|1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&Ms Cup|
|Teams||12 (from 6 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||6 (in 4 host cities)|
|Goals scored||99 (3.81 per match)|
|Attendance||510,000 (19,615 per match)|
The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams.It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.
The FIFA Women's World Cup is an international football competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's international governing body. The competition has been held every four years since 1991, when the inaugural tournament, then called the FIFA Women's World Championship, was held in China.
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and software programming. A prototype is generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea.
It was won by the United States, people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium. Total attendance was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway had been defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe. The United States beat Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000
The United States Women's National Soccer Team (USWNT) represents the United States in international women's soccer. The team is the most successful in international women's soccer, winning three Women's World Cup titles, four Olympic women's gold medals, eight CONCACAF Gold Cup wins, and ten Algarve Cups. It medaled in every single World Cup and Olympic tournament in women's soccer history from 1991 to 2015, before being knocked out in the quarterfinal of the 2016 Summer Olympics. The team is governed by United States Soccer Federation and competes in CONCACAF.
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is often one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can heavily influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband.
April Dawn Heinrichs was among the first players on the United States women's national soccer team, and was captain of the United States team which won the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup in 1991. She finished her international playing career with 46 caps and 35 goals. Heinrich coached the USA women's team from 2000 to 2004, under her tenure team USA finished third in 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup, won silver medal at Sydney 2000, and gold medal at Athens 2004 Olympics. In 1998 she became the first female player inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. In January 2011, Heinrichs was appointed Technical Director for women's soccer by United States Soccer Federation.
The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams.
|Yuexiu, Guangzhou||Tianhe, Guangzhou||Panyu, Guangzhou|
|Guangdong Provincial Stadium||Tianhe Stadium||Ying Tung Stadium|
|Capacity: 25,000||Capacity: 60,000||Capacity: 15,000|
|New Plaza Stadium||Jiangmen Stadium||Zhongshan Stadium|
|Capacity: 14,000||Capacity: 13,000||Capacity: 12,000|
Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament. Each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative.
The Confederation of African Football or CAF is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.
The Nigeria national women's football team, nicknamed the Super Falcons, is the national team of Nigeria and is controlled by the Nigeria Football Federation. They won the first seven African championships and through their first twenty years lost only five games to African competition: December 12, 2002 to Ghana in Warri, June 3, 2007 at Algeria, August 12, 2007 to Ghana in an Olympic qualifier, November 25, 2008 at Equatorial Guinea in the semis of the 2008 Women's African Football Championship and May 2011 at Ghana in an All Africa Games qualification match.
The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia. It has 47 member countries, mostly located on the Asian and Australian continent, but excludes the transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe and Asia – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey – which are instead members of UEFA. Three other states located geographically along the western fringe of Asia – Cyprus, Armenia and Israel – are also UEFA members. On the other hand, Australia, formerly in the OFC, joined the Asian Football Confederation in 2006, and the Oceanian island of Guam, a territory of the United States, is also a member of AFC, in addition to Northern Mariana Islands, one of the Two Commonwealths of the United States. Hong Kong and Macau, although not independent countries, are also members of the AFC.
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members.
The Denmark women's national football team represents Denmark in international women's football. The team is controlled by the Danish Football Association (DBU).
The Germany women's national football team is governed by the German Football Association (DFB).
For a list of the squads that disputed the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads .
Below are the rosters for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup tournament in China.
For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off; becoming the first woman to referee a match sanctioned by FIFA.
In association football, an assistant referee is an official empowered with assisting the referee in enforcing the Laws of the Game during a match. Although assistants are not required under the Laws, at most organised levels of football the match officiating crew consists of the referee and at least two assistant referees. The responsibilities of the various assistant referees are listed in Law 6, "The Other Match Officials". In the current Laws the term "assistant referee" technically refers only to the two officials who generally patrol the touchlines, with the wider range of assistants to the referee given other titles.
Cláudia Vasconcelos Guedes is a Brazilian former football referee. At the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup she became the first woman to referee a match in FIFA competition.
FIFA's technical report demonstrates that, after the tournament, players and officials were undecided whether to persist with 80 minute matches, or to change to 90 minutes in line with men's football. Opinion was also divided about the suitability of using a size five football. Some teams reported difficulty in sourcing good quality equipment in the correct size.
