List of volcanoes in Antarctica

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This is a list of volcanoes in Antarctica .

Table

A 2017 study claimed to have found 138 volcanoes, of which 91 were previously unknown. Some volcanoes are entirely under the ice sheet. [1] [2] Unconfirmed volcanoes are not included in the table below.

Contents

NameElevationLocationLast known eruption
metersfeet Coordinates
Mount Abbott [3] 1,020 [4] 3,346 [4] 74°42′S163°50′E / 74.700°S 163.833°E / -74.700; 163.833 (Adare Peninsula) [4]
Adare Peninsula [5] 2,083 [5] 6,832 [5] 71°40′S170°30′E / 71.667°S 170.500°E / -71.667; 170.500 (Adare Peninsula) [6] Pleistocene [5]
Mount Andrus [7] 2,978 [7] 9,768 [7] 75°48′S132°14′W / 75.800°S 132.233°W / -75.800; -132.233 (Mount Andrus) [8] Unknown [7]
Argo Point [9] 360 [9] 1,181 [9] 66°15′S60°55′W / 66.250°S 60.917°W / -66.250; -60.917 (Argo Point) [10] 0.9 Ma [9]
Beaufort Island [11] 740 [11] 2,427 [11] 76°56′S166°56′E / 76.933°S 166.933°E / -76.933; 166.933 (Beaufort Island) [12] Unknown [11]
Mount Berlin [13] 3,478 [13] 11,408 [13] 76°03′S135°52′W / 76.050°S 135.867°W / -76.050; -135.867 (Mount Berlin) [14] 8350 BCE ± 5300 years [13]
Mount Bird 1,765 [15] 5,791 [15] 77°16′S166°44′E / 77.267°S 166.733°E / -77.267; 166.733 (Mount bird) [15] 3.8-4.6 million years ago
Black Island [16] 1,041 [16] 3,414 [16] 78°12′S166°25′E / 78.200°S 166.417°E / -78.200; 166.417 (Black Island) [17] 1.69 Ma [16]
Bridgeman Island [18] 240 [18] 787 [18] 62°04′S56°44′W / 62.067°S 56.733°W / -62.067; -56.733 (Bridgeman Island) [19] Unknown [18]
Brown Bluff [20] 745 [20] 2,444 [20] 63°32′S56°55′W / 63.533°S 56.917°W / -63.533; -56.917 (Brown Peak) [20]
Brown Peak [21] 1,167 [21] 3,828 [21] 67°25′S164°35′E / 67.417°S 164.583°E / -67.417; 164.583 (Brown Peak) [22] Unknown [21]
Mount Bursey [23] 2,787 [23] 9,141 [23] 76°01′S132°38′W / 76.017°S 132.633°W / -76.017; -132.633 (Mount Bursey) [24] 0.49 Ma [23]
Coulman Island [25] 1,998 [25] 6,553 [25] 73°28′S169°45′E / 73.467°S 169.750°E / -73.467; 169.750 (Coulman Island) [26] -
Daniell Peninsula [25] 2,026 [25] 6,647 [25] 72°50′S169°35′E / 72.833°S 169.583°E / -72.833; 169.583 (Daniell Peninsula) [27] -
Deception Island [28] 602 [28] 1,975 [28] 62°57′S60°38′W / 62.950°S 60.633°W / -62.950; -60.633 (Deception Island) [29] 1970 [28]
Mount Discovery [30] 2,578 [30] 8,456 [30] 78°22′S165°01′E / 78.367°S 165.017°E / -78.367; 165.017 (Mount Discovery) [31] 1.87 Ma [30]
Mount Erebus [32] 3,794 [32] 12,444 [32] 77°31′S167°09′E / 77.517°S 167.150°E / -77.517; 167.150 (Mount Erebus) [33] 2018 [32]
Mount Frakes [34] 3,654 [34] 11,985 [34] 76°48′S117°42′W / 76.800°S 117.700°W / -76.800; -117.700 (Mount Frakes) [35] 1.7 Ma [34]
Franklin Island [36] 247 [36] 810 [36] 76°05′S168°19′E / 76.083°S 168.317°E / -76.083; 168.317 (Franklin Island) [37] Pleistocene [36]
Gaussberg [38] 370 [38] 1,214 [38] 66°48′S89°11′E / 66.800°S 89.183°E / -66.800; 89.183 (Gaussberg) [39] Pleistocene [38]
Mount Haddington [40] 1,630 [40] 5,346 [40] 64°13′S57°38′W / 64.217°S 57.633°W / -64.217; -57.633 (Mount Haddington) [41] Unknown [40]
Hallett Peninsula [25] 1,770 [25] 5,810 [25] 72°30′S170°10′E / 72.500°S 170.167°E / -72.500; 170.167 (Hallett Peninsula) [42]
