Research stations in Antarctica

Last updated
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML  ·  GPX
Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations Antarctica Station Map.png
Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations
Countries that have one or more stations in Antarctica Antarctican bases.png
Countries that have one or more stations in Antarctica

A number of governments have set up permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the drifting ice stations set up in the Arctic, the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.

Contents

Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 42 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June). [1] In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects. [2] [ dubious ]

History

First bases

"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Omond House - Laurie Island.jpg
"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition

During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration in the late 19th century, the first bases on the continent were established. In 1898, Carsten Borchgrevink, a Norwegian/British explorer, led the British Antarctic Expedition to Cape Adare, where he established the first Antarctic base on Ridley Beach. The expedition is often referred to now as the Southern Cross Expedition, after expedition ship name. Most of the staff were Norwegian, but the funds for the expedition were British, provided by Sir George Newnes. The 10 members of the expedition explored Robertson Bay to the west of Cape Adare by dog teams, and later, after being picked up by the ship at the base, went ashore on the Ross Ice Shelf for brief journeys. The expedition hut is still in good condition and visited frequently by tourists.

The hut was later occupied by Scott's Northern Party under the command of Victor Campbell for a year in 1911, after its attempt to explore the eastern end of the ice shelf discovered Roald Amundsen already ashore preparing for his assault on the South Pole.

In 1903, Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition set off to Antarctica, with one of its aims to establish a meteorological station in the area. After the expedition failed to find land, Bruce decided to head back to the Laurie Island in the South Orkneys and find an anchorage there. [3] The islands were well-situated as a site for a meteorological station, and their relative proximity to the South American mainland allowed a permanent station to be established. [4] Bruce instituted a comprehensive programme of work, involving meteorological readings, trawling for marine samples, botanical excursions, and the collection of biological and geological specimens. [3]

The major task completed during this time was the construction of a stone building, christened "Omond House". [5] This was to act as living accommodation for the parties that would remain on Laurie Island to operate the proposed meteorological laboratory. The building was constructed from local materials using the dry stone method, with a roof improvised from wood and canvas sheeting. The completed house was 20 feet by 20 feet square (6m × 6m), with two windows, fitted as quarters for six people. Rudmose Brown wrote: "Considering that we had no mortar and no masons' tools it is a wonderfully fine house and very lasting. I should think it will be standing a century hence ..." [6]

Bruce later offered to Argentina the transfer of the station and instruments on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission. [7] Bruce informed the British officer William Haggard of his intentions in December 1903, and Haggard ratified the terms of Bruce's proposition. [8]

The Scotia sailed back for Laurie Island on 14 January 1904 carrying on board Argentinean officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, National Meteorological Office, Ministry of Livestock and National Postal and Telegraphs Office. In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base on the South Orkney Islands.

WWII and postwar expansion

Little happened for the following forty years until the Second World War, when the British launched Operation Tabarin in 1943, to establish a presence on the continent. The chief reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany.

View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947 Base Arturo Prat.JPG
View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947

Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim (New Swabia). [9] Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the 14-strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton on his final Antarctic expedition in 1921 - 1922.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. These bases were the first ever to be constructed on the mainland Antarctica. [10]

The United States starting under the leadership of Admiral Richard E. Byrd constructed a series of five bases near the Bay of Whales named Little America between 1929 and 1958. All of them have now drifted off to sea on icebergs.

Operation provoked a massive expansion in international activity after the war. Chile organized its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48. Among other accomplishments, it brought the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla to personally inaugurate one of its bases, thereby becoming the first head of state to set foot on the continent. [11] Signy Research Station (UK) was established in 1947, Australia's Mawson Station in 1954, Dumont d'Urville Station was the first French station in 1956. In that same year, the United States built McMurdo Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, and the Soviet Union built Mirny Station.

List of research stations

The United States maintains the southernmost Base and the largest base and research station in Antarctica, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. The second-southernmost base is the Chinese Kunlun Station at 80°25′02″S during the summer season, and the Russian Vostok Station at 78°27′50″S during the winter season.


