European People's Party Group

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European People's Party Group
European Parliament group
EPP EP group logo 2015.svg
NameEuropean People's Party Group
English abbr.EPP
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • EPP-ED [1]
    (20 July 1999 [2] to 22 June 2009)
  • EPP [1]
    (17 July 1979 [3] to 20 July 1999 [2] )
  • CD [2]
    (23 June 1953 [3] to 17 July 1979 [3] )
French abbr.PPE
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • PPE-DE [4]
    (20 July 1999 [2] to 22 June 2009)
  • PPE [3]
    (17 July 1979 [3] to 20 July 1999 [2] )
  • DC [3]
    (23 June 1953 [3] to 17 July 1979 [3] )
Formal nameGroup of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats)
(22 June 2009 to present)
Older:
  • Group of the European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats [4] [5] [6]
    (20 July 1999 [2] to 22 June 2009)
  • Group of the European People's Party (Christian-Democratic Group) [3] [7] [8] [9]
    (17 July 1979 [3] to 20 July 1999 [2] )
  • Christian Democratic Group (Group of the European People's Party) [3] [9]
    (14 March 1978 [3] to 17 July 1979 [3] )
  • Christian Democratic Group [2] [9]
    (23 June 1953 [3] to 14 March 1978 [3] )
Ideology Christian democracy [10] [11]
Conservatism [11]
Liberal conservatism [10]
Pro-Europeanism
Political position Centre-right [12] [13]
European parties European People's Party
European Christian Political Movement (partly)
From11 September 1952
(unofficially) [14]
23 June 1953
(officially) [14]
Topresent
Chaired by Manfred Weber [15]
MEP(s)
178 / 705
Website www.eppgroup.eu

The European People's Party Group (EPP Group) is a centre-right political group of the European Parliament consisting of deputies (MEPs) from the member parties of the European People's Party (EPP). It sometimes includes independent MEPs and/or deputies from unaffiliated national parties. [16] [17] [18] The EPP Group comprises politicians of Christian-democratic, conservative and liberal-conservative orientation. [19] [20] [21]

Contents

The European People's Party was officially founded as a European political party in 1976. However, the European People's Party Group in the European Parliament has existed in one form or another since June 1953, from the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, making it one of the oldest European-level political groups. It has been the largest political group in the European Parliament since 1999.

History

The Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (the predecessor of the present day European Parliament) first met on 10 September 1952 [22] and the first Christian Democratic Group was unofficially formed the next day, with Maan Sassen as president. [14] [23] The group held 38 of the 78 seats, two short of an absolute majority. [14] [24] On 16 June 1953 the Common Assembly passed a resolution [25] enabling the official formation of political groups, and on 23 June 1953 the constituent declaration [26] of the group was published and the group was officially formed. [14] [24]

EPP share of votes in elections to the Eur. Parliament 1999-2019 PollsEPP.png
EPP share of votes in elections to the Eur. Parliament 1999–2019

The Christian Democrat group was the biggest group at formation, but as time wore on it lost support and was the second-biggest group by the time of the 1979 elections. As the European Community expanded into the European Union, the dominant centre-right parties in the new member states were not necessarily Christian democratic, and the EPP (European People's Party, the pan-continental political party founded in 1976 which all group members are now affiliated to) feared being sidelined. [27] To counter this, the EPP expanded its remit to cover the centre-right regardless of tradition and pursued a policy of integrating liberal-conservative parties. [27]

This policy led to Greek New Democracy and Spanish People's Party MEPs joining the EPP Group. [27] The British Conservative Party and Danish Conservative People's Party tried to maintain a group of their own called the European Democrats (ED), but lack of support and the problems inherent in maintaining a small group forced ED's collapse in the 1990s, and its members crossed the floor to join the EPP Group. [27] The parties of these MEPs also became full members of the EPP (with the exception of the British Conservatives who did not join the Party) and this consolidation process of the European centre-right throughout the 1990s with the acquisition of members from the Italian party Forza Italia. However, the consolidation was not unalloyed and a split emerged with the Eurosceptic MEPs who congregated in a subgroup within the group, also called the European Democrats (ED).

