Demersal zone

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The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean (or deep lake) consisting of the part of the water column near to (and significantly affected by) the seabed and the benthos. [1] The demersal zone is just above the benthic zone and forms a layer of the larger profundal zone.[ citation needed ]

Contents

Being just above the ocean floor, the demersal zone is variable in depth and can be part of the photic zone where light can penetrate, and photosynthetic organisms grow, or the aphotic zone, which begins between depths of roughly 200 and 1,000 m (700 and 3,300 ft) and extends to the ocean depths, where no light penetrates. [1]

Fish

The distinction between demersal species of fish and pelagic species is not always clear cut. The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a typical demersal fish, but can also be found in the open water column, and the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is predominantly a pelagic species but forms large aggregations near the seabed when it spawns on banks of gravel. [2]

Two types of fish inhabit the demersal zone: those that are heavier than water and rest on the seabed, and those that have neutral buoyancy and remain just above the substrate. In many species of fish, neutral buoyancy is maintained by a gas-filled swim bladder which can be expanded or contracted as the circumstances require. A disadvantage of this method is that adjustments need to be made constantly as the water pressure varies when the fish swims higher and lower in the water column. An alternative buoyancy aid is the use of lipids, which are less dense than water—squalene, commonly found in shark livers, has a specific gravity of just 0.86. In the velvet belly lanternshark (Etmopterus spinax), a benthopelagic species, 17% of the bodyweight is liver of which 70% are lipids. Benthic rays and skates have smaller livers with lower concentrations of lipids; they are therefore denser than water and they do not swim continuously, intermittently resting on the seabed. [3] Some fish have no buoyancy aids but use their pectoral fins which are so angled as to give lift as they swim. The disadvantage of this is that, if they stop swimming, the fish sink, and they cannot hover, or swim backwards. [4]

Demersal fish have various feeding strategies; many feed on zooplankton or organisms or algae on the seabed; some of these feed on epifauna (invertebrates on top of the seafloor), while others specialise on infauna (invertebrates that burrow beneath the seafloor). Others are scavengers, eating the dead remains of plants or animals, while still others are predators. [5]

Invertebrates

Zooplankton are animals that drift with the current, but many have some limited means of locomotion and have some control over the depths at which they drift. They use gas-filled sacs or accumulations of substances with low densities to provide buoyancy, or they may have structures that slow down any passive descent. Where the adult, benthic organism is limited to life in a certain range of depths, their larvae need to optimise their chances of settling on a suitable substrate. [6]

Cuttlefish are able to adjust their buoyancy using their cuttlebones, lightweight rigid structures with cavities filled with gas, which have a specific gravity of about 0.6. This enables them to swim at varying depths. Another invertebrate that feeds on the seabed and has swimming abilities is the nautilus, which stores gas in its chambers and adjusts its buoyancy by use of osmosis, pumping water in and out. [3]

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Plankton Organisms that are in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current

Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms found in water that are unable to propel themselves against a current. The individual organisms constituting plankton are called plankters. In the ocean, they provide a crucial source of food to many small and large aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, fish and whales.

Benthos Community of organisms that live in the benthic zone

Benthos, also known as benthon, is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the bottom of a sea, river, lake, or stream, also known as the benthic zone. This community lives in or near marine or freshwater sedimentary environments, from tidal pools along the foreshore, out to the continental shelf, and then down to the abyssal depths.

Deep-sea fish Fauna found in deep sea areas

Deep-sea fish are fish that live in the darkness below the sunlit surface waters, that is below the epipelagic or photic zone of the sea. The lanternfish is, by far, the most common deep-sea fish. Other deep sea fishes include the flashlight fish, cookiecutter shark, bristlemouths, anglerfish, viperfish, and some species of eelpout.

The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth. The word pelagic is derived from Ancient Greek πέλαγος (pélagos) 'open sea'. The pelagic zone can be thought of as an imaginary cylinder or water column between the surface of the sea and the bottom. Conditions in the water column change with depth: pressure increases; temperature and light decrease; salinity, oxygen, micronutrients all change.

