Football Tournament, was organised by FIFA in China from 1 to 12 June 1988. The competition was a test to study if a global women's World Cup was feasible following the experience of non-FIFA invitational competitions such as the Mundialito (1984–88) and the Women's World Invitational Tournament (1978–87). The competition was a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup for 1991, which would also be held in China.
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Some of the terms and conditions had been changed this time: 90 minutes of play instead of 80 in China, a full group of 20 players instead of 18, three points for a win, and the experiment with time out.
In keeping with the true spirit of the celebration, six female referees or assistant referees were appointed among match officials for the first time in FIFA history. Claudia de Vasconcelos of Brazil, the referee for the 3rd-place match, became the first woman to officiate at this level for FIFA.