Station
name
LOCODE TypeCountryYear
Est.
Administered byLocationStatus &
Activities
Coordinates Time zoneAverage Annual Temp °C
Aboa AQ ABASummerFlag of Finland.svg  Finland 1988 Finnish Antarctic Research Program Queen Maud Land Active 73°02′32″S13°24′26″W / 73.042283°S 13.407350°W / -73.042283; -13.407350
Aguirre Cerda AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1955 Instituto Antártico Chileno Deception Island Closed
1967
62°56′01″S60°35′45″W / 62.933704°S 60.5958931°W / -62.933704; -60.5958931
Amundsen–Scott South Pole AQ AMSPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Geographical South Pole Active 90°S0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (USA)) -49.5
Arctowski AQ ARCPermanentFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 1977 Polish Academy of Sciences King George Island Active 62°09′37″S58°28′24″W / 62.160140°S 58.473247°W / -62.160140; -58.473247
Arrival Heights Laboratory [12] AQPermanentFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1959 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°49′50″S166°39′40″E / 77.830577°S 166.661174°E / -77.830577; 166.661174
Arrival Heights Satellite Station [12] AQPermanentFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1959 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°49′48″S166°39′42″E / 77.830016°S 166.661659°E / -77.830016; 166.661659
Artigas AQ ARTPermanentFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1984 Uruguayan Antarctic Institute King George Island Active 62°11′04″S58°54′14″W / 62.184444°S 58.903889°W / -62.184444; -58.903889
Arturo Parodi AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1999 Instituto Antártico Chileno Ellsworth Land Closed
Relocated to
Union Glacier
2014
80°18′15″S81°23′13″W / 80.304170°S 81.3870573°W / -80.304170; -81.3870573
Arturo Prat AQ APTPermanentFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1947 Chilean Navy Greenwich Island Active 62°28′44″S59°39′52″W / 62.478889°S 59.664444°W / -62.478889; -59.664444 -2
Asuka AQSummerFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 1985 National Institute of Polar Research Queen Maud Land Closed
Unmanned activity
71°31′33″S24°06′41″E / 71.525950°S 24.111409°E / -71.525950; 24.111409
Beaver Lake [13] AQSummerFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1995 Australian Antarctic Division Beaver Lake Active 70°47′42″S68°10′08″E / 70.795115°S 68.168909°E / -70.795115; 68.168909
Belgrano I AQPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1955 Instituto Antártico Argentino Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Abandoned
1980
77°46′S38°11′W / 77.767°S 38.183°W / -77.767; -38.183
Belgrano II AQ BELPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1979 Instituto Antartico Argentino Coats Land Active 77°52′25″S34°37′39″W / 77.873696°S 34.627588°W / -77.873696; -34.627588 -13.3
Belgrano III AQPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1980 Instituto Antártico Argentino Berkner Island Abandoned
1984
77°54′02″S45°47′01″W / 77.900556°S 45.783611°W / -77.900556; -45.783611
Bellingshausen AQ BHNPermanentFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 1968 Russian Antarctic Expedition King George Island Active 62°11′55″S58°57′38″W / 62.198591°S 58.960547°W / -62.198591; -58.960547 -2.3
Bharati AQPermanentFlag of India.svg  India 2012 National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research Larsemann Hills Active 69°24′29″S76°11′14″E / 69.408030°S 76.187361°E / -69.408030; 76.187361
Borga AQSummerFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1969 South African National Antarctic Programme Borg Massif Closed
1976
72°58′00″S3°48′00″W / 72.966667°S 3.8°W / -72.966667; -3.8
Brockton AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1965 United States Navy Ross Ice Shelf Abandoned
1972
80°02′00″S178°42′00″W / 80.033333°S 178.7°W / -80.033333; -178.7
Brown AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1951 Instituto Antártico Argentino Paradise Harbor Active 64°53′44″S62°52′15″W / 64.895476°S 62.870905°W / -64.895476; -62.870905 +2
Byrd AQPermanent
Summer
since 1972
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Marie Byrd Land Closed
2005
80°00′53″S119°33′56″W / 80.01472°S 119.56556°W / -80.01472; -119.56556 -28.1
Cámara AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino Half Moon Island Active 62°35′41″S59°55′07″W / 62.594847°S 59.918558°W / -62.594847; -59.918558
Carvajal
(ex Station T)
AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1984 Instituto Antártico Chileno Adelaide Island Active 67°45′40″S68°54′52″W / 67.761201°S 68.914365°W / -67.761201; -68.914365
Casey AQ CASPermanentFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Vincennes Bay Active 66°16′57″S110°31′36″E / 66.282514°S 110.526613°E / -66.282514; 110.526613 -8
Charcot [14] AQPermanentFlag of France.svg  France 1957 French Polar Institute Adélie Land Closed 1959
Abandoned
69°22′30″S139°01′00″E / 69.375°S 139.016667°E / -69.375; 139.016667
Collins AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 2006 Instituto Antártico Chileno Fildes Peninsula Active 62°10′09″S58°51′07″W / 62.169250°S 58.851852°W / -62.169250; -58.851852
Comandante Ferraz AQ CFZPermanentFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1984 Brazilian Antarctic Program King George Island Active 62°05′07″S58°23′29″W / 62.085379°S 58.391513°W / -62.085379; -58.391513 -1.8
Concordia AQ CONPermanentFlag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of France.svg  France
2005 National Antarctic Research Program
and
IPEV
Dome C
Antarctic Plateau
Active 75°05′59″S123°19′56″E / 75.099780°S 123.332196°E / -75.099780; 123.332196 -51.7
Dakshin Gangotri AQPermanentFlag of India.svg  India 1984 National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research Dakshin Gangotri Glacier Closed
