A number of governments have set up permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the drifting ice stations set up in the Arctic, the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.
Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 42 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June). [ dubious ]In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects.
During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration in the late 19th century, the first bases on the continent were established. In 1898, Carsten Borchgrevink, a Norwegian/British explorer, led the British Antarctic Expedition to Cape Adare, where he established the first Antarctic base on Ridley Beach. The expedition is often referred to now as the Southern Cross Expedition, after expedition ship name. Most of the staff were Norwegian, but the funds for the expedition were British, provided by Sir George Newnes. The 10 members of the expedition explored Robertson Bay to the west of Cape Adare by dog teams, and later, after being picked up by the ship at the base, went ashore on the Ross Ice Shelf for brief journeys. The expedition hut is still in good condition and visited frequently by tourists.
The hut was later occupied by Scott's Northern Party under the command of Victor Campbell for a year in 1911, after its attempt to explore the eastern end of the ice shelf discovered Roald Amundsen already ashore preparing for his assault on the South Pole.
In 1903, Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition set off to Antarctica, with one of its aims to establish a meteorological station in the area. After the expedition failed to find land, Bruce decided to head back to the Laurie Island in the South Orkneys and find an anchorage there.The islands were well-situated as a site for a meteorological station, and their relative proximity to the South American mainland allowed a permanent station to be established. Bruce instituted a comprehensive programme of work, involving meteorological readings, trawling for marine samples, botanical excursions, and the collection of biological and geological specimens.
The major task completed during this time was the construction of a stone building, christened "Omond House". × 6m), with two windows, fitted as quarters for six people. Rudmose Brown wrote: "Considering that we had no mortar and no masons' tools it is a wonderfully fine house and very lasting. I should think it will be standing a century hence ..."This was to act as living accommodation for the parties that would remain on Laurie Island to operate the proposed meteorological laboratory. The building was constructed from local materials using the dry stone method, with a roof improvised from wood and canvas sheeting. The completed house was 20 feet by 20 feet square (6m
Bruce later offered to Argentina the transfer of the station and instruments on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission.Bruce informed the British officer William Haggard of his intentions in December 1903, and Haggard ratified the terms of Bruce's proposition.
The Scotia sailed back for Laurie Island on 14 January 1904 carrying on board Argentinean officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, National Meteorological Office, Ministry of Livestock and National Postal and Telegraphs Office. In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base on the South Orkney Islands.
Little happened for the following forty years until the Second World War, when the British launched Operation Tabarin in 1943, to establish a presence on the continent. The chief reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany.
Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim (New Swabia).Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the 14-strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton on his final Antarctic expedition in 1921 - 1922.
Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. These bases were the first ever to be constructed on the mainland Antarctica.
The United States starting under the leadership of Admiral Richard E. Byrd constructed a series of five bases near the Bay of Whales named Little America between 1929 and 1958. All of them have now drifted off to sea on icebergs.
Operation provoked a massive expansion in international activity after the war. Chile organized its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48. Among other accomplishments, it brought the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla to personally inaugurate one of its bases, thereby becoming the first head of state to set foot on the continent.Signy Research Station (UK) was established in 1947, Australia's Mawson Station in 1954, Dumont d'Urville Station was the first French station in 1956. In that same year, the United States built McMurdo Station and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, and the Soviet Union built Mirny Station.
The United States maintains the southernmost Base and the largest base and research station in Antarctica, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. The second-southernmost base is the Chinese Kunlun Station at 80°25′02″S during the summer season, and the Russian Vostok Station at 78°27′50″S during the winter season.