Benthic zone Ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean, lake, or stream, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. The name comes from ancient Greek, βένθος (bénthos), meaning "the depths." Organisms living in this zone are called benthos and include microorganisms as well as larger invertebrates, such as crustaceans and polychaetes. Organisms here generally live in close relationship with the substrate and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The benthic boundary layer, which includes the bottom layer of water and the uppermost layer of sediment directly influenced by the overlying water, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there. Examples of contact soil layers include sand bottoms, rocky outcrops, coral, and bay mud.

Seabed The bottom of the ocean

The seabed is the bottom of the ocean. All floors of the ocean are known as 'seabeds'.

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word ἄβυσσος, meaning bottomless. At depths of 4,000 to 6,000 metres, this zone remains in perpetual darkness. It covers 83% of the total area of the ocean and 60% of Earth's surface. The abyssal zone has temperatures around 2 to 3 °C through the large majority of its mass. Due to there being no light, there are no plants producing oxygen, which primarily comes from ice that had melted long ago from the polar regions. The water along the seafloor of this zone is actually devoid of oxygen, resulting in a death trap for organisms unable to quickly return to the oxygen-enriched water above. This region also contains a much higher concentration of nutrient salts, like nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, due to the large amount of dead organic material that drifts down from the above ocean zones and decomposes. The water pressure can reach up to 76 megapascal.

Holoplankton

Holoplankton are organisms that are planktic for their entire life cycle. Holoplankton can be contrasted with meroplankton, which are planktic organisms that spend part of their life cycle in the benthic zone. Examples of holoplankton include some diatoms, radiolarians, some dinoflagellates, foraminifera, amphipods, krill, copepods, and salps, as well as some gastropod mollusk species. Holoplankton dwell in the pelagic zone as opposed to the benthic zone. Holoplankton include both phytoplankton and zooplankton and vary in size. The most common plankton are protists.

Pelagic fish Fish in the pelagic zone of ocean waters

Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish that do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish that are associated with coral reefs.

Demersal fish Fish that live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes

Demersal fish, also known as groundfish, live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes. They occupy the sea floors and lake beds, which usually consist of mud, sand, gravel or rocks. In coastal waters they are found on or near the continental shelf, and in deep waters they are found on or near the continental slope or along the continental rise. They are not generally found in the deepest waters, such as abyssal depths or on the abyssal plain, but they can be found around seamounts and islands. The word demersal comes from the Latin demergere, which means to sink.

Lake ecosystem Type of ecosystem

A lake ecosystem or lacustrine ecosystem includes biotic (living) plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (non-living) physical and chemical interactions. Lake ecosystems are a prime example of lentic ecosystems, which include ponds, lakes and wetlands, and much of this article applies to lentic ecosystems in general. Lentic ecosystems can be compared with lotic ecosystems, which involve flowing terrestrial waters such as rivers and streams. Together, these two ecosystems are examples of freshwater ecosystems.

Gelatinous zooplankton Fragile and often translucent animals that live in the water column

Gelatinous zooplankton are fragile animals that live in the water column in the ocean. Their delicate bodies have no hard parts and are easily damaged or destroyed. Gelatinous zooplankton are often transparent. All jellyfish are gelatinous zooplankton, but not all gelatinous zooplankton are jellyfish. The most commonly encountered organisms include ctenophores, medusae, salps, and Chaetognatha in coastal waters. However, almost all marine phyla, including Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda, contain gelatinous species, but many of those odd species live in the open ocean and the deep sea and are less available to the casual ocean observer. Many gelatinous plankters utilize mucous structures in order to filter feed. Gelatinous zooplankton have also been called "Gelata".

This is a glossary of terms used in fisheries, fisheries management and fisheries science.