1990
Support base
69°24′24″S76°11′36″E / 69.406752°S 76.193379°E / -69.406752; 76.193379
Dallmann AQSummerFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1994 Alfred Wegener Institute Carlini Station Active 62°14′18″S58°40′04″W / 62.238251°S 58.667764°W / -62.238251; -58.667764
Davis AQ DAVPermanentFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Princess Elizabeth Land Active 68°34′36″S77°58′03″E / 68.576667°S 77.9675°E / -68.576667; 77.9675 -13.0
Deception AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1948 Instituto Antartico Argentino Deception Island Active 62°58′31″S60°41′52″W / 62.975284°S 60.697771°W / -62.975284; -60.697771
Dirck Gerritsz Laboratory AQSummerFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 2013 British Antarctic Survey Rothera Station Active 67°34′08″S68°07′29″W / 67.568979°S 68.124626°W / -67.568979; -68.124626 -5.3
Dobrowolski
(ex Oasis)
AQSummerFlag of Poland.svg  Poland 1959 Polish Academy of Sciences Wilkes Land Closed
1998
66°16′28″S100°45′00″E / 66.274514°S 100.749889°E / -66.274514; 100.749889
Dome Fuji AQ DMFSummerFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 1995 National Institute of Polar Research Queen Maud Land Closed 77°18′59″S39°42′04″E / 77.316285°S 39.701049°E / -77.316285; 39.701049 -54.3
Drescher AQSummerFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1986 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Closed
2004
72°50′00″S19°02′00″W / 72.833333°S 19.033333°W / -72.833333; -19.033333
Druzhba AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1960 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Zavadovskiy Island Closed
1960
66°43′00″S86°24′00″E / 66.716667°S 86.4°E / -66.716667; 86.4
Drúzhnaya 1 AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1975 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1986
Lost
77°34′00″S40°13′00″W / 77.566667°S 40.216667°W / -77.566667; -40.216667
Drúzhnaya 2  [ ru ]AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1982 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Lassiter Coast Closed
1986
75°36′00″S57°52′00″W / 75.6°S 57.866667°W / -75.6; -57.866667
Drúzhnaya 3 AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1982 Soviet Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Closed
1986
71°06′00″S10°49′00″W / 71.1°S 10.816667°W / -71.1; -10.816667
Drúzhnaya 4  [ ru ]AQ DRZSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
1987 Soviet Antarctic Expedition
Russian Antarctic Expedition
Princess Elizabeth Land Closed
1995
69°44′00″S73°42′00″E / 69.7333333°S 73.7°E / -69.7333333; 73.7
Dumont d'Urville AQ DDUPermanentFlag of France.svg  France 1956 IPEV Adélie Land Active 66°39′46″S140°00′07″E / 66.662778°S 140.001944°E / -66.662778; 140.001944 -11.1
E Base AQSummerFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1985 Fimbul Ice Shelf Active 70°18′00″S2°26′00″W / 70.3°S 2.433333°W / -70.3; -2.433333
East Base AQPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1941 United States Antarctic Service Expedition Stonington Island Closed
1948
68°11′02″S66°59′53″W / 68.183841°S 66.998158°W / -68.183841; -66.998158
Eco-Nelson AQPermanentFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
1989Private station Nelson Island Active 62°14′47″S58°58′56″W / 62.246312°S 58.982251°W / -62.246312; -58.982251
Eduardo Frei
and
Villa Las Estrellas
AQPermanentFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1969 Chilean Air Force King George Island Active 62°11′35″S58°58′55″W / 62.193126°S 58.981986°W / -62.193126; -58.981986 -2.3
Eights AQPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1963 National Science Foundation Queen Maud Land Closed
1965
75°14′00″S77°10′00″W / 75.233333°S 77.166667°W / -75.233333; -77.166667 Coordinates: 75°14′00″S77°10′00″W / 75.233333°S 77.166667°W / -75.233333; -77.166667
Ellsworth AQPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
1957 United States Navy
Instituto Antártico Argentino
Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Transferred to Argentina in 1959
Closed 1962
77°39′00″S41°02′00″W / 77.65°S 41.033333°W / -77.65; -41.033333 -22
Elichiribehety
(ex Station D)
AQSummerFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1997 Uruguayan Antarctic Institute Hope Bay Active 63°24′09″S56°59′27″W / 63.402478°S 56.990707°W / -63.402478; -56.990707
Escudero AQ ESCPermanentFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1994 Instituto Antártico Chileno King George Island Active 62°12′05″S58°57′44″W / 62.201382°S 58.962358°W / -62.201382; -58.962358
Esperanza AQ ESPPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino Hope Bay Active 63°23′51″S56°59′52″W / 63.3975°S 56.997778°W / -63.3975; -56.997778 -4.6
Filchner AQSummerFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1982 Alfred Wegener Institute Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Abandoned
and lost 1999
77°06′00″S50°24′00″W / 77.10000°S 50.4000°W / -77.10000; -50.4000
Fossil Bluff
(ex Station KG)
[15]
AQPermanent intermittently
Summer
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1961 British Antarctic Survey Alexander Island Active 71°19′24″S68°17′16″W / 71.323389°S 68.287722°W / -71.323389; -68.287722
Gabriel de Castilla AQ GDCSummerFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 1989 Spanish National Research Council Deception Island Active
Marine biology [16]
62°58′37″S60°40′31″W / 62.976951°S 60.675305°W / -62.976951; -60.675305
General Bernardo O'Higgins AQ OHGPermanentFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1948 Chilean Army Cape Legoupil Active
Logistics
63°19′15″S57°53′59″W / 63.320947°S 57.899677°W / -63.320947; -57.899677 -3.9
Georg Forster AQPermanentFlag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1976

