Bombing of Bremen in World War II

Last updated
Bombing of Bremen
Part of Strategic bombing during World War II
U-Boat Pen Grand Slammed.jpg
U-bootbunker Valentin, a U-boat shelter built on the River Weser, after RAF bombing March 1945.
Western Allies (USAAF, RAF) Germany

The Bombing of Bremen in World War II by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and US Eighth Air Force involved both indiscriminate "area bombing" and, as capacity improved, more targeted raids upon the city's military-industrial facilities. These included, the shipyards of Vulkan, AG Weser and Atlas Werke, the Valentin submarine pens, oil refineries and the aircraft works of Focke-Wolf.


Early RAF raids on Bremen beginning in May 1940 had sought out these industrial and military targets. But the efforts proved costly and, given limited navigation and target-location capabilities, impractical. [1]

From September 1941 the RAF switched to night-time "area bombing". In the spring of 1942 new directives from Bomber Command under Air Marshall Arthur Harris formalised the change of strategy. Purporting to draw lessons from the German Blitz on Britain, Bomber Command concluded that rather than being "collateral damage", the destruction of residential districts and the killing of civilians served the legitimate purpose of weakening enemy morale. [2] [3]

To demonstrate the effectiveness of area bombing, Bomber Command sought to overwhelm city defences with "1,000 bomber" raids. [1] The first of these mounted against Bremen was on 25 June 1942. Six hundred houses were destroyed but civil defence measures kept civilian casualties to 88. Flak and Luftwaffe fighters were able to shoot down 49 RAF bombers. Subsequent attacks were carried out by fewer but improved aircraft, and as Bremen's air-defence depleted (fighter aircraft were redeployed to the eastern front), these caused significantly more damage. [4]

At the beginning of 1943, the day-time targeting of industrial and military facilities returned with the arrival over Bremen of the 8th US Air Force. In the first year, the "Mighty Eighth" suffered considerable losses. [5] The German authorities began to evacuate industrial facilities from the city as a precaution.

From 8 October 1943, the British began a new wave of heavy night attacks. The heaviest air raid of the entire war hit the city on the night of August 18-19, 1944. In just 34 minutes 274 aircraft dropped 1,120 tons of bombs over the densely built-up west of the city killing 1,059 people, destroying 8,248 residential buildings, and leaving 50,000 homeless. [6] [4]

The last Allied air raid hit Bremen on April 22nd, 1945. Advancing behind a ground barrage, the British 3rd Infantry Division under General Lashmer Whistler entered the city in late April 1945. [7] [8]

In just over five years, the Allies carried out a total of 173 air raids on Bremen, dropping 5,513 tons of explosive devices, killing more than 4,000 residents. In addition to the city center, almost 65,000 houses and apartments were destroyed, corresponding to around 62 percent of the city's residential accommodation. The west of Bremen with the districts of Walle and Gröpelingen was particularly hard hit. [9] [10]

Targets in Bremen during World War II

In June 1942, Bremen was the target for the RAF's third "thousand bomber raid". [12]

