1991 FIFA Women's World Cup

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1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&Ms Cup
1991
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup.jpg
Official logo
Tournament details
Host countryChina
Dates16–30 November
Teams12 (from 6 confederations)
Venue(s)6 (in 4 host cities)
Final positions
ChampionsFlag of the United States.svg  United States (1st title)
Runners-upFlag of Norway.svg  Norway
Third placeFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Fourth placeFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
Tournament statistics
Matches played26
Goals scored99 (3.81 per match)
Attendance510,000 (19,615 per match)
Top scorer(s) Flag of the United States.svg Michelle Akers-Stahl
(10 goals)
Best player(s) Flag of the United States.svg Carin Jennings
1995

The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. [1] [2] It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup. [3]

FIFA Womens World Cup international association football competition

The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991, when the inaugural tournament, then called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China.

Guangdong Most populous province of the Peoples Republic of China

Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.

Prototype early sample or model built to test a concept or process

A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea.

Contents

It was won by the United States, [4] whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe. [5] The United States beat Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000 people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium. [6] Total attendance was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway had been defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.

United States womens national soccer team womens national association football team representing the United States

The United States Women's National Soccer Team (USWNT) represents the United States in international women's soccer. The team is the most successful in international women's soccer, winning three Women's World Cup titles, four Olympic women's gold medals, eight CONCACAF Gold Cup wins, and ten Algarve Cups. It medaled in every single World Cup and Olympic tournament in women's soccer history from 1991 to 2015, before being knocked out in the quarterfinal of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The team is governed by United States Soccer Federation and competes in CONCACAF.

Captain (association football) team captain of an association football team

The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is often one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can heavily influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband.

April Heinrichs association football player

April Dawn Heinrichs was among the first players on the United States women's national soccer team, and was captain of the United States team which won the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup in 1991. She finished her international playing career with 46 caps and 35 goals. Heinrich coached the USA women's team from 2000 to 2004, under her tenure team USA finished third in 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup, won silver medal at Sydney 2000, and gold medal at Athens 2004 Olympics. In 1998 she became the first female player inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. In January 2011, Heinrichs was appointed Technical Director for women's soccer by United States Soccer Federation.

The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams.

Venues

Yuexiu, Guangzhou Tianhe, Guangzhou Panyu, Guangzhou
Guangdong Provincial Stadium Tianhe Stadium Ying Tung Stadium
Capacity: 25,000Capacity: 60,000Capacity: 15,000
Guangdong Provincial People's Stadium.jpg Tianhe Stadium.jpg
Foshan Jiangmen Zhongshan
New Plaza Stadium Jiangmen Stadium Zhongshan Stadium
Capacity: 14,000Capacity: 13,000Capacity: 12,000
Zhongshan Sports Center Stadium -02.jpg

Teams

Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament. Each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative.

Confederation of African Football governing body of association football in Africa

The Confederation of African Football or CAF is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.

Nigeria womens national football team womens national association football team representing Nigeria

The Nigeria national women's football team, nicknamed the Super Falcons, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation. They won the first seven African championships and through their first twenty years lost only five games to African competition: December 12, 2002 to Ghana in Warri, June 3, 2007 at Algeria, August 12, 2007 to Ghana in an Olympic qualifier, November 25, 2008 at Equatorial Guinea in the semis of the 2008 Women's African Football Championship and May 2011 at Ghana in an All Africa Games qualification match.

Asian Football Confederation governing body of association football in Asia

The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia. It has 47 member countries, mostly located on the Asian and Australian continent, but excludes the transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe and Asia – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey – which are instead members of UEFA. Three other states located geographically along the western fringe of Asia – Cyprus, Armenia and Israel – are also UEFA members. On the other hand, Australia, formerly in the OFC, joined the Asian Football Confederation in 2006, and the Oceanian island of Guam, a territory of the United States, is also a member of AFC, in addition to Northern Mariana Islands, one of the Two Commonwealths of the United States. Hong Kong and Macau, although not independent countries, are also members of the AFC.