1990
Alfred Wegener Institute Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1993
70°46′39″S11°50′56″E / 70.777493°S 11.848847°E / -70.777493; 11.848847
German Antarctic Receiving Station AQPermanentFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1991 German Aerospace Center Cape Legoupil Active 63°19′15″S57°54′02″W / 63.320873°S 57.900615°W / -63.320873; -57.900615
Giacomo Bove [17] AQ BGBSummerFlag of Italy.svg  Italy 1976Private station Italia Valley Taken apart by the Argentine Navy 1976 62°10′05″S58°30′18″W / 62.168055°S 58.505071°W / -62.168055; -58.505071
Gondwana AQSummerFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1983 Alfred Wegener Institute Transantarctic Mountains Active 74°38′07″S164°13′19″E / 74.635399°S 164.222014°E / -74.635399; 164.222014
González Videla AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1951 Chilean Air Force Waterboat Point
Graham Land
Active 64°49′26″S62°51′25″W / 64.823954°S 62.857077°W / -64.823954; -62.857077
Great Wall AQ GWLPermanentFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1985 Polar Research Institute of China King George Island Active 62°13′01″S58°57′43″W / 62.216838°S 58.961855°W / -62.216838; -58.961855
Guillermo Mann AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1991 Instituto Antártico Chileno Cape Shirreff Active 62°28′12″S60°46′17″W / 62.469917°S 60.771250°W / -62.469917; -60.771250
Hallett AQPermanent
Summer since 1964
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
1956 International Geophysical Year Hallett Peninsula Closed 1973 72°19′00″S170°16′00″E / 72.316667°S 170.266667°E / -72.316667; 170.266667
Halley AQ HLYPermanent
Temporary Summer [18]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey [19] Brunt Ice Shelf Active 75°36′45″S26°11′52″W / 75.612543°S 26.197797°W / -75.612543; -26.197797
relocated 23 kilometres (14 mi) inland [20]
-18.5
Jang Bogo AQ JBSPermanentFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 2014 Korea Polar Research Institute Terra Nova Bay Active 74°37′26″S164°13′44″E / 74.624015°S 164.228815°E / -74.624015; 164.228815
Jinnah AQSummerFlag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1991 Pakistan Antarctic Programme Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land Active 70°24′00″S25°45′00″E / 70.3999984°S 25.749997°E / -70.3999984; 25.749997
Juan Carlos Primero AQ JCPSummerFlag of Spain.svg  Spain 1988 Spanish National Research Council South Bay, Livingston Island Active 62°39′47″S60°23′17″W / 62.663138°S 60.387992°W / -62.663138; -60.387992
Jubany
(renamed Carlini)
AQ JUBPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1953 Instituto Antartico Argentino King George Island Active 62°14′18″S58°40′04″W / 62.238251°S 58.667764°W / -62.238251; -58.667764
Julio Ripamonti AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1982 Instituto Antártico Chileno Ardley Island Active 62°12′36″S58°56′08″W / 62.210106°S 58.935508°W / -62.210106; -58.935508
King Baudouin
(first station)
AQPermanentFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1957 National Center for Polar Research Princess Ragnhild Coast Closed 1961
Abandoned
70°25′33″S24°19′00″E / 70.425833°S 24.316667°E / -70.425833; 24.316667
King Baudouin
(second station)
AQPermanentFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
1964 National Center for Polar Research Princess Ragnhild Coast Closed 1967
Abandoned
70°25′33″S24°19′00″E / 70.425833°S 24.316667°E / -70.425833; 24.316667
King Sejong AQ KSGPermanentFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1988 Korea Polar Research Institute King George Island Active 62°13′22″S58°47′18″W / 62.222803°S 58.788256°W / -62.222803; -58.788256
Kohnen AQ KHNSummerFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 2001 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Active 75°00′07″S0°04′00″E / 75.001882°S 0.066792°E / -75.001882; 0.066792
Komsomolskaya AQPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1957 Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute Queen Mary Land Closed
1962
74°06′S94°30′E / 74.1°S 94.5°E / -74.1; 94.5 -52
Kunlun AQSummerFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2009 Polar Research Institute of China Dome A Active 80°25′02″S77°06′59″E / 80.417340°S 77.116449°E / -80.417340; 77.116449
Law AQ LAWSummerFlag of Romania.svg  Romania 1986 Romanian Polar Research Institute Larsemann Hills
Princess Elizabeth Land
Active 69°22′25″S76°22′18″E / 69.373573°S 76.371594°E / -69.373573; 76.371594
Lázarev AQPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1959 Russian Antarctic Expedition Lazarev Ice Shelf Closed 1961
Abandoned
69°58′00″S12°55′00″E / 69.966667°S 12.916667°E / -69.966667; 12.916667
Lenie AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1985 United States Antarctic Program Admiralty Bay Active 62°10′42″S58°26′46″W / 62.178439°S 58.446158°W / -62.178439; -58.446158
Leningradskaya AQSummerFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 1971 Russian Antarctic Expedition Oates Coast
Victoria Land
Closed 1991
69°30′05″S159°23′31″E / 69.501333°S 159.391840°E / -69.501333; 159.391840 -13
Little America AQPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1929 Ross Ice Shelf Lost
1987
78°12′S162°12′W / 78.2°S 162.2°W / -78.2; -162.2 -22
Little Rockford AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1958 Marie Byrd Land Closed 1965
Abandoned
79°30′00″S147°19′00″W / 79.5°S 147.316667°W / -79.5; -147.316667
Machu Picchu AQSummerFlag of Peru.svg  Peru 1989 Instituto Antártico Peruano [21] Admiralty Bay
King George Island
Active 62°05′29″S58°28′12″W / 62.091497°S 58.469905°W / -62.091497; -58.469905
Maitri AQ MTRPermanentFlag of India.svg  India 1989 National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research Schirmacher Oasis Active 70°46′00″S11°43′53″E / 70.766632°S 11.731516°E / -70.766632; 11.731516
Maldonado AQSummerFlag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 1990 Instituto Antártico Ecuatoriano Greenwich Island Active 62°26′57″S59°44′29″W / 62.449056°S 59.741389°W / -62.449056; -59.741389
Marambio AQ MRBPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1969 Instituto Antartico Argentino Marambio Island Active 64°14′28″S56°37′36″W / 64.241014°S 56.626753°W / -64.241014; -56.626753 -8.1
Matienzo AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1961 Instituto Antartico Argentino Graham Land Active 64°58′32″S60°04′17″W / 64.975659°S 60.071501°W / -64.975659; -60.071501 -11.6
Maudheim AQPermanentFlag of Norway.svg  Norway
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1949 Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Closed
1952
71°03′00″S10°56′00″W / 71.05°S 10.933333°W / -71.05; -10.933333
Mawson AQ MAWPermanentFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1954 Australian Antarctic Division Mac Robertson Land Active 67°36′12″S62°52′27″E / 67.603232°S 62.874170°E / -67.603232; 62.874170 -8.3
McMurdo AQ MCMPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1956 United States Antarctic Program Ross Island Active 77°50′47″S166°40′06″E / 77.846323°S 166.668235°E / -77.846323; 166.668235 -19.7
Melchior AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1947 Instituto Antartico Argentino Melchior Islands Active 64°19′32″S62°58′34″W / 64.325688°S 62.976063°W / -64.325688; -62.976063 -3.6
Mendel AQSummerFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 2006 Masaryk University James Ross Island Active 63°48′02″S57°52′56″W / 63.800623°S 57.882178°W / -63.800623; -57.882178
Mir AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1958
Meteo
Russian Antarctic Expedition Drygalski Island Closed
1960
65°45′S92°30′E / 65.75°S 92.5°E / -65.75; 92.5
Mirny AQ MIRPermanentFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 1956 Russian Antarctic Expedition Davis Sea Active 66°33′11″S93°00′35″E / 66.553122°S 93.009724°E / -66.553122; 93.009724 -11.3
Mizuho AQSummerFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 1970 National Institute of Polar Research Mizuho Plateau Active
occasionally
transhipment station
70°41′57″S44°16′45″E / 70.699174°S 44.279057°E / -70.699174; 44.279057 -31
Molodyozhnaya AQSummerFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 1962
reopened
in 2007
Russian Antarctic Expedition Thala Hills
East Antarctica
Closed 1990
Active
Meteorology
[22]
67°39′55″S45°50′18″E / 67.665348°S 45.838400°E / -67.665348; 45.838400 -11.0
Neumayer I AQ NEUPermanentFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1981 Alfred Wegener Institute Princess Martha Coast Closed
1993
70°39′05″S8°15′47″W / 70.651509°S 8.263172°W / -70.651509; -8.263172
Neumayer II AQ NEUPermanentFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 1992 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land Closed
2009
70°38′16″S8°15′42″W / 70.637847°S 8.261744°W / -70.637847; -8.261744
Neumayer III AQ NEUPermanentFlag of Germany.svg  Germany 2009 Alfred Wegener Institute Atka Bay Active 70°40′38″S8°16′18″W / 70.677250°S 8.271600°W / -70.677250; -8.271600
Norway AQPermanentFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 1957 Sixth Norwegian Antarctic Expedition Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1960
Transferred to
South Africa
70°30′S2°30′W / 70.5°S 2.5°W / -70.5; -2.5
Novolazarevskaya AQ NOVPermanentFlag of Russia.svg  Russia 1961 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land Active 70°46′36″S11°49′20″E / 70.776762°S 11.822356°E / -70.776762; 11.822356 -10.3
Oasis
(renamed
Dobrowolski)
AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
1956