|Administered by||Location||Status &|
|Coordinates||Time zone||Average Annual Temp °C|
|Aboa||AQ ABA||Summer||Finland||1988||Finnish Antarctic Research Program||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Aguirre Cerda||AQ||Summer||Chile||1955||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Deception Island||Closed|
|Amundsen–Scott South Pole||AQ AMS||Permanent||United States||1957||United States Antarctic Program||Geographical South Pole||Active||UTC+12*||-49.5|
|Arctowski||AQ ARC||Permanent||Poland||1977||Polish Academy of Sciences||King George Island||Active|
|Arrival Heights Laboratory||AQ||Permanent||New Zealand||1959||Antarctica New Zealand||Ross Island||Active|
|Arrival Heights Satellite Station||AQ||Permanent||New Zealand||1959||Antarctica New Zealand||Ross Island||Active|
|Artigas||AQ ART||Permanent||Uruguay||1984||Uruguayan Antarctic Institute||King George Island||Active||UTC−3|
|Arturo Parodi||AQ||Summer||Chile||1999||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Ellsworth Land||Closed|
|Arturo Prat||AQ APT||Permanent||Chile||1947||Chilean Navy||Greenwich Island||Active||UTC−3||-2|
|Asuka||AQ||Summer||Japan||1985||National Institute of Polar Research||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Beaver Lake||AQ||Summer||Australia||1995||Australian Antarctic Division||Beaver Lake||Active|
|Belgrano I||AQ||Permanent||Argentina||1955||Instituto Antártico Argentino||Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Abandoned|
|Belgrano II||AQ BEL||Permanent||Argentina||1979||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Coats Land||Active||UTC−3||-13.3|
|Belgrano III||AQ||Permanent||Argentina||1980||Instituto Antártico Argentino||Berkner Island||Abandoned|
|Bellingshausen||AQ BHN||Permanent||Russia||1968||Russian Antarctic Expedition||King George Island||Active||-2.3|
|Bharati||AQ||Permanent||India||2012||National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research||Larsemann Hills||Active|
|Borga||AQ||Summer||South Africa||1969||South African National Antarctic Programme||Borg Massif||Closed|
|Brockton||AQ||Summer||United States||1965||United States Navy||Ross Ice Shelf||Abandoned|
|Brown||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1951||Instituto Antártico Argentino||Paradise Harbor||Active||UTC−3||+2|
|United States||1957||United States Antarctic Program||Marie Byrd Land||Closed|
|Cámara||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1953||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Half Moon Island||Active||UTC−3|
| Carvajal |
(ex Station T)
|AQ||Summer||Chile||1984||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Adelaide Island||Active|
|Casey||AQ CAS||Permanent||Australia||1957||Australian Antarctic Division||Vincennes Bay||Active||UTC+8||-8|
|Charcot||AQ||Permanent||France||1957||French Polar Institute||Adélie Land||Closed 1959|
|Collins||AQ||Summer||Chile||2006||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Fildes Peninsula||Active|
|Comandante Ferraz||AQ CFZ||Permanent||Brazil||1984||Brazilian Antarctic Program||King George Island||Active||UTC−3||-1.8|
|Concordia||AQ CON||Permanent|| Italy |
|2005|| National Antarctic Research Program |
| Dome C |
|Dakshin Gangotri||AQ||Permanent||India||1984||National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research||Dakshin Gangotri Glacier||Closed|
|Dallmann||AQ||Summer||Germany||1994||Alfred Wegener Institute||Carlini Station||Active|
|Davis||AQ DAV||Permanent||Australia||1957||Australian Antarctic Division||Princess Elizabeth Land||Active||UTC+7||-13.0|
|Deception||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1948||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Deception Island||Active||UTC−3|
|Dirck Gerritsz Laboratory||AQ||Summer||Netherlands||2013||British Antarctic Survey||Rothera Station||Active||-5.3|
| Dobrowolski |
|AQ||Summer||Poland||1959||Polish Academy of Sciences||Wilkes Land||Closed|