Nevertheless, the consolidation held through the 1990s, assisted by the group being renamed to the European People's Party – European Democrats (EPP-ED) group, and after the 1999 European elections the EPP-ED reclaimed its position as the largest group in the Parliament from the Party of European Socialists (PES) group.

Size was not enough, however: the group did not have a majority. It continued therefore to engage in the Grand Coalition (a coalition with the PES Group, or occasionally the Liberals) to generate the majorities required by the cooperation procedure under the Single European Act. This coalition has held, although occasionally the group adopts a government-opposition dynamic with the other groups, notably during the budget crisis when it opposed the PES and brought about the resignation of the Santer Commission.[ citation needed ]

Meanwhile, the parties in the European Democrats subgroup were growing restless [28] and finally left following the 2009 elections, when the Czech Civic Democratic Party and British Conservative party formed their own right-wing European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) group on 22 June 2009, abolishing the European Democrats subgroup from that date. The EPP-ED Group reverted to its original name – the EPP Group – immediately.

In the 7th European Parliament the EPP Group remains the largest parliamentary group with 275 MEPs. It is currently the only political group in the European parliament to fully represent its corresponding European political party, i.e. the European People's Party. The United Kingdom was the only member to not be represented in the group until 28 February 2018, when two MEPs suspended from the Conservative Party left the European Conservatives and Reformists and joined the EPP. [29] The two MEPs later joined a breakaway political party in the UK, The Independent Group. [30]

After twelve member parties in the EPP called for Hungary's Fidesz's expulsion or suspension, Fidesz's membership was suspended with a common agreement on 20 March 2019. [31] [32] The suspension was applied only to the EPP but not to its group in the Parliament. [33] On 3 March 2021, Fidesz decided to leave the EPP group, after the group's new rules, however still kept their membership in the party. [34] [35] On 18 March 2021, Fidesz decided to leave the European People's Party. [36]

Logo of European People's Party Group from 1999 to 2015. EPP-ED logo.svg
Logo of European People's Party Group from 1999 to 2015.

Membership at formation

The 38 members in the group on 11 September 1952 were as follows:

Structure

Organisation

The EPP Group is governed by a collective (referred to as the Presidency) that allocates tasks. The Presidency consists of the Group Chair and a maximum of ten Vice-Chairs, including the Treasurer. The day-to-day running of the EPP Group is performed by its secretariat in the European Parliament, led by its Secretary-General. The Group runs its own think-tank, the European Ideas Network, which brings together opinion-formers from across Europe to discuss issues facing the European Union from a centre-right perspective.

The EPP Group Presidency includes:

NamePositionSources
Manfred WeberChair [38]
Arnaud DanjeanVice-Chair [39]
Esther de LangeVice-Chair [39]
Esteban González PonsVice-Chair [39]
Sandra KalnieteVice-Chair [39]
Andrey KovatchevVice-Chair [39]
Vangelis MeimarakisVice-Chair [39]
Siegfried MureşanVice-Chair [39]
Jan OlbrychtVice-Chair [39]
Paulo RangelVice-Chair [39]

The chairs of the group and its predecessors from 1952 to 2020 are as follows:


From

To

Chair

Member State

National party
19531958 Maan Sassen Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Catholic People's Party
19581958 Pierre Wigny Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Christian Social Party
19581966 Alain Poher Flag of France.svg  France Popular Republican Movement
19661969 Joseph Illerhaus Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
19691975 Hans Lücker Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
19751977 Alfred Bertrand Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Christian People's Party
19771982 Egon Klepsch Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany Christian Democratic Union
19821984 Paolo Barbi Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Christian Democracy
19841992 Egon Klepsch Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany/Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christian Democratic Union
19921994 Leo Tindemans Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Christian People's Party
19941999 Wilfried Martens Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Christian People's Party
19992007 Hans-Gert Pöttering Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christian Democratic Union
20072014 Joseph Daul Flag of France.svg  France Union for a Popular Movement
2014present Manfred Weber Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christian Social Union in Bavaria

Membership

9th European Parliament

The EPP Group has MEPs from each of the 27 member states. The national parties that have Members of the EPP Group are as follows:

CountryPartyEuropean party MEPs
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Austrian People's Party
Österreichische Volkspartei (ÖVP)
EPP
7 / 19
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish
Christen-Democratisch & Vlaams (CD&V)
EPP
2 / 21
Humanist Democratic Centre
Centre Démocrate Humaniste (CDH)
EPP
1 / 21
Christian Social Party
Christlich Soziale Partei (CSP)
EPP
1 / 21
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria
Граждани за европейско развитие на България (GERB)
EPP
5 / 17
Union of Democratic Forces
Съюз на демократичните сили (SDS)
EPP
1 / 17
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria
Демократи за силна България (DSB)
EPP
1 / 17
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Croatian Democratic Union
Hrvatska demokratska zajednica (HDZ)
EPP
4 / 12
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Democratic Rally
Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός (DISY)
EPP
2 / 6
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party
Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová (KDU–ČSL)
EPP
2 / 21
Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09
Tradice Odpovědnost Prosperita 09 (TOP 09)
EPP
2 / 21
Mayors and Independents
Starostové a nezávislí (STAN)
None
1 / 21
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Conservative People's Party
Konservative Folkeparti (KF)
EPP
1 / 14
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Fatherland
Isamaa
EPP
1 / 7
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland National Coalition Party
Kansallinen Kokoomus (KK)
EPP
3 / 14
Flag of France.svg  France The Republicans
Les Républicains (LR)
EPP
7 / 79
The Centrists
Les Centristes (LC)
None
1 / 79
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christian Democratic Union
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU)
EPP
23 / 96
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V. (CSU)
EPP
6 / 96
Family Party of Germany
Familienpartei Deutschlands (FAMILIE)
ECPM
1 / 96
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece New Democracy
Νέα Δημοκρατία (ND)
EPP
8 / 21
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Christian Democratic People's Party
Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt (KDNP)
EPP
1 / 21
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Fine Gael (United Ireland)
Fine Gael (FG)
EPP
5 / 13
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Forward Italy
Forza Italia (FI)
EPP
8 / 76
South Tyrolean People's Party
Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP)
Partito Popolare Sudtirolese (PPST)
EPP
1 / 76
South in the Head [40]
Sud in Testa
None
1 / 76
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Unity
Vienotība
EPP
2 / 8
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Homeland Union
Tėvynės Sąjunga (TS-LKD)
EPP
3 / 11
Aušra Maldeikienė (Independent)Independent
1 / 11
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party
Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei (CSV)
EPP
2 / 6
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Nationalist Party
Partit Nazzjonalista (PN)
EPP
2 / 6
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA)
EPP
5 / 29
Christian Union
ChristenUnie (CU)
ECPM
1 / 29
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Civic Platform
Platforma Obywatelska (PO)
EPP
12 / 52
Polish People's Party
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (PSL)
EPP
3 / 52
Janina Ochojska, Magdalena Adamowicz (Independent)Independent
2 / 52
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Social Democratic Party
Partido Social Democrata (PSD)
EPP
6 / 21
Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular (CDS–PP)
EPP
1 / 21
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal (PNL)
EPP
10 / 33
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România (UDMR)
EPP
2 / 33
People's Movement Party
Partidul Mișcarea Populară (PMP)
EPP
2 / 33
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia TOGETHER – Civic Democracy
SPOLU – občianska demokracia (SPOLU)
EPP
2 / 14
Christian Democratic Movement
Kresťanskodemokratické Hnutie (KDH)
EPP
2 / 14
Ordinary People and Independent Personalities
Obyčajní Ľudia a nezávislé osobnosti (OĽaNO)
None
1 / 14
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party
Slovenska Demokratska Stranka (SDS)
EPP
2 / 8
New Slovenia – Christian Democrats
Nova Slovenija – Krščanski demokrati (NSi)
EPP
1 / 8
Slovenian People's Party
Slovenska ljudska stranka (SLS)
EPP
1 / 8
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain People's Party
Partido Popular (PP)
EPP
13 / 59
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Moderate Party
Moderata Samlingspartiet (M)
EPP
4 / 21
Christian Democrats
Kristdemokraterna (KD)
EPP
2 / 21
Flag of Europe.svg  European Union
Total
178 / 705