Timeline of bombing raids

Bombing of Bremen during World War II
DateAir forceNotes
17-18 May 1940 RAF RAF roundel.svg 24 Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bombers attacked Bremen oil installations.
21-22 December 1940RAF No. 15 Squadron RAF used converted Vickers Wellingtons for the first time to bomb the dockyards at Bremen [13]
1-2, 2–3, 3–4 January 1941RAF141 aircraft bombed the aircraft factory in the south of the city. Smaller Bremen attacks are made on the following two nights. [14]
12-13 March 1941RAF Heavy bombing raids were conducted on Hamburg, Bremen and Berlin
4 July 1941RAF12 Bristol Blenheim bombed an aircraft factory and a minesweeper. [15]
17-18 January 1942RAF8 of 83 dispatched aircraft bombed the primary target at Bremen. Some of the aircraft attacking alternative targets reached Hamburg, which reports 11 fires and casualties of 5 dead and 12 injured. 3 Wellingtons were lost and one Short Stirling crashed England after being fired at and damaged by a British convoy.
21-22 January 1942RAFDuring the Bremen raid, Wing Commander Ken Wallis experimented with marker flares later used by Pathfinder Forces (PFF). [16]
8-9 April 1942RAFFollowing a Hamburg raid, Bremen reports a load of incendiaries dropped very accurately on the Bremer Vulkan shipyard where 4 U-boats and several surrounding buildings were damaged by fire.
3-4 June 1942RAF170 aircraft attacked on the first large raid to Bremen since October 1941. 11 aircraft - 4 Wellingtons, 2 Handley Page Halifaxes, 2 Avro Lancasters, 2 Stirlings, 1 Avro Manchester - lost. Bremen recorded this as a heavy attack, the results of which exceeded all previous raids. Housing areas were heavily hit with 6 streets affected by serious fires. Damage to the U-boat construction yards (Valentin submarine pens) and the Focke-Wulf factory is described as 'of no importance' but there were hits in the harbour area which damaged a pier, some warehouses and the destroyer Z25.[ clarification needed ] 83 people dead, 29 seriously and 229 slightly injured (Bremen's third heaviest casualty toll in the war).
25-26 June 1942RAFUsing every available aircraft in RAF Bomber Command and some of other commands, a thousand-bomber raid was mounted against Bremen. 1,067 aircraft (472 Wellingtons, 124 Halifaxes, 96 Lancasters, 69 Stirlings, 51 Blenheims, 50 Handley Page Hampdens, 50 Whitleys, 24 Douglas Bostons, 20 Manchesters and de Havilland Mosquitos), 102 Lockheed Hudsons and Wellingtons of RAF Coastal Command, and 5 RAF Army Cooperation Command. Those of No. 5 Group RAF - 142 aircraft bombed the Focke-Wulf factory; 20 Blenheims were allocated to the AG Weser shipyard; the RAF Coastal Command aircraft were to bomb the DeSchiMAG shipyard; all other aircraft were to carry out an area attack on the "town and docks". The limited success was entirely due to the use of GEE, which enabled the leading crews to start marker fires through the cloud cover. 696 Bomber Command aircraft were able to claim attacks on Bremen.
572 houses were completely destroyed and 6,108 damaged. 85 people were killed, 497 injured and 2,378 bombed out. At the Focke-Wulf factory, an assembly shop was completely flattened, 6 buildings were seriously damaged and 11 buildings lightly so. The Atlas Werke, the Bremer Vulkan shipyard, the Norddeutsche Hütte, the Korff refinery, and two large dockside warehouses were also damaged. 48 Bomber Command aircraft were lost (a new record[ clarification needed ] 5% of those dispatched), including 4 which came down in the sea near England from which all but 2 crew members were rescued. This time, the heaviest casualties were suffered by the OTUs of No. 91 Group RAF, which lost 23 of the 198 Whitleys and Wellingtons provided by that group, a loss of 11.6 per cent. 5 of the 102 Coastal Command aircraft were also lost.
29-30 June 1942RAF144 aircraft - 55 Wellingtons, 39 Halifaxes, 26 Stirlings, 24 Lancasters. 9 aircraft - 4 Wellingtons, 2 Halifaxes, 2 Lancasters, 1 Stirling - lost. 119 aircraft bombed blindly through cloud after obtaining GEE fixes. Bremen records that two of the large firms hit in the recent Thousand raid - the Atlas Werke and the Korff refinery - were damaged again, as well as several smaller firms and dockside warehouses. A hospital and an unrecorded number of houses were also hit. Seven people were killed and eighty injured.
19 November 1942Bremen was added to the USAAF target list. [17]
17 April 1943 VIII Eighth Air Force - Emblem.png Mission Number 52: [18] 115 B-17s were dispatched on the Eighth Air Force's largest mission to that date. 63-15-17 Luftwaffe aircraft claimed; 15 B-17s downed by fighters, 1 by flak, 39 damaged; 2 killed in action, 4 wounded in action and 159 missing in action. Bombs destroyed at least half of the Focke-Wulf factory buildings. [19] German losses in combat were three fighters from (two from JG 1 and one from JG 11). [20]
8 October 1943VIIIThe 381st Bombardment Group was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for its performance for bombing the Bremen shipyards accurately in spite of persistent Luftwaffe fighter attacks and extremely heavy and accurate flak. [21] [22] One B-17 had two bombs that failed to release and received a flak hit which caused them to explode (8 KIA, 2 POW). [23] 30 bombers were lost. [5] :280