UEFA international sport governing body

The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.

Denmark womens national football team womens national association football team representing Denmark

The Denmark women's national football team represents Denmark in international women's football. The team is controlled by the Danish Football Association (DBU).

Germany womens national football team womens national association football team representing Germany

The Germany women's national football team is governed by the German Football Association (DFB).

Squads

For a list of the squads that disputed the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads .

Below are the rosters for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup tournament in China.

Match officials

For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off; becoming the first woman to referee a match sanctioned by FIFA. [7] [8]

Assistant referee (association football) official in association football

In association football, an assistant referee is an official empowered with assisting the referee in enforcing the Laws of the Game during a match. Although assistants are not required under the Laws, at most organised levels of football the match officiating crew consists of the referee and at least two assistant referees. The responsibilities of the various assistant referees are listed in Law 6, "The Other Match Officials". In the current Laws the term "assistant referee" technically refers only to the two officials who generally patrol the touchlines, with the wider range of assistants to the referee given other titles.

Cláudia Vasconcelos Guedes is a Brazilian former football referee. At the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup she became the first woman to referee a match in FIFA competition.

Tournament review

FIFA's technical report demonstrates that, after the tournament, players and officials were undecided whether to persist with 80 minute matches, or to change to 90 minutes in line with men's football. Opinion was also divided about the suitability of using a size five football. Some teams reported difficulty in sourcing good quality equipment in the correct size. [9]

The tournament was considered a major success in the quality of play and attendances at the games. FIFA president João Havelange wrote that: [10]

The perceived success of the tournament was a significant factor in the subsequent inclusion of women's football in the 1996 Summer Olympics. [11] Sue Lopez reported that although attendances were very high, many tickets were complimentary. The "novelty factor" of women from foreign lands playing football also encouraged local people to attend. [12]

Group stage

Countries and result FIFA Womens World Cup 1991.png
Countries and result

Group A

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPts
1Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PR (H)321010375
2Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 32016514
3Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 31116423
4Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 3003111−100

(H): Host.

China PR  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg4–0Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Ma Soccerball shade.svg 22'
Liu Soccerball shade.svg 45', 50'
Sun Q. Soccerball shade.svg 75'
(Report)
Attendance: 65,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)
Denmark  Flag of Denmark.svg3–0Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Jensen Soccerball shade.svg 15', 40'
MacKensie Soccerball shade.svg 42'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Omer Yengo (Congo)
Norway  Flag of Norway.svg4–0Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Campbell Soccerball shade.svg 30' (o.g.)
Medalen Soccerball shade.svg 32', 38'
Riise Soccerball shade.svg 49'
(Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)
China PR  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg2–2Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Sun W. Soccerball shade.svg 37'
Wei Soccerball shade.svg 76'
(Report) Kolding Soccerball shade.svg 24'
Nissen Soccerball shade.svg 55'
Attendance: 27,000
Referee: Vassilios Nikkakis (Greece)
China PR  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg4–1Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Zhou Soccerball shade.svg 20'
Liu Soccerball shade.svg 22', 60'
Wu Soccerball shade.svg 24'
(Report) Nye Soccerball shade.svg 65'
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Gyanu Raja Shresta (Nepal)
Norway  Flag of Norway.svg2–1Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Svensson Soccerball shade.svg 14' (pen.)
Medalen Soccerball shade.svg 56'
(Report) Thychosen Soccerball shade.svg 54' (pen.)
Attendance: 15,500