Mount Hampton 3,325 [43] 10,909 [43] 76°29′S125°48′W / 76.483°S 125.800°W / -76.483; -125.800 (Mount Hampton) [43] -
Hudson Mountains [44] 749 [44] 2,457 [44] 74°25′S99°30′W / 74.417°S 99.500°W / -74.417; -99.500 (Hudson Mountains) [45] 210 BCE ± 200 years [44]
Lars Christensen Peak [46] 1,640 [46] 5,379 [46] 68°46′S90°31′W / 68.767°S 90.517°W / -68.767; -90.517 (Peter I Island) [47] Unknown [46]
Mount Melbourne [48] 2,732 [48] 8,961 [48] 74°21′S164°42′E / 74.350°S 164.700°E / -74.350; 164.700 (Mount Melbourne) [49] 1892 ± 30 years [48]
Melville Peak [50] 549 [50] 1,801 [50] 62°01′S57°41′W / 62.017°S 57.683°W / -62.017; -57.683 (Melville Peak) [51] Unknown [50]
Mount Morning [52] 2,723 [52] 8,931 [52] 78°31′S163°35′E / 78.517°S 163.583°E / -78.517; 163.583 (Mount Morning) [53] Unknown [52]
Mount Moulton 3,070 [54] 10,072 [54] 76°03′S135°08′W / 76.050°S 135.133°W / -76.050; -135.133 (Mount Moulton) [54] -
Mount Murphy [55] 2,703 [55] 8,866 [55] 75°20′S110°44′W / 75.333°S 110.733°W / -75.333; -110.733 (Mount Murphy) [56] 0.9 Ma [55]
Mount Overlord 3,395 [57] 11,138 [57] 73°10′S164°36′E / 73.167°S 164.600°E / -73.167; 164.600 (Mount Overlord) [57] -
Paulet Island [58] 353 [58] 1,158 [58] 63°35′S55°47′W / 63.583°S 55.783°W / -63.583; -55.783 (Paulet Island) [59] Unknown [58]
Penguin Island [60] 180 [60] 590 [60] 62°06′S57°54′W / 62.100°S 57.900°W / -62.100; -57.900 (Penguin Island) [61] 1905 (?) [60]
The Pleiades [62] 3,040 [62] 9,971 [62] 72°42′S165°32′E / 72.700°S 165.533°E / -72.700; 165.533 (The Pleiades) [63] 1050 BC ± 1000 years [62]
Red Island [64] 495 [64] 1,624 [64] 63°44′S57°52′W / 63.733°S 57.867°W / -63.733; -57.867 (Red Island) [64]
Mount Rittmann [65] 2,600 [65] 8,530 [65] 1252 ± 2 years [66]
Rosamel Island [67] 2,600 [67] 8,530 [67] 78°10′S162°40′E / 78.167°S 162.667°E / -78.167; 162.667 (Rosamel Island) [67]
Royal Society Range [68] 3,000 [68] 9,840 [68] 78°10′S162°40′E / 78.167°S 162.667°E / -78.167; 162.667 (Royal Society Volcano) [69] Unknown [68]
Seal Nunataks [70] 368 [70] 1,207 [70] 65°03′S60°18′W / 65.050°S 60.300°W / -65.050; -60.300 (Seal Nunataks) [71] Unknown [70]
Mount Sidley 4,285 [72] 14,058 [72] 77°02′S126°06′W / 77.033°S 126.100°W / -77.033; -126.100 (Mount Sidley) [72] -
Mount Siple [73] 3,110 [73] 10,201 [73] 73°15′S126°06′W / 73.250°S 126.100°W / -73.250; -126.100 (Mount Siple) [74] Unknown [73]
Mount Steere [34] 3,500 [75] 11,482 [75] 76°44′S117°49′W / 76.733°S 117.817°W / -76.733; -117.817 (Mount Steere) [75] -
Mount Takahe [76] 3,460 [76] 11,349 [76] 76°17′S112°05′W / 76.283°S 112.083°W / -76.283; -112.083 (Mount Takahe) [77] 5550 BCE (?) [76]
Mount Terra Nova [78] 2,130 [79] 6,988 [79] 77°31′S167°57′W / 77.517°S 167.950°W / -77.517; -167.950 (Mount Terra Nova) [79] 0.8 Ma [78]
Mount Terror [78] 3,262 [78] 10,699 [78] 77°31′S168°32′E / 77.517°S 168.533°E / -77.517; 168.533 (Mount Terror) [80] 0.82 Ma [78]
Toney Mountain [81] 3,595 [81] 11,792 [81] 75°48′S115°48′W / 75.800°S 115.800°W / -75.800; -115.800 (Toney Mountain) [82] Unknown [81]
Mount Vernon Harcourt 1,570 [83] 5,151 [83] 72°32′S169°55′E / 72.533°S 169.917°E / -72.533; 169.917 (Mount Harcourt) [83] -
Mount Waesche [84] 3,292 [84] 10,801 [84] 77°10′S126°54′W / 77.167°S 126.900°W / -77.167; -126.900 (Mount Waesche) [85] Unknown [84]