13 November 1943VIIIMission 130: 79 of 159 B-17's, 61 of 109 B-24's and 3 of 4 B-17 PFF aircraft hit the port area at Bremen and targets of opportunity in the Kiel-Flensburg area at 1120–1145 hours; 100+ aircraft abort the mission due to weather; they claim 20-14-13 Luftwaffe aircraft; 3 B-17s and 13 B-24s are lost; 3 B-17s a
26 November 1943VIIIMission 138: 350 of 390 B-17s, 77 of 101 B-24s and 13 of 14 B-17 PFF aircraft attack the port area of Bremen at 1145–1228 hours; they claim 16-3-10 Luftwaffe aircraft; 22 B-17s and 3 B-24s are lost; 3 B-17s and 1 B-24 are damaged beyond repair and 139 B-17s, 19 B-24s and 7 PFF B-17s are damaged; casualties are 10 KIA, 35 WIA and 215 MIA.
29 November 1943VIIIMission 140: 154 of 360 B-17's hit the port of Bremen and targets of opportunity in the area at 1429–1450 hours; unfavorable cloud conditions and malfunction of blindbombing equipment cause 200+ B-17's to abort; they claim 15-11-10 Luftwaffe aircraft; 13 B-17's are lost, 3 damaged beyond repair and 43 damaged; casualties are 2 KIA, 13 WIA and 131 MIA. The B-17's are escorted by 38 P-38's and 314 P-47's; they claim 15-4-6 Luftwaffe aircraft; 7 P-38's and 9 P-47's are lost; 1 P-47 is damage beyond repair and another damaged; casualties are 1 WIA and 16 MIA.
18 June 1944VIIIMission 421: 18 B-17 Flying Fortresses hit Bremen-Oslebshausen railway station; 107 Consolidated B-24 Liberators bomb Bremerhaven
24 June 1944VIIIMission 438: Of 340 B-17s, 213 hit oil industry targets in Bremen, 53 hit an aircraft factory at Wesermünde and 40 attack Bremen; 1 B-17 is lost and 105 damaged; 2 airmen are WIA and 9 MIA. Escort is provided by 6 fighter groups (185 P-38s and 85 P-47s); 1 group strafes an airfield and rail transport in the Munster and Hamm areas and claims 2-0-0 Luftwaffe aircraft on the ground; no losses.
29-30 June 1944RAF253 aircraft - 108 Wellingtons, 64 Lancasters, 47 Stirlings, 34 Halifaxes - dispatched, the first time that 4-engined bombers provided more than half of the force on a major raid. 11 aircraft - 4 Stirlings, 4 Wellingtons, 3 Halifaxes - were lost. Bremen reported that 48 houses were destroyed and 934 damaged, mostly lightly. Extensive damage occurred in 5 important war industries, including the Focke-Wulf factory and the AG Weser U-boat construction yard, and at the local gasworks, a museum and a merchant-navy college, mostly fire.
29 July 1944RAFDuring Mission 503 to the Bremen/Oslebshausen oil refinery, Torpedo boat T2 (type 35) was bombed and sunk at Bremen
16 September 1944VIIIAs part of Mission 635, P-47s and 149 P-51s bomb and strafe the Bremen area. [24]
18-19 September 1944RAFOf a force of 213 dispatched, 208 Lancasters of No. 5 Group and a number of Mosquitoes dropped 863 tons of bombs, including 420,000 4lb incendiaries, on Bremerhaven, destroying 297 acres of the port's total built up acreage of 375. One Lancaster and one Mosquito were lost [25]
26 September 1944VIIIAs part of Mission 648, 381 B-17s bomb the armoured vehicle factories at Bremen, another 13 bombed Bremerhaven and one hit another target. Of the 420 B-17 sent on the mission four B-17s were lost and 208 damaged. 10 airmen were wounded and a further were 21 were reported as missing in action. The escort was provided by 133 P-51s, one was lost with the pilot reported missing in action and two were damaged beyond repair. [24] Schichau Seebeckwerft Unterseeboot 3509 was damaged during a Bremerhaven bombing raid. [26]
12 October 1944VIIIMission 674: 262 Eighth Air Force B-17s bomb Borgward and Goliath plants producing armored fighting vehicles and the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 components plant. [27] 267 bombing visually; 1 other hits a target of opportunity; 1 B-17 is lost, 1 damaged beyond repair and 59 damaged. 7 airmen are KIA, 1 WIA and 9 MIA. Escort is provided by 273 P-47s and P-51s; they claim 17-2-1 aircraft; 5 P-51s are lost (pilots MIA). [28]
24 February 1945VIIIAs part of Mission 845, 200 B-17s were sent to bomb the Deschimag U-boat yards at Bremen and another 134 to bomb the Bremen W rail bridge. Of the total of 383 sent on the mission one B-17 was lost, one damaged beyond repair and a further 162 damaged; seven airmen were wounded and nine were reported missing in action. The bombers were escorted by 93 P-51s. The fighters claim they destroyed one and damaged three German aircraft on the ground, for the loss of two P-51s with their pilots missing in action. [29]
11 March 1945VIIIAs part of Mission 881, 406 of 413 B-17s bombed the Deschimag U-boat yard at Bremen. Nine B-17s were damaged, and one of the 255 P-51 escorting fighters was lost. [30]
27 March 1945RAF115 Lancasters of No. 5 Group RAF attacked an oil-storage depot (95 aircraft) and a U-boat shelter (20 aircraft of No. 617 Squadron RAF) at Farge. Two Grand Slam bombs penetrated two metres and detonated, [31] which rendered the shelter unusable. No aircraft were lost.
30 March 1945VIII303rd BG (H) Combat Mission No. 348: 38 aircraft were dispatched to bomb Bremen. The submarine building yards were the first priority target [32]

