The Carnegie School is a school of economic thought originally formed at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA), the current Tepper School of Business, of Carnegie Institute of Technology, the current Carnegie Mellon University, especially during the 1950s to 1970s.
Faculty at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration are known for formulating two "seemingly incompatible"  concepts: bounded rationality and rational expectations. Bounded rationality was developed by Herbert A. Simon, along with James March, Richard Cyert and Oliver Williamson. Rational expectations were developed by John F. Muth and later popularized by Robert Lucas Jr., Thomas Sargent, Leonard Rapping, and others. 
Depending on author and context, the term "Carnegie School" can refer to either both branches or only the bounded rationality branch, sometimes with the qualifier "Carnegie School of organization theory". The commonality between both branches is the use of dynamic optimization and forecasting techniques derived from production theory, and the early use of computers to solve planning and optimization problems. Along with other, mostly Midwestern universities, the rational expectations branch is considered part of freshwater economics, while the bounded rationality branch has been credited with originating behavioral economics and economics of organization.  
The Graduate School of Industrial Administration (GSIA) at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was founded in the late 1940s, after receiving a grant by William Larimer Mellon Sr. to enable graduate instruction in business and economics for the engineers the CIT already produced. This superseded an initial attempt to "restart" the economics department, which had lapsed during World War II. The founding dean was George Leland Bach, and among the first faculty hires were William W. Cooper and Herbert A. Simon. Other early appointees included Abraham Charnes, Richard Cyert, James G. March, Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller.
GSIA was set up as a "new look" business school, moving beyond the case-based method of instruction popularized by Harvard Business School to incorporate scientific methods of management. The economics faculty was the folded into the business school.
The focus of the research was on organizational behavior and the application of decision analysis, management science, and psychology as well as theories such as bounded rationality to the understanding of the organization and the firm.
"The astonishing thing about Carnegie is that it joined two fundamental and seemingly incompatible strands of research. One dealt with bounded rationality, organization theory, and behavioral economics. The leading members of that group were Herbert Simon, Richard Cyert, and James March. The second strand dealt with rational expectations and efficient markets. Members of that group include Franco Modigliani (…), John Muth, Merton Miller, and Allan Meltzer, to be joined later by Robert Lucas (…), Thomas Sargent (…), and Edward Prescott." — Oliver Williamson
GSIA faculty with notable contributions to their field included later Nobel Laureates in Economic Sciences Herbert A. Simon (1978), Franco Modigliani (1985), Merton Miller (1990), Robert Lucas Jr (1995), Edward C. Prescott & Finn E. Kydland (jointly 2004), and Lars Peter Hansen (2013). In addition, later Nobel Laureates Oliver Williamson (2009) and Dale Mortensen (2010) attended GSIA as Ph.D. students. John F. Muth, while heavily favored to receive the Prize for his pioneering work on rational expectations, was not included in 1995 or any other year thereafter.
The organizational branch included James G. March along with later GSIA dean and university president Richard Cyert and graduate students Oliver Williamson, William Starbuck and Victor Vroom.
A number of later Turing Award recipients also had their roots at GSIA, before the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science was founded in 1968. These include Alan Perlis (1966, the inaugural recipient), Allen Newell & Herbert A. Simon (jointly 1975), and Edward Feigenbaum (1994, jointly with Raj Reddy).
The interdisciplinary approach featured faculty at Carnegie Mellon's modern departments of economics, business, computer science, design, public policy, psychology, statistics and data science, and social and decision sciences.
Herbert Simon (1988) and his frequent collaborators Abraham Charnes and William Cooper (both 1982, jointly with Carnegie physicist Richard J. Duffin) also received the John von Neumann Theory Prize for their pioneering contributions to operations research and management science. Statistician Carlton E. Lemke (1978, jointly with John Forbes Nash Jr., a Carnegie undergraduate), who wrote his dissertation at GSIA under Abraham Charnes, preceded all four.
Highly influential books published by researchers at the Carnegie School include, in chronological order:
In addition to the books, a number of articles authored or co-authored by members of the Carnegie school became foundational within their fields.
Herbert Alexander Simon was an American political scientist, with a Ph.D. in political science, whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology. His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in computer science in 1975. His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001, where he helped found the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, one of the first such departments in the world.
Franco Modigliani was an Italian-American economist and the recipient of the 1985 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics. He was a professor at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Carnegie Mellon University, and MIT Sloan School of Management.
Bounded rationality is the idea that rationality is limited when individuals make decisions, and under these limitations, rational individuals will select a decision that is satisfactory rather than optimal.
Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met. The term satisficing, a portmanteau of satisfy and suffice, was introduced by Herbert A. Simon in 1956, although the concept was first posited in his 1947 book Administrative Behavior. Simon used satisficing to explain the behavior of decision makers under circumstances in which an optimal solution cannot be determined. He maintained that many natural problems are characterized by computational intractability or a lack of information, both of which preclude the use of mathematical optimization procedures. He observed in his Nobel Prize in Economics speech that "decision makers can satisfice either by finding optimum solutions for a simplified world, or by finding satisfactory solutions for a more realistic world. Neither approach, in general, dominates the other, and both have continued to co-exist in the world of management science".
Oliver Eaton Williamson was an American economist, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, and recipient of the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, which he shared with Elinor Ostrom.
The Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, also known as Heinz College, is the public policy and information college of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It consists of the School of Information Systems and Management and the School of Public Policy and Management. The college is named after CMU's former instructor and the later U.S. Senator John Heinz from Pennsylvania.
Merton Howard Miller was an American economist, and the co-author of the Modigliani–Miller theorem (1958), which proposed the irrelevance of debt-equity structure. He shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1990, along with Harry Markowitz and William F. Sharpe. Miller spent most of his academic career at the University of Chicago's Booth School of Business.
James Gardner March was an American political scientist, sociologist, and economist. A professor at Stanford University in the Stanford Graduate School of Business and Stanford Graduate School of Education, he is best known for his research on organizations, his seminal work on A Behavioral Theory of the Firm, and the organizational decision making model known as the Garbage Can Model.
John Fraser Muth was an American economist. He is "the father of the rational expectations revolution in economics", primarily due to his article "Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements" from 1961.
The Department of Social and Decision Sciences (SDS) is an interdisciplinary academic department within the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University. The Department of Social and Decision Sciences is headquartered in Porter Hall in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is led by Department Head Gretchen Chapman. SDS has a world-class reputation for research and education programs in decision-making in public policy, economics, management, and the behavioral social sciences.
George Loewenstein is an American educator and economist. He is the Herbert A. Simon Professor of Economics and Psychology in the Social and Decision Sciences Department at Carnegie Mellon University and director of the Center for Behavioral Decision Research. He is a leader in the fields of behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, Judgment and Decision Making.
Charles C. Holt was Professor at the Department of Management at the McCombs School of Business at the University of Texas at Austin. He is well known for his contributions to exponential smoothing.
Richard Michael Cyert was an American economist, statistician and organizational theorist, who served as the sixth President of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. He is known for his seminal 1959 work "A behavioral theory of the firm," co-authored with James G. March.
Dhananjay "Dan" Gode is a Clinical Associate Professor of Accounting, Taxation, and Business law at New York University Stern School of Business. He teaches courses in corporate financial accounting, and also teaches for the TRIUM Global Executive MBA Program, an alliance of NYU Stern, the London School of Economics and HEC School of Management.
The Tepper School of Business is the business school of Carnegie Mellon University. It is located in the university's 140-acre (0.57 km2) campus in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The behavioral theory of the firm first appeared in the 1963 book A Behavioral Theory of the Firm by Richard M. Cyert and James G. March. The work on the behavioral theory started in 1952 when March, a political scientist, joined Carnegie Mellon University, where Cyert was an economist.
Administrative Behavior: a Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization is a book written by Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001). It asserts that "decision-making is the heart of administration, and that the vocabulary of administrative theory must be derived from the logic and psychology of human choice", and it attempts to describe administrative organizations "in a way that will provide the basis for scientific analysis". The first edition was published in 1947; the second, in 1957; the third, in 1976; and the fourth, in 1997. As summarized in a 2001 obituary of Simon, the book "reject[ed] the notion of an omniscient 'economic man' capable of making decisions that bring the greatest benefit possible and substitut[ed] instead the idea of 'administrative man' who 'satisfices—looks for a course of action that is satisfactory'". Administrative Behavior laid the foundation for the economic movement known as the Carnegie School.
William Wager Cooper was an American operations researcher, known as a father of management science and as "Mr. Linear Programming". He was the founding president of The Institute of Management Sciences, founding editor-in-chief of Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, a founding faculty member of the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, founding dean of the School of Urban and Public Affairs at CMU, the former Arthur Lowes Dickinson Professor of Accounting at Harvard University, and the Foster Parker Professor Emeritus of Management, Finance and Accounting at the University of Texas at Austin.
Shyam Sunder is an accounting theorist and experimental economist. He is the James L. Frank Professor of accounting, economics, and finance at the Yale School of Management; a professor in Yale University’s Department of Economics; and a Fellow of the Whitney Humanities Center.
Behavioral strategy refers to the application of insights from psychology and behavioral economics to the research and practice of strategic management. In one definition of the field, "Behavioral strategy merges cognitive and social psychology with strategic management theory and practice. Behavioral strategy aims to bring realistic assumptions about human cognition, emotions, and social behavior to the strategic management of organizations and, thereby, to enrich strategy theory, empirical research, and real-world practice".