See also

Related Research Articles

Brown Peak (Sturge Island)

Brown Peak is a stratovolcano and the highest point of the Balleny Islands. It is situated on the northern part of Sturge Island.

Mount Terror (Antarctica) Shield volcano in Antarctica

Mount Terror is a large shield volcano that forms the eastern part of Ross Island, Antarctica. It has numerous cinder cones and domes on the flanks of the shield and is mostly under snow and ice. It is the second largest of the four volcanoes which make up Ross Island and is somewhat overshadowed by its neighbour, Mount Erebus, 30 km (19 mi) to the west. Mount Terror was named in 1841 by Sir James Clark Ross for his second ship, HMS Terror. The captain of Terror was Francis Crozier, a close friend of Ross for whom the nearby Cape Crozier is named.

Zavodovski Island

Zavodovski Island is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Traversay Islands subgroup of the South Sandwich Islands. It lies 350 kilometres (217 mi) southeast of South Georgia Island. It is the northernmost of the South Sandwich Islands and the nearest to South Georgia.

Bellingshausen Island Island in the Southern Thule group of the South Sandwich Islands

Bellingshausen Island is one of the most southerly of the South Sandwich Islands, close to Thule Island and Cook Island, and forming part of the Southern Thule group. It is named after its discoverer, Baltic German-Russian Antarctic explorer Fabian von Bellingshausen (1778–1852).

Candlemas Island Island of the Candlemas Islands in the South Sandwich Islands

Candlemas Island is a small uninhabited island of the Candlemas Islands in the South Sandwich Islands. It lies about 2 miles (3.2 km) from Vindication Island, separated by the Nelson Channel.

Hudson Mountains

The Hudson Mountains are a mountain range in western Ellsworth Land just east of Cranton Bay and Pine Island Bay at the eastern extremity of Amundsen Sea. They are of volcanic origin, consisting of low scattered mountains and nunataks that protrude through the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Hudson Mountains are bounded on the north by Cosgrove Ice Shelf and on the south by Pine Island Glacier.

Gaussberg

Gaussberg is an extinct volcanic cone, 370 metres (1,214 ft) high, fronting on Davis Sea immediately west of the Posadowsky Glacier in Kaiser Wilhelm II Land in Antarctica. It is ice-free and conical in nature, having formed subglacially in an intraplate environment about 55,000 years ago. The current edifice is thought to be the remains of a once-larger mountain that has been reduced by glacial and subaerial erosion.

Mount Waesche Volcano in Antarctica

Mount Waesche is a mountain of volcanic origin at the southern end of the Executive Committee Range in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. It is 3,292 metres (10,801 ft) high, and stands 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Mount Sidley, the highest volcano in Antarctica. The mountain lies southwest of the Chang Peak caldera and is largely covered with snow and glaciers, but there are rock exposures on the southern and southwestern slopes.