Related Research Articles

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II World War II Allied bombing raids against Hamburg

The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous attacks on civilians and civic infrastructure. As a large city and industrial centre, Hamburg's shipyards, U-boat pens, and the Hamburg-Harburg area oil refineries were attacked throughout the war.

Bomber Command is an organisational military unit, generally subordinate to the air force of a country. The most famous ones were in Britain and the United States. A Bomber Command is generally used for strategic bombing, and is composed of bombers.

Eighth Air Force Numbered air force of the United States Air Force

The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). It is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The command serves as Air Forces Strategic – Global Strike, one of the air components of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). The Eighth Air Force includes the heart of America's heavy bomber force: the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit stealth bomber, the Rockwell B-1 Lancer supersonic bomber, and the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress heavy bomber aircraft.

RAF Bomber Command Strategic bombing formation of the UKs Royal Air Force

RAF Bomber Command controlled the Royal Air Force's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968. Along with the United States Army Air Forces, it played the central role in the strategic bombing of Germany in World War II. From 1942 onward, the British bombing campaign against Germany became less restrictive and increasingly targeted industrial sites and the civilian manpower base essential for German war production. In total 364,514 operational sorties were flown, 1,030,500 tons of bombs were dropped and 8,325 aircraft lost in action. Bomber Command crews also suffered a high casualty rate: 55,573 were killed out of a total of 125,000 aircrew, a 44.4% death rate. A further 8,403 men were wounded in action, and 9,838 became prisoners of war.

Second Schweinfurt raid October 1943 air battle of World War II

The second Schweinfurt raid, also called Black Thursday, was a World War II air battle that took place on 14 October 1943, over Nazi Germany between forces of the United States 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe fighter arm (Jagdwaffe). The American bombers conducted a strategic bombing raid on ball bearing factories to reduce production of these vital parts for all manner of war machines. This was the second attack on the factories at Schweinfurt. American wartime intelligence claimed the first Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission in August had reduced bearing production by 34 percent but had cost many bombers. A planned follow-up raid had to be postponed to rebuild American forces.

Bombing of Berlin in World War II Part of Allied strategic aerial bombing campaigns

Berlin, then the capital of Nazi Germany, was subject to 363 air raids during the Second World War. It was bombed by the RAF Bomber Command between 1940 and 1945, by the USAAF Eighth Air Force between 1943 and 1945, and the French Air Force between 1944 and 1945, as part of the Allied campaign of strategic bombing of Germany. It was also attacked by aircraft of the Red Air Force, in 1941 and particularly in 1945 as Soviet forces closed on the city. British bombers dropped 45,517 tons of bombs, while American aircraft dropped 23,000 tons. As the bombings continued, more and more people fled the city. By May 1945, 1.7 million people had fled.