Former members

CountryPartyEuropean party MEPs
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Fidesz None
12 / 21
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 50PLUS (50+)None
0 / 29

7th and 8th European Parliament

CountryNamesNames (English) MEPs 2009–14 MEPs 2014–19
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Österreichische Volkspartei Austrian People's Party 6Decrease2.svg 5
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Dutch : Christen-Democratisch & Vlaams Christian Democratic and Flemish 3Decrease2.svg 2
French: Centre Démocrate Humaniste Humanist Democratic Centre 1Steady2.svg 1
German: Christlich Soziale Partei Christian Social Party*1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Граждани за европейско развитие на България
(Grazhdani za Evropeysko Razvitie na Balgariya)
Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria 5Increase2.svg 6
Съюз на демократичните сили
(Sayuz na Demokratichnite Sili)
Union of Democratic Forces 1Decrease2.svg 0
Демократи за силна България
(Demokrati za Silna Balgariya)
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia Hrvatska demokratska zajednica Croatian Democratic Union 4Steady2.svg 4
Hrvatska seljačka stranka Croatian Peasant Party 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Greek : Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός
(Dimokratikós Sinayermós)
Democratic Rally 2Decrease2.svg 1
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party 2Increase2.svg 3
TOP 09 TOP 09 Increase2.svg 3
Starostové a nezávislí Mayors and Independents [41] Increase2.svg 1
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Det Konservative Folkeparti Conservative People's Party 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Erakond Isamaa Pro Patria 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Kansallinen Kokoomus National Coalition Party 3Steady2.svg 3
Suomen kristillisdemokraatit Christian Democrats 1Decrease2.svg 0
Flag of France.svg  France Les Républicains The Republicans 27Decrease2.svg 18
Union des Démocrates et Indépendants Union of Democrats and Independents 6Decrease2.svg 0
IndependentIncrease2.svg 2
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands Christian Democratic Union 34Decrease2.svg 29
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V. Christian Social Union of Bavaria 8Decrease2.svg 5
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Νέα Δημοκρατία
(Néa Dimokratiá)
New Democracy 7Decrease2.svg 5
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt Christian Democratic People's Party 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Fine Gael Fine Gael 4Steady2.svg 4
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Forza Italia (2013) Forza Italia 19Decrease2.svg 12
Alternativa Popolare Popular Alternative Increase2.svg 1
Unione di Centro Union of the Centre 6Decrease2.svg 1
German: Südtiroler Volkspartei South Tyrolean People's Party 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Vienotība Unity 4Steady2.svg 4
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Tėvynės Sąjunga – Lietuvos Krikščionys Demokratai Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats4Decrease2.svg 2
IndependentIncrease2.svg 1
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Luxembourgish : Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei
French: Parti Populaire Chrétien Social
German: Christlich Soziale Volkspartei
Christian Social People's Party 3Steady2.svg 3
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Partit Nazzjonalista Nationalist Party 2Increase2.svg 3
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Christen-Democratisch Appèl Christian Democratic Appeal 5Steady2.svg 5
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Platforma Obywatelska Civic Platform 25Decrease2.svg 18
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe Polish People's Party 4Steady2.svg 4
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Partido Social Democrata Social Democratic Party 8Decrease2.svg 6
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party 2Decrease2.svg 1
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Partidul Național Liberal National Liberal Party 12Decrease2.svg 8
Hungarian : Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség
Romanian : Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 3Decrease2.svg 2
Partidul Mișcarea Populară People's Movement Party
IndependentIncrease2.svg 2
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Kresťanskodemokratické Hnutie Christian Democratic Movement 2Increase2.svg 3
Strana Maďarskej Koalície – Magyar Koalício Pártja Party of the Hungarian Community 2Decrease2.svg 1
Most–Híd Most–Híd Increase2.svg 1
IndependentIncrease2.svg 1
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Slovenska Demokratska Stranka Slovenian Democratic Party 3Steady2.svg 3
Nova Slovenija – Krščanska Ljudska Stranka New Slovenia – Christian People's Party 1Steady2.svg 1
Slovenska ljudska stranka Slovenian People's Party Increase2.svg 1
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Spanish: Partido Popular People's Party 24Decrease2.svg 16
IndependentIncrease2.svg 1
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Moderata Samlingspartiet Moderate Party 4Decrease2.svg 3
Kristdemokraterna Christian Democrats 1Steady2.svg 1
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 'Change UK' Change UK (defection from Conservative Party/ECR) [42] 0Increase2.svg 1
Renew Party (defection from Conservative Party/ECR) [43] 0Increase2.svg 1
Total274219