Mount Griggs

Mount Griggs, formerly known as Knife Peak Volcano, is a stratovolcano, which lies 10 km behind the volcanic arc defined by other Katmai group volcanoes. Although no historic eruptions have been reported from Mount Griggs, vigorously active fumaroles persist in a summit crater and along the upper southwest flank. The fumaroles on the southwest flank are the hottest, and some of the flank fumaroles can roar so loudly that they can be heard from the valley floor. The slopes of Mount Griggs are heavily mantled by fallout from the 1912 eruption of Novarupta volcano. The summit consists of three concentric craters, the lowest and largest of which contains a recent summit cone topped by two craters. The volume of the volcanic edifice is estimated at about 25 cubic kilometers (6.0 cu mi). Isotopic analysis indicates that the source of Griggs' magma is distinct from the other Katmai volcanoes.

Mount Mageik

Mount Mageik is a stratovolcano on the Alaska Peninsula. It has no confirmed historical eruptions, but its youngest eruptive products are apparently Holocene in age. A young crater lies on the northeast flank of the central summit cone, and is the site of vigorous superheated fumarolic activity with prominent sulfur deposits. The volcanic cones are composed of andesite, basaltic andesite and dacite.

Mount Iliamna

Mount Iliamna is a glacier-covered stratovolcano in the largely volcanic Aleutian Range in southwest Alaska. Located in the Chigmit Mountain subrange in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, the 10,016-foot (3,053 m) volcano lies approximately 134 miles (215 km) southwest of Anchorage on the west side of lower Cook Inlet. It is the 25th most prominent peak in the United States.

Penguin Island (South Shetland Islands)

Penguin Island is one of the smaller of the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.

Franklin Island (Antarctica)

Franklin Island is an island 13 kilometres (7 nmi) long, lying in the Ross Sea about 130 kilometres (80 mi) east of Cape Hickey, Victoria Land. It was discovered on January 27, 1841 by James Clark Ross, and named for Sir John Franklin, the noted Arctic explorer, who as Governor of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) had royally entertained the expedition on its way south at Hobart in 1840. Though located just 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Beaufort Island and appearing at first glance to be part of the same group, it is not usually considered to be part of the Ross Archipelago. The island is the eroded remnant of a shield volcano that formed 4.8 +/- 2.0 million years ago, the vent of which is now submerged off the east coast. The island hosts a breeding colony of Adélie penguins.

White Island (Ross Archipelago)

White Island is an island in the Ross Archipelago of Antarctica. It is 28 km (15 nmi) long, protruding through the Ross Ice Shelf immediately east of Black Island. It was discovered by the Discovery Expedition (1901–04) and so named by them because of the mantle of snow which covers it. Some 142 km2 of shelf ice adjoining the north-west coast of the island has been designated an Antarctic Specially Protected Area because it supports an isolated small breeding population of Weddell seals.

Lava lake Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater

Lava lakes are large volumes of molten lava, usually basaltic, contained in a volcanic vent, crater, or broad depression. The term is used to describe both lava lakes that are wholly or partly molten and those that are solidified.

Mount Haddington is a massive 1,630 m (5,350 ft) high shield volcano comprising much of James Ross Island in Graham Land, Antarctica. It is 60 km (37 mi) wide and has had numerous subglacial eruptions throughout its history, forming many tuyas. Some of its single eruptions were bigger in volume than a whole normal-sized volcano. Old eruption shorelines are widespread on the volcano's deeply eroded flanks.

Mount Hodson is an ice-covered stratovolcano and the highest point on Visokoi Island, South Sandwich Islands. It might have erupted in 1830 and 1930, and the summit usually steams. Named after Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson (1881-1944), Governor of the Falkland Islands and Dependencies, 1926–30.

Mount Bursey is a broad, ice-covered mountain, 2,780 metres (9,120 ft) high, which forms the eastern end of the Flood Range in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica.

Melville Peak is a prominent peak surmounting Cape Melville, the eastern cape of King George Island, in the South Shetland Islands off Antarctica. It represents an eroded stratovolcano of unknown age and contains a volcanic crater at its summit. A volcanic ash layer similar in composition to Melville Peak has been identified 30 km (19 mi) away from the volcano and may indicate Melville Peak has been volcanically active in the last few thousand years.

Mount Kauffman

Mount Kauffman is a prominent mountain, 2,365 metres (7,760 ft) high, that surmounts the northwest end of the Ames Range in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1959–65, and named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Commander S.K. Kauffman, U.S. Navy, a staff civil engineering officer who supervised the planning and building of Plateau Station, 1965–66.