Big Week or Operation Argument was a sequence of raids by the United States Army Air Forces and RAF Bomber Command from 20 to 25 February 1944, as part of the European strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany. The planners intended to attack the German aircraft industry to lure the Luftwaffe into a decisive battle where the Luftwaffe could be damaged so badly that the Allies would achieve air superiority which would ensure success of the invasion of continental Europe.

Bombing of Cologne in World War II

The German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II, all by the Royal Air Force (RAF). A total of 34,711 long tons of bombs were dropped on the city by the RAF. 20,000 people died during the war in Cologne due to aerial bombardments.

Submarine pen Bunker housing U-boats

A submarine pen is a type of submarine base that acts as a bunker to protect submarines from air attack. The term is generally applied to submarine bases constructed during World War II, particularly in Germany and its occupied countries, which were also known as U-boat pens.

Operation Hurricane (1944)

Operation Hurricane was a 24-hour bombing operation to "demonstrate to the enemy in Germany generally the overwhelming superiority of the Allied Air Forces in this theatre" and "cause mass panic and disorginazation [sic] in the Ruhr, disrupt frontline communications and demonstrate the futility of resistance".

Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II

Darmstadt was bombed a number of times during World War II. The most devastating air raid on Darmstadt occurred on the night of 11/12 September 1944 when No. 5 Group of the Royal Air Force (RAF) bombed the city. 66,000 of the 110,000 inhabitants of Darmstadt at the time became homeless. Darmstadt lost between 12,500 and 13,500 inhabitants during World War II. The calligraphic memorial Darmstädter Brandnamen lists about 4,000 names. Darmstadt had several major industrial targets including Merck and Rohm and Haas chemical works as well as military communications networks.

Bombing of Vienna in World War II Vienna bombing

The city of Vienna in Austria was bombed 52 times during World War II, and 37,000 houses of the city were lost, 20% of the entire city. Only 41 civilian vehicles survived the raids, and more than 3,000 bomb craters were counted.

Bombing of Duisburg in World War II

Duisburg was bombed a number of times by the Allies during World War II. The most devastating air raids on Duisburg occurred during October 1944 when the city was bombed by the Royal Air Force (RAF).

Bombing of Lübeck in World War II

During World War II, the city of Lübeck was the first German city to be attacked in substantial numbers by the Royal Air Force. The attack on the night of 28 March 1942 created a firestorm that caused severe damage to the historic centre, with bombs destroying three of the main churches and large parts of the built-up area. It led to the retaliatory "Baedeker" raids on historic British cities.

Valentin submarine pens Architectural structure

The Valentin submarine factory is a protective shelter on the Weser River at the Bremen suburb of Rekum, built to construct German U-boats during World War II. The factory was under construction from 1943 to March 1945 using forced labour, but was damaged by air-raids and unfinished by the end of the war. The Valentin factory was the largest fortified U-boat facility in Germany, and was second only to those built at Brest in France.

Shuttle bombing is a tactic where bombers fly from their home base to bomb a first target and continue to a different location where they are refuelled and rearmed. The aircraft may then bomb a second target on the return leg to their home base. Some examples of operations which have used this tactic are:

Wiener Neustadt, a city in Austria, was the target of bombing raids during World War II by the Allies.

Allied bombing of Rotterdam in World War II World War II strategic air raids by American and British forces against the Nazi-occupied city of Rotterdam in South Holland in the Netherlands

During the German occupation of the Netherlands between 1940 and 1945 during the Second World War, Allied air forces carried out a number of operations over Rotterdam and the surrounding region. These included bombing strategic installations, leaflet dropping, and during the last week of the war, the dropping of emergency food supplies.