Activities

In the news

Activities performed by the group in the period between June 2004 and June 2008 include monitoring elections in Palestine [44] and the Ukraine; [45] encouraging transeuropean rail travel, [46] telecoms deregulation, [47] energy security, [48] a common energy policy, [49] the accession of Bulgaria and Romania to the Union, [50] partial reform of the CAP [51] and attempts to tackle illegal immigration; [52] [53] [54] denouncing Russian involvement in South Ossetia; [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] supporting the Constitution Treaty [60] [61] [62] and the Lisbon Treaty; [63] [64] debating globalisation, [49] [65] relations with China, [66] and Taiwan; [67] backing plans to outlaw Holocaust denial; [68] nominating Anna Politkovskaya for the 2007 Sakharov Prize; [69] expelling Daniel Hannan from the Group; [70] the discussion about whether ED MEPs should remain within EPP-ED or form a group of their own; [71] [72] [73] criticisms of the group's approach to tackling low turnout for the 2009 elections; [74] the group's use of the two-President arrangement; [75] and the group's proposal to ban the Islamic Burka dress EU wide.

Parliamentary activity profile

Group parliamentary activity profile, 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2008 (see description for sources).

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EPP-ED: 659 motions Motions for resolutions put to the vote in plenary in the European Parliament August 1 2004 to August 1 2008.PNG
Group parliamentary activity profile, 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2008 (see description for sources).
  EPP-ED: 659 motions

The debates and votes in the European Parliament are tracked by its website [76] and categorised by the groups that participate in them and the rule of procedure that they fall into. The results give a profile for each group by category and the total indicates the group's level of participation in Parliamentary debates. The activity profile for each group for the period 1 August 2004 to 1 August 2008 in the Sixth Parliament is given on the diagram on the right. The group is denoted in blue.

The website shows the group as participating in 659 motions, making it the third most active group during the period.[ citation needed ]

Publications

The group produces many publications, which can be found on its website. [77] Documents produced in 2008 cover subjects such as dialogue with the Orthodox Church, study days, its strategy for 2008–09, Euro-Mediterranean relations, and the Treaty of Lisbon. It also publishes a yearbook and irregularly publishes a presentation, a two-page summary of the group.

Academic analysis

The group has been characterised as a three-quarter male group that, prior to ED's departure, was only 80% cohesive and split between centre-right Europhiles (the larger EPP subgroup) and right-wing Eurosceptics (the smaller ED subgroup). The group as a whole is described as ambiguous on hypothetical EU taxes, against taxation, Green issues, social liberal issues (LGBT rights, abortion, euthanasia) and full Turkish accession to the European Union, and for a deeper Federal Europe, deregulation, the Common Foreign and Security Policy and controlling migration into the EU.

See also

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Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats Political group in the European Parliament

The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES). The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group (ALDE). It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009. Centre-left in orientation, the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International.

Paulo Rangel Portuguese jurist and politician

Paulo Artur dos Santos Castro de Campos Rangel is a Portuguese jurist and politician of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) who has been serving as a Member of the European Parliament since 2009. He also serves as vice-president of the European People's Party under the leadership of its president Donald Tusk.

2019 European Parliament election in Hungary 2019 election of members of the European parliament for Hungary

The European Parliament election, 2019 for the election of the delegation from Hungary to the European Parliament was held on 26 May 2019, electing the 21 members of the Hungary delegation to the European Parliament as part of the European elections held across the European Union.

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