The tournament was considered a major success in the quality of play and attendances at the games. FIFA president João Havelange wrote that:
|“||"As president of FIFA it was a special pleasure for me to watch these young ladies playing with such flair and such elegance, and according to the reports of the many media representatives present, making the game truly into a celebration ... women's football is now well and truly established."||”|
The perceived success of the tournament was a significant factor in the subsequent inclusion of women's football in the 1996 Summer Olympics. Sue Lopez reported that although attendances were very high, many tickets were complimentary. The "novelty factor" of women from foreign lands playing football also encouraged local people to attend.
| China PR ||4–0|
| Ma |
| Denmark ||3–0|
| Jensen |
| Norway ||4–0|
| Campbell |
| China PR ||2–2|
| Sun W. |
|(Report)|| Kolding |
| China PR ||4–1|
| Zhou |
|(Report)|| Nye |
| Japan ||0–1|
|(Report)|| Elane |
| Sweden ||2–3|
| Videkull |
|(Report)|| Jennings |
| Japan ||0–8|
|(Report)|| Videkull |
| Brazil ||0–5|
|(Report)|| Heinrichs |
| Japan ||0–3|
|(Report)|| Akers-Stahl |
| Germany ||4–0|
| Neid |
| Chinese Taipei ||0–5|
|(Report)|| Ferraguzzi |
| Italy ||1–0|
| Morace ||(Report)|
| Chinese Taipei ||0–3|
|(Report)|| Wiegmann |
| Chinese Taipei ||2–0|
| Lin |
|24 November — Foshan|
|27 November — Guangzhou|
|24 November — Zhongshan|
|30 November — Guangzhou|
|24 November — Guangzhou|
|27 November — Panyu|
|24 November — Jiangmen|
|29 November — Guangzhou|
| Germany ||2–1 |
| Wiegmann |
|(Report)|| MacKensie |
| China PR ||0–1|
|(Report)|| Sundhage |
| Norway ||3–2 |
| Hegstad |
|(Report)|| Salmaso |
| Sweden ||1–4|
| Videkull ||(Report)|| Svensson |
|Golden Ball||Silver Ball||Bronze Ball|
|Golden Shoe||Silver Shoe||Bronze Shoe|
|10 goals||7 goals||6 goals|
|FIFA Fair Play Award|
Michelle Akers-Stahl of the United States won the Golden Shoe award for scoring ten goals. In total, 99 goals were scored from 45 different players with two of them credited as own goals.[ citation needed ]
|Goalscorers sorted by number of goals (high-low) and team (alphabetically)|
The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered an emerging megacity. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, while the Chinese government's development plans consider it part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.
The 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, the third edition of the FIFA Women's World Cup, was held in the United States and won by the host team. The final between the U.S. and China, held on 10 July at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, was the most-attended women's sports event in history with an official attendance of 90,185. U.S. President Bill Clinton was among those in attendance. The final was scoreless after extra time and won by the U.S. in a penalty shootout. This remains the only Women's World Cup tournament in which the host nation has won.
Chu Kong Passenger Transport is a subsidiary of Chu Kong Shipping Enterprises (CKS) and operates ferry services between Hong Kong and cities in Guangdong province, China, as well as Macau.
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Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848.49 km2 (1,485.91 sq mi) and has an urban population around 7.2 million in 2012. It forms part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou to the east and northeast and Shenzhen to the southeast.
The 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup was the sixteenth edition of the FIFA U-20 World Cup, hosted by Canada from 30 June to 22 July 2007. Argentina defeated Czech Republic in the title game by the score of 2–1, thus managing a back-to-back world title, its fifth in the past seven editions, and sixth overall. Argentine player Sergio Agüero was given the FIFA U-20 Golden Shoe and the FIFA U-20 Golden Ball, while Japan earned the FIFA Fair Play Award.
Zhongshan Sports Center Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Zhongshan, Guangdong, China. It is currently used mostly for association football matches and was one of the six stadiums used for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. The stadium has a capacity of 12,000 people. The stadium are all-seaters with multi-colour seats. It also has an all-weather track and field surface.
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The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 30 November 1991 at Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou, China. It was played between Norway and the United States to determine the winner of the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. The United States beat Norway 2–1, with two goals from Michelle Akers-Stahl, to become winners of the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup.
The 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament, or International Women's Football Tournament, was an invitational international women's football tournament organized by FIFA in China from 1 to 12 June 1988. The competition was a test to study if a global women's World Cup was feasible following the experience of non-FIFA invitational competitions such as the Mundialito (1984–88) and the Women's World Invitational Tournament (1978–87). The competition was a success and on 30 June FIFA approved the establishment of an official World Cup for 1991, which would also be held in China.
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In keeping with the true spirit of the celebration, six female referees or assistant referees were appointed among match officials for the first time in FIFA history. Claudia de Vasconcelos of Brazil, the referee for the 3rd-place match, became the first woman to officiate at this level for FIFA.