|Waved carpet (Hydrelia sylvata: Asthenini)|
|Subfamily:|| Larentiinae |
Larentiinae is a subfamily of moths containing roughly 5,800 speciesthat occur mostly in the temperate regions of the world. They are generally considered a subfamily of the geometer moth family (Geometridae) and are divided into a few large or good-sized tribes, and numerous very small or even monotypic ones which might not always be valid. Well-known members are the "pug moths" of the Eupitheciini and the "carpets", mainly of the Cidariini and Xanthorhoini. The subfamily was described by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1845.
Morphological and DNA sequence data indicate that they are a very ancient lineage of geometer moths; they might even be distinct enough to warrant elevation to full family status in the superfamily Geometroidea. They share numerous plesiomorphic traits – for example at least one areola in the forewing, a hammer-shaped ansa of the tympanal organ and the lack of a gnathos – with the Sterrhinae which are either somewhat less distant from other geometer moths or are part of the same distinct lineage; the Lythriini were until recently placed in the Larentiinae but are apparently Sterrhinae.
But the Larentiinae characteristically tend to have much longer foreleg tarsi and hindleg tibiae than their relatives, and also have hairy or toothed extensions on the upperside sections of the transtilla; their caterpillars often have the abdominal prolegs reduced already (as is typical for the more advanced geometer moths), and the Larentiinae's tympanal organs have a unique and characteristic structure.
Several genera have hitherto not been definitely assigned to a tribe.These include:
The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies. Their scientific name derives from the Ancient Greek geo γῆ or γαῖα "the earth", and metron μέτρον "measure" in reference to the way their larvae, or "inchworms", appear to "measure the earth" as they move along in a looping fashion. A very large family, it has around 23,000 species of moths described, and over 1400 species from six subfamilies indigenous to North America alone. A well-known member is the peppered moth, Biston betularia, which has been subject of numerous studies in population genetics. Several other geometer moths are notorious pests.
The Macariini are a tribe of geometer moths in the subfamily Ennominae. Though they share many traits with the Sterrhinae, this is probably plesiomorphic rather than indicative of a close relationship, and DNA sequence data points to the Boarmiini as particularly close relatives of the Macariini. All things considered, this tribe might still resemble the first Ennominae more than any other living lineage in the subfamily.
Ennominae is the largest subfamily of the geometer moth family (Geometridae) with some 9,700 described species in 1,100 genera. They are usually a fairly small moths, though some grow to be considerably large. This subfamily has a global distribution. It includes some species that are notorious defoliating pests. The subfamily was first described by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1845.
The Bistonini are a tribe of geometer moths in subfamily Ennominae. As numerous ennomine genera have not yet been assigned to a tribe, the genus list is preliminary. In addition, the entire tribe is sometimes merged into a much-expanded Boarmiini. In other treatments, the Erannini are included in the present group.
The Angeronini are a small tribe of geometer moths in the subfamily Ennominae. The tribe was first described by William Trowbridge Merrifield Forbes in 1948. As numerous ennomine genera have not yet been assigned to a tribe, the genus list is preliminary.
The Ennomini are a tribe of geometer moths in the Ennominae subfamily. They are large-bodied and rather nondescript Ennominae, overall showing many similarities to the closely related Azelinini and Nacophorini.
The Ourapterygini are one of the large tribes of geometer moths in the subfamily Ennominae. The tribe was described by Charles Théophile Bruand d'Uzelle in 1846. They are particularly plentiful in the Neotropics. Ourapterygini are generally held to be the youngest tribe of their subfamily, and at least seasonally have characteristic apomorphic asymmetrical processes of the anellus.
The Abraxini are a tribe of geometer moths in the subfamily Ennominae. Here, the Cassymini are considered a specialized offshoot of the Abraxini and merged therein; some authors consider them a distinct tribe however.
Though small in absolute diversity, the Nemoriini are nonetheless among the larger tribes of geometer moths in the subfamily Geometrinae.
The Cidariini are the largest tribe of geometer moths in the subfamily Larentiinae. The Cidariini include many of the species known as "carpets" or, ambiguously, "carpet moths", and are among the few geometer moths that have been subject to fairly comprehensive cladistic study of their phylogeny. The tribe was described by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1845.
The Boarmiini are a large tribe of geometer moths in the Ennominae subfamily.
Though small in absolute diversity of genera, the Hemitheini are nonetheless the largest tribes of geometer moths in the subfamily Geometrinae. Like most Geometrinae, they are small greenish "emerald moths". The tribe was first described by Charles Théophile Bruand d'Uzelle in 1846.
Lythria is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae erected by Jacob Hübner in 1823. It is the only genus of the monotypic tribe Lythriini described by Claude Herbulot in 1962.
Sterrhinae is a large subfamily of geometer moths with some 3,000 described species, with more than half belonging to the taxonomically difficult, very diverse genera, Idaea and Scopula. This subfamily was described by Edward Meyrick in 1892. They are the most diverse in the tropics with the number of species decreasing with increasing latitude and elevation.
Lythria purpuraria, the purple-barred yellow, is a species of moth of the family Geometridae. It is found from western Europe to Siberia, Russia, Ukraine, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.
Asthenini is a tribe of geometer moths under subfamily Larentiinae first described by Warren in 1893. The tribe has been combined with Eupitheciini in the past, most notably by Jeremy Daniel Holloway in his work The Moths of Borneo.
Cataclysmiini is a tribe of geometer moths in subfamily Larentiinae.
Rheumapterini is a tribe of geometer moths under subfamily Larentiinae.
Larentiini is a tribe of geometer moths under subfamily Larentiinae. The tribe was first described by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1845.
Eupitheciini is a tribe of geometer moths under subfamily Larentiinae, often referred to as pugs. The tribe was described by Tutt in 1896.
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