Deep sea community Groups of organisms living deep below the sea surface, sharing a habitat

A deep sea community is any community of organisms associated by a shared habitat in the deep sea. Deep sea communities remain largely unexplored, due to the technological and logistical challenges and expense involved in visiting this remote biome. Because of the unique challenges, it was long believed that little life existed in this hostile environment. Since the 19th century however, research has demonstrated that significant biodiversity exists in the deep sea.

Coastal fish Fish that inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf

Coastal fish, also called inshore fish or neritic fish, inhabit the sea between the shoreline and the edge of the continental shelf. Since the continental shelf is usually less than 200 metres (660 ft) deep, it follows that pelagic coastal fish are generally epipelagic fish, inhabiting the sunlit epipelagic zone. Coastal fish can be contrasted with oceanic fish or offshore fish, which inhabit the deep seas beyond the continental shelves.

Marine habitats Habitat that supports marine life

Marine habitats are habitats that support marine life. Marine life depends in some way on the saltwater that is in the sea. A habitat is an ecological or environmental area inhabited by one or more living species. The marine environment supports many kinds of these habitats. Marine habitats can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats. Coastal habitats are found in the area that extends from as far as the tide comes in on the shoreline out to the edge of the continental shelf. Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only seven percent of the total ocean area. Open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf.

Planktivore Aquatic organism that feeds on planktonic food

A planktivore is an aquatic organism that feeds on planktonic food, including zooplankton and phytoplankton. Planktivorous organisms encompass a range of some of the planet's smallest to largest multicellular animals in both the present day and in the past billion years; basking sharks and copepods are just two examples of giant and microscopic organisms that feed upon plankton. Planktivory can be an important mechanism of top-down control that contributes to trophic cascades in aquatic and marine systems. There is a tremendous diversity of feeding strategies and behaviors that planktivores utilize to capture prey. Some planktivores utilize tides and currents to migrate between estuaries and coastal waters; other aquatic planktivores reside in lakes or reservoirs where diverse assemblages of plankton are present, or migrate vertically in the water column searching for prey. Planktivore populations can impact the abundance and community composition of planktonic species through their predation pressure, and planktivore migrations facilitate nutrient transport between benthic and pelagic habitats.

The Childs Bank Marine Protected Area is an offshore conservation region in the exclusive economic zone of South Africa

The Benguela Bank Marine Protected Area is an offshore conservation region in the exclusive economic zone of South Africa

Benthic-pelagic coupling

Benthic-pelagic coupling are processes that connect the benthic zone and the pelagic zone through the exchange of energy, mass, or nutrients. These processes play a prominent role in both freshwater and marine ecosystems and are influenced by a number of chemical, biological, and physical forces that are crucial to functions from nutrient cycling to energy transfer in food webs.

References

  1. 1 2 Merrett, Nigel R.; Haedrich, Richard L. (1997). Deep-Sea Demersal Fish and Fisheries. Springer. p. 296. ISBN   0412394103.
  2. Brander, K. (2010). "Wild-harvest Fisheries". In Hoagland, Porter; Steele, John H.; Thorpe, Steve A.; Turekian, Karl K. (eds.). Marine Policy and Economics: A Derivative of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition. Elsevier. p. 91. ISBN   978-0-08-096481-2.
  3. 1 2 Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1997). "Movement, Muscle, Biomechanics". Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment (Fifth ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 445–450. ISBN   978-0-521-57098-5. LCCN   96039295.
  4. Newman, David. "Buoyancy". University of Alaska Fairbanks. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  5. Sedberry, George R.; Musick, John A. (December 1978). "Feeding strategies of some demersal fishes of the continental slope and rise off the Mid-Atlantic Coast of the USA". Marine Biology . 44 (4): 357–375. doi:10.1007/BF00390900. S2CID   83608467.
  6. Power, James H. (May 1989). "Sink or Swim: Growth Dynamics and Zooplankton Hydromechanics". The American Naturalist . 133 (5): 706–721. doi:10.1086/284946. JSTOR   2462076. S2CID   85323978.