1959
Russian Antarctic Expedition Bunger Hills Active 66°16′00″S100°44′00″E / 66.266667°S 100.733333°E / -66.266667; 100.733333
Oazis 2 AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1987 Russian Antarctic Expedition Bunger Hills Closed
1995
66°16′28″S100°45′00″E / 66.274514°S 100.749889°E / -66.274514; 100.749889
Orcadas AQ ORCPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1904 Instituto Antartico Argentino
Argentine Navy
Laurie Island
South Orkney Islands
Active 60°44′17″S44°44′17″W / 60.738085°S 44.738130°W / -60.738085; -44.738130 -3.0
Palmer AQ PLMPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1968 United States Antarctic Program Anvers Island Active 64°46′27″S64°03′10″W / 64.774230°S 64.052718°W / -64.774230; -64.052718 -2
Petrel AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1952 Instituto Antartico Argentino Dundee Island Active 63°28′41″S56°13′44″W / 63.477947°S 56.228753°W / -63.477947; -56.228753 -6
Pionérskaya AQPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1956 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1959
69°44′00″S95°31′00″E / 69.733333°S 95.516667°E / -69.733333; 95.516667 -38
Plateau AQPermanentFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1965 United States Navy
National Science Foundation
Queen Maud Land Closed
1969
79°15′03″S40°33′38″E / 79.25082°S 40.56042°E / -79.25082; 40.56042 -56.7
Pobeda AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1960 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1960
64°39′S98°54′E / 64.65°S 98.9°E / -64.65; 98.9
Pole of inaccessibility Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1958 Kemp Land Closed
1958
82°06′00″S54°58′00″E / 82.1°S 54.966667°E / -82.1; 54.966667 -58.2
Port Martin AQPermanentFlag of France.svg  France 1950 French Antarctic Expedition Cape Margerie Closed
1952
66°49′06″S141°24′02″E / 66.818250°S 141.400694°E / -66.818250; 141.400694
Primavera AQSummerFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1977 Instituto Antartico Argentino Graham Land Active 64°09′21″S60°57′19″W / 64.155766°S 60.955183°W / -64.155766; -60.955183
Princess Elisabeth AQSummerFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 2007 International Polar Foundation
Energy passive station.
Queen Maud Land Reopened
23 November 2017 [23]
71°57′00″S23°20′49″E / 71.949944°S 23.347079°E / -71.949944; 23.347079
Progress AQ PROPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
1988 Russian Antarctic Expedition Prydz Bay Active 69°22′25″S76°22′18″E / 69.373575°S 76.371678°E / -69.373575; 76.371678 -9.4
Risopatrón AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1954 Instituto Antártico Chileno Robert Island Active 62°22′42″S59°42′03″W / 62.378333°S 59.700833°W / -62.378333; -59.700833
Rothera
(ex Station R)
[24]
AQ ROTPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1975 British Antarctic Survey Adelaide Island Active 67°34′06″S68°07′33″W / 67.568417°S 68.125796°W / -67.568417; -68.125796
Russkaya AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
1980
reopened in 2007
Russian Antarctic Expedition Marie Byrd Land Closed 1990
Active
74°46′00″S136°48′10″W / 74.766755°S 136.802882°W / -74.766755; -136.802882
Salyut AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1978 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Mary Land Closed
1978
65°32′00″S96°30′00″E / 65.533333°S 96.5°E / -65.533333; 96.5
San Martín AQ SMTPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1951 Instituto Antartico Argentino Barry Island Active 68°07′48″S67°06′05″W / 68.130043°S 67.101311°W / -68.130043; -67.101311 -4.6
SANAE I AQ SNAPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1960 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1963
Abandoned
70°18′00″S2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE II AQ SNAPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1971 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1979
Abandoned
70°18′00″S2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE III AQ SNAPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1979 South African National Antarctic Programme Fimbul Ice Shelf Closed 1997
Abandoned
70°18′00″S2°22′00″W / 70.3°S 2.366667°W / -70.3; -2.366667
SANAE IV AQ SNAPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1960
SANAE I
South African National Antarctic Programme Vesleskarvet
Queen Maud Land
Active 71°40′22″S2°50′26″W / 71.672650°S 2.840575°W / -71.672650; -2.840575
Sarie Marais AQSummerFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1982 South African National Antarctic Programme Ahlmann Ridge Closed 1999
Dismantled 2001
Geology
Biology
72°01′35″S2°48′18″W / 72.026389°S 2.805°W / -72.026389; -2.805
Scott Base AQ SBAPermanentFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1957 Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island Active 77°50′57″S166°46′06″E / 77.849132°S 166.768196°E / -77.849132; 166.768196 -19.6
Shirreff AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1991 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cape Shirreff Active 62°28′13″S60°46′16″W / 62.470271°S 60.770998°W / -62.470271; -60.770998
Signy
(ex Station H)
[26]
AQ SGNPermanent
1947-1995
Summer
since 1996
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Signy Island
South Orkney Islands
Active 60°42′29″S45°35′42″W / 60.708137°S 45.594888°W / -60.708137; -45.594888 -3
Site 2 AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1957 Law Dome Closed 1966
Abandoned
Glaciology
66°30′07″S113°12′09″E / 66.501944°S 113.2025°E / -66.501944; 113.2025
Syowa AQ SYWPermanentFlag of Japan.svg  Japan 1957 National Institute of Polar Research East Ongul Island Active 69°00′16″S39°34′54″E / 69.004448°S 39.581713°E / -69.004448; 39.581713 -10.5
Siple AQSummerFlag of the United States.svg  United States 1973 Stanford's STAR Lab Ellsworth Land Closed
1988
75°55′00″S83°55′00″W / 75.916667°S 83.916667°W / -75.916667; -83.916667
Sobral AQPermanentFlag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1965 Instituto Antártico Argentino Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf Closed
1968
81°04′45″S40°31′12″W / 81.07917°S 40.52000°W / -81.07917; -40.52000
Sodrúzhestvo AQSummerFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1971 Russian Antarctic Expedition Amery Ice Shelf Closed
1974
69°43′00″S73°44′00″E / 69.716667°S 73.733333°E / -69.716667; 73.733333
South Ice AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1957 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition Edith Ronne Land Closed 1958
Abandoned
82°05′00″S30°00′00″W / 82.083333°S 30.0°W / -82.083333; -30.0
Sovetskaya AQPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1958 Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute Kaiser Wilhelm II Land Closed
1959
Abandoned
77°58′00″S89°16′00″E / 77.966667°S 89.266667°E / -77.966667; 89.266667