References

  1. van Wyk de Vries, Maximillian; Bingham, Robert G.; Hein, Andrew S. "A new volcanic province: an inventory of subglacial volcanoes in West Antarctica". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. doi: 10.1144/sp461.7 .
  2. McKie, Robin (2017-08-12). "Scientists discover 91 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet". The Observer. ISSN   0029-7712 . Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  3. "K/Ar and Rb/Sr dating of McMurdo Volcanic Group (north of Campbell Glacier)" (PDF). Geological Society of America. p. 2.
  4. 1 2 3 "Mount Abbott". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Adare Peninsula". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  6. "Adare Peninsula". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  7. 1 2 3 4 "Andrus". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  8. "Mount Andrus". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  9. 1 2 3 4 "Argo Point". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  10. "Argo Point". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  11. 1 2 3 4 "Beaufort Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  12. "Beaufort Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Berlin". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  14. "Mount Berlin". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  15. 1 2 3 "Mount Bird". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  16. 1 2 3 4 "Black Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  17. "Black Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  18. 1 2 3 4 "Bridgeman Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  19. "Bridgeman Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  20. 1 2 3 4 "Brown Bluff". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  21. 1 2 3 4 "Sturge Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  22. "Brown Peak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  23. 1 2 3 4 "Bursey". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  24. "Mount Bursey". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Smellie, J. L.; Rocchi, S.; Armienti, P. (2011). "Late Miocene volcanic sequences in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: products of glaciovolcanic eruptions under different thermal regimes". Bulletin of Volcanology . Springer: 4. ISSN   0258-8900.
  26. "Coulman Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  27. "Daniell Peninsula". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  28. 1 2 3 4 "Deception Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  29. "Deception Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  30. 1 2 3 4 "Discovery". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  31. "Mount Discovery". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  32. 1 2 3 4 "Erebus". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  33. "Mount Erebus". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 "Crary Group". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  35. "Mount Frakes". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  36. 1 2 3 4 "Franklin Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  37. "Franklin Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  38. 1 2 3 4 "Gaussberg". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  39. "Gaussberg". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  40. 1 2 3 4 "James Ross Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  41. "Mount Haddington". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  42. "Hallett Peninsula". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  43. 1 2 3 "Mount Hampton". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  44. 1 2 3 4 "Hudson Mountains". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  45. "Hudson Mountains". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  46. 1 2 3 4 "Peter I Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  47. "Lars Christensen Peak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  48. 1 2 3 4 "Melbourne". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  49. "Mount Melbourne". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  50. 1 2 3 4 "Melville". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  51. "Melville Peak". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  52. 1 2 3 4 "Morning". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  53. "Mount Morning". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  54. 1 2 3 "Mount Moulton". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  55. 1 2 3 4 "Murphy". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  56. "Mount Murphy". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  57. 1 2 3 "Mount Overlord". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  58. 1 2 3 4 "Paulet". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  59. "Paulet Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  60. 1 2 3 4 "Penguin Island". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  61. "Penguin Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  62. 1 2 3 4 "The Pleiades". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  63. "The Pleiades". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  64. 1 2 3 4 "Red Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  65. 1 2 3 "Rittmann". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  66. Lee, Mi Jung; Kyle, Philip R.; Iverson, Nels A.; Lee, Jong Ik; Han, Yeongcheol (1 September 2019). "Rittmann volcano, Antarctica as the source of a widespread 1252 ± 2 CE tephra layer in Antarctica ice". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 521: 169. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2019.06.002. ISSN   0012-821X.
  67. 1 2 3 4 "Rosamel Island". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  68. 1 2 3 4 "Royal Society Range". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  69. "Royal Society Range". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  70. 1 2 3 4 "Seal Nunataks Group". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  71. "Seal Nunataks". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  72. 1 2 3 "Mount Sidley". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  73. 1 2 3 4 "Siple". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  74. "Mount Siple". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  75. 1 2 3 "Mount Steere". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  76. 1 2 3 4 "Takahe". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  77. "Mount Takahe". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  78. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Terror". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  79. 1 2 3 "Mount Terra Nova". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  80. "Mount Terror". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  81. 1 2 3 4 "Toney Mountain". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  82. "Toney Mountain". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  83. 1 2 3 "Mount Vernon Harcourt". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  84. 1 2 3 4 "Waesche". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  85. "Mount Waesche". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2020-05-27.

Bibliography