Group B

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPts
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 330011296
2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 320112394
3Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 310217−62
4Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 3003012−120
Japan  Flag of Japan.svg0–1Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
(Report) Elane Soccerball shade.svg 4'
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Lu Jun (China)
Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg2–3Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Videkull Soccerball shade.svg 65'
I. Johansson Soccerball shade.svg 71'
(Report) Jennings Soccerball shade.svg 40', 49'
Hamm Soccerball shade.svg 62'
Attendance: 14,000
Japan  Flag of Japan.svg0–8Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
(Report) Videkull Soccerball shade.svg 1', 11'
Andelen Soccerball shade.svg 15', 60'
Lundgren Soccerball shade.svg 25'
Nilsson Soccerball shade.svg 27'
Sundhage Soccerball shade.svg 35'
Yamaguchi Soccerball shade.svg 70' (o.g.)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Gyanu Raja Shresta (Nepal)
Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg0–5Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(Report) Heinrichs Soccerball shade.svg 23', 35'
Jennings Soccerball shade.svg 38'
Akers-Stahl Soccerball shade.svg 39'
Hamm Soccerball shade.svg 63'
Attendance: 15,500
Japan  Flag of Japan.svg0–3Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(Report) Akers-Stahl Soccerball shade.svg 20', 37'
Gebauer Soccerball shade.svg 39'
Attendance: 14,000
Brazil  Flag of Brazil.svg0–2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
(Report) Sundhage Soccerball shade.svg 42' (pen.)
Hedberg Soccerball shade.svg 56'
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Lu Jun (China)

Group C

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPts
1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 33009096
2Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 32016244
3 Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg Chinese Taipei 310228−62
4Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 300307−70
Germany  Flag of Germany.svg4–0Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Neid Soccerball shade.svg 16'
Mohr Soccerball shade.svg 32', 34'
Gottschlich Soccerball shade.svg 57'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)
Chinese Taipei Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg 0–5Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
(Report) Ferraguzzi Soccerball shade.svg 15'
Marsiletti Soccerball shade.svg 29'
Morace Soccerball shade.svg 37', 52', 66'
Attendance: 11,000
Referee: Fethi Boucetta (Tunisia)
Italy  Flag of Italy.svg1–0Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Morace Soccerball shade.svg 68' (Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Chinese Taipei Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg 0–3Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
(Report) Wiegmann Soccerball shade.svg 10' (pen.)
Mohr Soccerball shade.svg 21', 50'
Attendance: 10,000
Referee: Fethi Boucetta (Tunisia)
Chinese Taipei Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg 2–0Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Lin Soccerball shade.svg 38'
Chou Soccerball shade.svg 55'
(Report)
Attendance: 14,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)
Italy  Flag of Italy.svg0–2Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
(Report) Mohr Soccerball shade.svg 67'
Unsleber Soccerball shade.svg 79'
Attendance: 12,000

Ranking of third-placed teams

PosTeamPldWDLGFGAGDPts
1Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 31116423
2 Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg Chinese Taipei 310228−62
3Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 310217−62

Knockout stage

Bracket

 
Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
          
 
24 November — Foshan
 
 
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7
 
27 November — Guangzhou
 
Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg Chinese Taipei 0
 
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 5
 
24 November — Zhongshan
 
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 2
 
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 2
 
30 November — Guangzhou
 
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1
 
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2
 
24 November — Guangzhou
 
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1
 
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China PR 0
 
27 November — Panyu
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1
 
24 November — Jiangmen
 
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 4Third place
 
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 3
 
29 November — Guangzhou
 
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 2
 
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 4
 
 
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 0
 

Quarter-finals

Germany  Flag of Germany.svg2–1
(a.e.t.)
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Wiegmann Soccerball shade.svg 17' (pen.)
Mohr Soccerball shade.svg 98'
(Report) MacKensie Soccerball shade.svg 25' (pen.)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Vassilios Nikkakis (Greece)

China PR  Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg0–1Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
(Report) Sundhage Soccerball shade.svg 3'
Attendance: 55,000

Norway  Flag of Norway.svg3–2
(a.e.t.)
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Hegstad Soccerball shade.svg 22'
Carlsen Soccerball shade.svg 67'
Svensson Soccerball shade.svg 96' (pen.)
(Report) Salmaso Soccerball shade.svg 31'
Guarino Soccerball shade.svg 80'
Attendance: 13,000
Referee: Rafael Medina (El Salvador)