Soyuz AQPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1982 Russian Antarctic Expedition Prince Charles Mountains Closed
1989
70°34′36″S68°47′30″E / 70.576667°S 68.791667°E / -70.576667; 68.791667
St. Kliment Ohridski AQSummerFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1988 Bulgarian Antarctic Institute Emona Anchorage
Livingston Island
Active 62°38′29″S60°21′53″W / 62.641389°S 60.364722°W / -62.641389; -60.364722
Station A [27] AQSummerFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1944 United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust Goudier Island Active 64°49′31″S63°29′37″W / 64.825276°S 63.493688°W / -64.825276; -63.493688
Station B [28] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1944 Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition Deception Island Closed
1969
62°58′38″S60°33′50″W / 62.977231°S 60.563809°W / -62.977231; -60.563809
Station C [29] AQSummerFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1946 British Antarctic Survey Cape Geddes Closed 1947
Abandoned
60°41′16″S44°34′24″W / 60.687642°S 44.573196°W / -60.687642; -44.573196
Station D [30] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1945 British Antarctic Survey Hope Bay Closed
1964
63°24′09″S56°59′27″W / 63.402478°S 56.990707°W / -63.402478; -56.990707
Station E [31] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1946 British Antarctic Survey Stonington Island Closed
1975
68°11′08″S66°59′41″W / 68.185678°S 66.994815°W / -68.185678; -66.994815
Station F
(renamed Faraday) [32]
AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Galindez Island Closed
1996
65°14′45″S64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786 -3.3
Station G [33] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Admiralty Bay Closed
1961
62°05′14″S58°23′39″W / 62.087217°S 58.394049°W / -62.087217; -58.394049
Station J [34] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Prospect Point Closed 1959
Removed 2004
65°59′55″S65°19′06″W / 65.998516°S 65.318273°W / -65.998516; -65.318273
Station N [35] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1955 British Antarctic Survey Anvers Island Closed 1958
Demolished
1991
64°45′36″S64°04′48″W / 64.760032°S 64.079991°W / -64.760032; -64.079991
Station O [36] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey Danco Island Closed 1959
Demolished
2004
64°44′00″S62°36′00″W / 64.733333°S 62.600000°W / -64.733333; -62.600000
Station P [37] AQSummerFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Mateev Cove Closed
1958
62°38′58″S60°35′25″W / 62.649306°S 60.590278°W / -62.649306; -60.590278
Station T [38] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1961 British Antarctic Survey Adelaide Island Closed
1977
67°45′40″S68°54′52″W / 67.761201°S 68.914365°W / -67.761201; -68.914365
Station V [39] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1953 British Antarctic Survey View Point Closed
1963
63°33′16″S57°22′42″W / 63.554392°S 57.378279°W / -63.554392; -57.378279
Station W [40] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey Detaille Island Closed
1959
66°52′01″S66°47′53″W / 66.867006°S 66.797971°W / -66.867006; -66.797971
Station Y [41] AQPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1955
reopened 1969
British Antarctic Survey Horseshoe Island Closed
1960
1969
67°48′30″S67°17′39″W / 67.808285°S 67.294266°W / -67.808285; -67.294266
Svea AQSummerFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1988 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land Active 74°35′00″S11°13′00″W / 74.583333°S 11.216667°W / -74.583333; -11.216667
Taishan [42] AQSummerFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2014 Polar Research Institute of China Princess Elizabeth Land Active 73°51′50″S76°58′29″E / 73.863883°S 76.974717°E / -73.863883; 76.974717
Tor AQ TORSummerFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 1993 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land Active 71°53′22″S5°09′34″E / 71.889477°S 5.159545°E / -71.889477; 5.159545
Troll AQ TRLPermanentFlag of Norway.svg  Norway 1990 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land Active 72°00′42″S2°32′06″E / 72.011662°S 2.535138°E / -72.011662; 2.535138
Union Glacier AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 2014 Chilean Army
Chilean Navy
Chilean Air Force
Instituto Antártico Chileno
Union Glacier Active 79°46′10″S82°54′26″W / 79.76944°S 82.90722°W / -79.76944; -82.90722 (Joint Scientific Polar Station "Union Glacier" (Chile))
Vanda AQPermanent until 1974
Summer since 1976
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1969 Antarctica New Zealand Victoria Land Active 77°31′00″S161°40′00″E / 77.516667°S 161.666667°E / -77.516667; 161.666667 -19.7
Vechernyaya [43] AQSummerFlag of Belarus.svg  Belarus 2007 National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Mount Vechernyaya, Thala Hills Active 67°39′33″S46°09′29″E / 67.659123°S 46.158125°E / -67.659123; 46.158125
Vernadsky
(ex Station F)
AQ VKYPermanentFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1994 National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine Galindez Island Active 65°14′45″S64°15′28″W / 65.245791°S 64.257786°W / -65.245791; -64.257786 -3.3
Vostok AQ VOSPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
1957 Russian Antarctic Expedition Antarctic Ice Sheet Active 78°27′50″S106°50′15″E / 78.463889°S 106.83757°E / -78.463889; 106.83757 -55.2
Vostok I AQ VOSPermanentFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 1957 Russian Academy of Sciences East Antarctica Closed 1957
Abandoned
72°08′00″S96°35′00″E / 72.133333°S 96.583333°E / -72.133333; 96.583333
Wasa AQ WSASummerFlag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1989 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land Active 73°02′24″S13°23′55″W / 73.039901°S 13.398584°W / -73.039901; -13.398584
Weddell 1 AQSummerFlag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1992 Russian Antarctic Expedition
National Science Foundation
Weddell Sea Closed
1992
71°48′00″S51°43′00″W / 71.8°S 51.716667°W / -71.8; -51.716667
World Park AQPermanent1987 Greenpeace Cape Evans Dismantled
1992
77°38′20″S166°24′50″E / 77.6389°S 166.4139°E / -77.6389; 166.4139
Yelcho AQSummerFlag of Chile.svg  Chile 1962
reopened 2015
Instituto Antártico Chileno South Bay
Doumer Island
Active 64°52′33″S63°35′01″W / 64.87591°S 63.583721°W / -64.87591; -63.583721
Zhongshan AQ ZGNPermanentFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1989 Polar Research Institute of China Larsemann Hills
Prydz Bay
Active 69°22′25″S76°22′18″E / 69.373587°S 76.371652°E / -69.373587; 76.371652
Zucchelli AQ MZUSummer [44] Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1986 National Antarctic Research Program
ENEA
CNR
Terra Nova Bay Active 74°41′39″S164°06′50″E / 74.694206°S 164.113869°E / -74.694206; 164.113869
* Observes daylight saving time.