The term "thousand-bomber raid" was used to describe three night bombing raids by the Royal Air Force against German cities in summer 1942 during World War II. The term was a propaganda device, whereby Arthur Harris reached the number of bombers by including not only bombers that were currently operational as part of RAF Bomber Command, but also aircrews from Operational Training Units to accumulate a force of 1,000 bombers as a demonstration of the RAF's power. The bulk of the bomber force was twin-engined medium bombers such as the Vickers Wellington. As the number of heavy bombers in the RAF increased, greater tonnage could be dropped on a target with fewer aircraft. Later mass RAF raids used between 400 and 700 four-engined bombers, and on some nights, Bomber Command could send two 400-bomber forces to separate targets. Operation Gomorrah in 1943 and the attack on Dresden in 1945 each used nearly 800 aircraft. Nearly 900 were sent to Berlin in February 1944; with aircraft on other missions that night more than 1,000 bombers were active, but 1,000 bombers were never sent against a single target after June 1942.


  1. 1 2 "BBC - WW2 People's War - Timeline". Retrieved 2021-12-04.
  2. Archives, The National. "The National Archives | World War II | Western Europe 1939-1945: Hamburg | Why did the RAF bomb cities?". Retrieved 2021-12-05.
  3. Overy, Richard (2013), The Bombing War, Europe 1939-45 (Kindle, 2014 ed.), London: Penguin Books Ltd., ISBN   978-0-141-92782-4 , pp. 255, 259
  4. 1 2 "Luftschutz in Bremen". Retrieved 2021-12-09.
  5. 1 2 Coffey, Thomas M. (1977). "Decision over Schweinfurt: The U.S. 8th Air Force Battle for Daylight Bombing". New York: David McKay Company: 186, 280.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. Stürken, Carlotta (2021-08-18). "So sah Bremen nach der Bombennacht im Sommer 1944 aus - WESER-KURIER". weser-kurier-de (in German). Retrieved 2021-12-09.
  7. Sir John Smythe Bolo Whistler: The Life of General Sir Lashmer Whistler Frederick Muller Ltd 1967
  8. Hartmut Müller, Günther Rohdenburg (1995): Kriegsende in Bremen. Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-86108-265-9.
  9. Christoph Ulrich Schminck-Gustavus (1996). Bremen kaputt. Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-86108-256-X.
  10. " - Militärgeschichte - Bremen und Umland 1933-1945". Retrieved 2021-12-09.
  11. "The How and Why Air Attacks Crippled the German Oil-Chemical Industry". Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  12. "The Thousand Bomber raids, 30/31 May (Cologne) to 17 August 1942". Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  13. "No. 15 Squadron". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  14. "January-April 1941". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. Archived from the original on 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  15. "Ken P's Today in History".
  16. Hancock, Ian (2007). The Lives of Ken Wallis (Fourth ed.). p. 61. ISBN   978-0-9541239-4-9.
  17. McKillop, Jack, "Combat Chronology November 1942", U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, retrieved 2009-03-29 via Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection of the United States
  18. "Army Air Forces in World War II". February 11, 2009. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
  19. "Mary Ruth Chapter 3". Archived from the original on 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  20. Caldwell, Donald; Muller, Richard (2007). The Luftwaffe Over Germany: Defense of the Reich. MBI Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0. p 84, 86, 87
  21. "381st Bomb Group". July 3, 2008. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008.
  22. "100th Bomb Group". November 10, 2007. Archived from the original on November 10, 2007.
  23. "1st Lt. Frank H. Meadows". November 20, 2008. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008.
  24. 1 2 McKillop, Jack, "Combat Chronology September 1944", U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, retrieved 2009-03-29 via Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection of the United States
  25. Apocalypse 1945 - Irving, p66
  26. "The Type XXI U-boat U-3509 - German U-boats of WWII -".
  27. Gurney, Gene (Major, USAF) (1962). "The War in the Air: a pictorial history of World War II Air Forces in combat". New York: Bonanza Books: 220.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  28. McKillop, Jack (2009-02-11). "October 1944". Combat Chronology of the USAAF. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
  29. McKillop, Jack, "Combat Chronology February 1945", U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, retrieved 2009-03-29 via Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection of the United States
  30. McKillop, Jack, "Combat Chronology March 1945", U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, retrieved 2009-03-29 via Federal Depository Library Program Electronic Collection of the United States
  31. Grube, Christel (February 28, 2006). "Submarine-Valentin, Bremen-Farge". Interessengemeinschaft für historische Militär-, Industrie- und Verkehrsbauten. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
External images
World War II Bombs over Bremen
Bremen mission photo