United States  Flag of the United States.svg7–0 Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg Chinese Taipei
Akers-Stahl Soccerball shade.svg 8', 29', 33', 44' (pen.), 48'
Foudy Soccerball shade.svg 38'
Biefield Soccerball shade.svg 79'
(Report)
Attendance: 12,000
Referee: Omer Yengo (Congo)

Semi-finals

Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg1–4Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Videkull Soccerball shade.svg 6' (Report) Svensson Soccerball shade.svg 39' (pen.)
Medalen Soccerball shade.svg 41', 77'
Carlsen Soccerball shade.svg 67'
Attendance: 16,000

United States  Flag of the United States.svg5–2Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Jennings Soccerball shade.svg 10', 22', 33'
Heinrichs Soccerball shade.svg 54', 75'
(Report) Mohr Soccerball shade.svg 34'
Wiegmann Soccerball shade.svg 63'
Attendance: 15,000
Referee: Salvador Marcone (Chile)

Third place play-off

Sweden  Flag of Sweden.svg4–0Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Andelen Soccerball shade.svg 7'
Sundhage Soccerball shade.svg 11'
Videkull Soccerball shade.svg 29'
Nilsson Soccerball shade.svg 43'
(Report)
Attendance: 20,000
Referee: Claudia Vasconcelos (Brazil)

Final

United States  Flag of the United States.svg2–1Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Akers-Stahl Soccerball shade.svg 20', 78' (Report) Medalen Soccerball shade.svg 29'
Attendance: 63,000

Awards

The following awards were given for the tournament: [13]

Golden BallSilver BallBronze Ball
Flag of the United States.svg Carin Jennings Flag of the United States.svg Michelle Akers Flag of Norway.svg Linda Medalen
Golden ShoeSilver ShoeBronze Shoe
Flag of the United States.svg Michelle Akers Flag of Germany.svg Heidi Mohr Flag of Norway.svg Linda Medalen
Flag of the United States.svg Carin Jennings
10 goals7 goals6 goals
FIFA Fair Play Award
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany

Goal scorers

Michelle Akers-Stahl of the United States won the Golden Shoe award for scoring ten goals. In total, 99 goals were scored from 45 different players with two of them credited as own goals.[ citation needed ]

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References

  1. "Raising Their Game: An introduction". YouTube. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  2. "Raising Their Game: Passing the test". YouTube. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  3. Mattei, Al. "WUSA opening a feast for the eyes – and ears". TopOfTheCircle.com. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  4. Ciapala, Derek (18 June 2012). "History of the FIFA Women's World Cup, 1991–present – World Soccer – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  5. "CNN/SI – Women's World Cup – Women's World Cup History – Thursday February 11, 1999 06:04 PM". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  6. "Raising Their Game: Blazing the way in 1991". YouTube. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  7. Lopez 1997 , p. 195
  8. "FIFA Women's World Cup – China PR 1991". FIFA. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. In keeping with the true spirit of the celebration, six female referees or assistant referees were appointed among match officials for the first time in FIFA history. Claudia de Vasconcelos of Brazil, the referee for the 3rd-place match, became the first woman to officiate at this level for FIFA.
  9. "FIFA Women's World Cup China '91 – Technical Report & Statistics" (PDF). FIFA . Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  10. Lopez 1997 , p. 173
  11. Lopez 1997 , p. 175
  12. Lopez 1997 , p. 207
  13. Awards 1991

Bibliography

  • Lisi, Clemente Angelo (2010). The U.S. Women's Soccer Team: An American Success Story. Plymouth, England: Scarecrow Press. ISBN   0810874156.
  • Lopez, Sue (1997). Women on the Ball: A Guide to Women's Football. London, England: Scarlet Press. ISBN   1857270169.