List of Subantarctic research stations

Station name LOCODE TypeCountryYear
Est.
Administered
by
LocationStatus &
Activities
Coordinates Time zone
Alfred Faure TFPermanentFlag of France.svg  France 1963 Île de la Possession Active
Meteorology
Seismology
Biology
46°25′56″S51°51′30″E / 46.432333°S 51.858217°E / -46.432333; 51.858217
Bird
(ex Station BI) [46]
GSPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1957 British Antarctic Survey Bird Island Active
Bird and seal research
54°00′30″S38°03′04″W / 54.008329°S 38.051132°W / -54.008329; -38.051132
Campbell NZPermanentFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 1946 MetService Campbell Island Active
Meteorology
52°33′04″S169°09′04″E / 52.550973°S 169.150981°E / -52.550973; 169.150981
Gough SH TDCPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1956 South African Weather Service Gough Island Active
Meteorology
40°20′58″S9°52′49″W / 40.349307°S 9.880331°W / -40.349307; -9.880331
King Edward Point
(ex Station M) [47]
GSPermanentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1950 British Antarctic Survey King Edward Point Active
Support sustainable fishing
54°17′00″S36°29′36″W / 54.283335°S 36.493196°W / -54.283335; -36.493196
Macquarie AUSPermanentFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1948 Australian Antarctic Division Macquarie Island Active
Meteorology
Biology
54°18′S158°34′E / 54.30°S 158.57°E / -54.30; 158.57
Marion ZAPermanentFlag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 1948 South African National Antarctic Programme Prince Edward Islands Active
Meteorology
Biology
46°52′32″S37°51′31″E / 46.875460°S 37.858540°E / -46.875460; 37.858540
Port-aux-Français TF PFRPermanentFlag of France.svg  France 1963 Kerguelen Islands Active
Meteorology
Geophysics
Biology
49°20′55″S70°13′10″E / 49.348667°S 70.219306°E / -49.348667; 70.219306
* Observes daylight saving time.

Map

This map shows permanent research stations only.

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Antarctica Past events regarding the continent of Antarctica

The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle, was coined by Marinus of Tyre in the 2nd century AD.

Mawson Station Antarctic station in Australian Antarctic Territory

The Mawson Station, commonly called Mawson, is one of three permanent bases and research outposts in Antarctica managed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD). Mawson lies in Holme Bay in Mac Robertson Land, East Antarctica in the Australian Antarctic Territory, a territory claimed by Australia. Established in 1954, Mawson is Australia's oldest Antarctic station and the oldest continuously inhabited Antarctic station south of the Antarctic Circle.

British Antarctic Territory British Overseas Territory in United Kingdom

The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole, overlapping the Antarctic claims of Argentina and Chile.

Halley Research Station

Halley Research Station is a research facility in Antarctica on the Brunt Ice Shelf operated by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The base was established in 1956 to study the Earth's atmosphere. Measurements from Halley led to the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985. The current base is the sixth in a line of structures and includes design elements intended to overcome the challenge of building on a floating ice shelf without being buried and crushed by snow. As of 2020, the base has been left unmanned through winter since 2017, due to concerns over the propagation of an ice crack and how this might cut off the evacuation route in an emergency. The Halley Bay Important Bird Area with its emperor penguin colony lies in the general vicinity of the base.

South Orkney Islands A group of islands in the Southern Ocean north-east of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres (375 mi) north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 844 kilometres (524 mi) south-west of South Georgia Island. They have a total area of about 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi). The islands are claimed both by Britain, and by Argentina as part of Argentine Antarctica. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, sovereignty claims are held in abeyance.

William Speirs Bruce Scottish marine biologist and antarctic explorer

William Speirs Bruce was a British naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition to the South Orkney Islands and the Weddell Sea. Among other achievements, the expedition established the first permanent weather station in Antarctica. Bruce later founded the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in Edinburgh, but his plans for a transcontinental Antarctic march via the South Pole were abandoned because of lack of public and financial support.

Operation Tabarin

Operation Tabarin was a secret British Antarctic expedition, during World War II. It was launched in 1943 under the pretense of patrolling the Antarctic for German commerce raiders and U-boats that threatened Allied shipping.

Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition

The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) of 1955–1958 was a Commonwealth-sponsored expedition that successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. It was the first expedition to reach the South Pole overland for 46 years, preceded only by Amundsen's expedition and Scott's expedition in 1911 and 1912.

Timeline of New Zealands links with Antarctica wikimedia timeline article

This is a timeline of the history of New Zealand's involvement with Antarctica.

United States Antarctic Program

The United States Antarctic Program is an organization of the United States government which has presence in the continent of Antarctica. Founded in 1959, the USAP manages all U.S. scientific research and related logistics in Antarctica as well as aboard ships in the Southern Ocean.

Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Expedition to the Antarctic in 1902-04

The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE), 1902–1904, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh. Although overshadowed in terms of prestige by Robert Falcon Scott's concurrent Discovery Expedition, the SNAE completed a full programme of exploration and scientific work. Its achievements included the establishment of a manned meteorological station, the first in Antarctic territory, and the discovery of new land to the east of the Weddell Sea. Its large collection of biological and geological specimens, together with those from Bruce's earlier travels, led to the establishment of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in 1906.

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation. It is part of the Natural Environment Research Council. With over 400 staff, BAS takes an active role in Antarctic affairs, operating five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in both polar regions, as well as addressing key global and regional issues. This involves joint research projects with over 40 UK universities and more than 120 national and international collaborations.

The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration was an era in the exploration of the continent of Antarctica which began at the end of the 19th century, and ended after the First World War; the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition of 1921–1922 is often cited by historians as the dividing line between the "Heroic" and "Mechanical" ages.

Farthest South A record held for most Southerly latitude reached, before the South Pole itself was reached.

Farthest South refers to the most southerly latitude reached by explorers before the conquest of the South Pole in 1911. Significant steps on the road to the pole were the discovery of lands south of Cape Horn in 1619, Captain James Cook's crossing of the Antarctic Circle in 1773, and the earliest confirmed sightings of the Antarctic mainland in 1820. From the late 19th century onward, the quest for Farthest South latitudes became in effect a race to reach the pole, which culminated in Roald Amundsen's success in December 1911.

Territorial claims in Antarctica Wikimedia list article

There are seven sovereign states who have made eight territorial claims in Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation, and countries without claims such as India, Italy, Russia, Pakistan and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.

Antarctica Continent

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

South Pole Southern point where the Earths axis of rotation intersects its surface

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole.

Queen Maud Land Norways territorial claim in Antarctica

Queen Maud Land is a c. 2.7 million square kilometre (1.04 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the claimed British Antarctic Territory to the west and the similarly claimed Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales (1869–1938).

Ken Blaiklock British Antarctic surveyor

Kenneth Victor Blaiklock OBE was a British Antarctic surveyor who took part in Sir Vivian Fuchs's Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition that completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica. During this expedition, he reached the South Pole by dog sled for the first time since Amundsen. He was awarded the Polar Medal with three bars. His daughter is British politician, Catherine Blaiklock.

References

  1. Silja Vöneky; Sange Addison-Agyei (May 2011). "Oxford Public International Law". Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law.
  2. 4.0 Antarctica - Past and Present
  3. 1 2 Rudmose Brown, R. N.; Pirie, J. H.; Mossman, R. C. (2002). The Voyage of the Scotia. Edinburgh: Mercat Press. pp. 34–57. ISBN   1-84183-044-5.
  4. Rudmose Brown, p. 57.
  5. "Voyage of the Scotia 1902–04: The Antarctic". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  6. Speak, Peter (2003). William Speirs Bruce: Polar Explorer and Scottish Nationalist. Edinburgh: NMS Publishing. p. 85. ISBN   1-901663-71-X.
  7. Escude, Carlos; Cisneros, Andres. "Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  8. Moneta, Jose Manuel (1954). Cuatro Años en las Orcadas del Sur (9th ed.). Ediciones Peuser.
  9. "HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943".
  10. "Spirit of Scott 2012: Britain's polar interests lie under a cloud". The Daily Telegraph.
  11. Antarctica and the Arctic: the complete encyclopedia, Volume 1, by David McGonigal, Lynn Woodworth, page 98
  12. 1 2 "New Zealand". Antarctic Treaty. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  13. Antarctic Treaty
  14. "Dumont d'Urville". Institute Polaire Français. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  15. "Fossil Bluff Station KG". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  16. BAE Gabriel de Castilla Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
  17. "Giacomo Bove Station". Worldwide Antarctic Program. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  18. Halley Research Station will not winter in 2018 British Antarctic Survey
  19. "Halley VI Antarctic Research Station". Archello.com.
  20. Halley Research Station relocation British Antarctic Survey
  21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-05-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2006-03-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. Waking the Princess International Polar Foundation
  24. "Rothera Station R". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  25. "French Polar Team - R1 Russkaya Station / Antarctica". Archived from the original on 2017-08-28. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  26. "Signy Station H". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  27. "Port Lockroy Diaries". United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  28. "Deception Island Station B". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  29. "Sandefjord Bay Station C". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  30. "Hope Bay Station D". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  31. "Stonington Island Station E". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  32. "Faraday Station F". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  33. "Admiralty Bay Station G". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  34. "Prospect Point Station J". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  35. "Anvers Island Station N". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  36. "Danco Island Station O". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  37. "Livingstone Island Station P". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  38. "Adelaide Station T". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  39. "View Point Station V". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  40. "Detaille Island Station W". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  41. "Horseshoe Island Station Y". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  42. "中国正式建成南极泰山科考站".
  43. Varetto, Gianni (August 24, 2017). "Belarusian Antarctic Research Vechernyaya Station (WAP BLR-New)". Worldwide Antarctic Program.
  44. "Stazione Mario Zucchelli". Italiantartide. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  45. "Current Local Time in Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  46. "Bird Island Station BI". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  47. "King Edward Pont Station M". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 12 August 2018.