|Dome Fuji||AQ DMF||Summer||Japan||1995||National Institute of Polar Research||Queen Maud Land||Closed||-54.3|
|Drescher||AQ||Summer||Germany||1986||Alfred Wegener Institute||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Druzhba||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1960||Soviet Antarctic Expedition||Zavadovskiy Island||Closed|
|Drúzhnaya 1||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1975||Soviet Antarctic Expedition||Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Closed|
|Drúzhnaya 2||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1982||Soviet Antarctic Expedition||Lassiter Coast||Closed|
|Drúzhnaya 3||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1982||Soviet Antarctic Expedition||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Drúzhnaya 4||AQ DRZ||Summer|| Soviet Union |
|1987|| Soviet Antarctic Expedition |
Russian Antarctic Expedition
|Princess Elizabeth Land||Closed|
|Dumont d'Urville||AQ DDU||Permanent||France||1956||IPEV||Adélie Land||Active||UTC+10||-11.1|
|E Base||AQ||Summer||South Africa||1985||Fimbul Ice Shelf||Active|
|East Base||AQ||Permanent||United States||1941||United States Antarctic Service Expedition||Stonington Island||Closed|
|Eco-Nelson||AQ||Permanent|| Czechoslovakia |
|1989||Private station||Nelson Island||Active|
| Eduardo Frei |
Villa Las Estrellas
|AQ||Permanent||Chile||1969||Chilean Air Force||King George Island||Active||UTC−3||-2.3|
|Eights||AQ||Permanent||United States||1963||National Science Foundation||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Ellsworth||AQ||Permanent|| United States |
|1957|| United States Navy |
Instituto Antártico Argentino
|Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Transferred to Argentina in 1959|
| Elichiribehety |
(ex Station D)
|AQ||Summer||Uruguay||1997||Uruguayan Antarctic Institute||Hope Bay||Active|
|Escudero||AQ ESC||Permanent||Chile||1994||Instituto Antártico Chileno||King George Island||Active||UTC−3|
|Esperanza||AQ ESP||Permanent||Argentina||1953||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Hope Bay||Active||UTC−3||-4.6|
|Filchner||AQ||Summer||Germany||1982||Alfred Wegener Institute||Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Abandoned |
and lost 1999
| Fossil Bluff |
(ex Station KG)
|United Kingdom||1961||British Antarctic Survey||Alexander Island||Active|
|Gabriel de Castilla||AQ GDC||Summer||Spain||1989||Spanish National Research Council||Deception Island||Active|
|General Bernardo O'Higgins||AQ OHG||Permanent||Chile||1948||Chilean Army||Cape Legoupil||Active|
|Georg Forster||AQ||Permanent|| East Germany |
|Alfred Wegener Institute||Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Closed|
|German Antarctic Receiving Station||AQ||Permanent||Germany||1991||German Aerospace Center||Cape Legoupil||Active|
|Giacomo Bove||AQ BGB||Summer||Italy||1976||Private station||Italia Valley||Taken apart by the Argentine Navy 1976|
|Gondwana||AQ||Summer||Germany||1983||Alfred Wegener Institute||Transantarctic Mountains||Active|
|González Videla||AQ||Summer||Chile||1951||Chilean Air Force|| Waterboat Point |
|Great Wall||AQ GWL||Permanent||China||1985||Polar Research Institute of China||King George Island||Active|
|Guillermo Mann||AQ||Summer||Chile||1991||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Cape Shirreff||Active|
Summer since 1964
| United States |
|1956||International Geophysical Year||Hallett Peninsula||Closed 1973|
|United Kingdom||1956||British Antarctic Survey||Brunt Ice Shelf||Active|
relocated 23 kilometres (14 mi) inland
|Jang Bogo||AQ JBS||Permanent||South Korea||2014||Korea Polar Research Institute||Terra Nova Bay||Active||UTC+11|
|Jinnah||AQ||Summer||Pakistan||1991||Pakistan Antarctic Programme||Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Juan Carlos Primero||AQ JCP||Summer||Spain||1988||Spanish National Research Council||South Bay, Livingston Island||Active||UTC−3|
| Jubany |
|AQ JUB||Permanent||Argentina||1953||Instituto Antartico Argentino||King George Island||Active||UTC−3|
|Julio Ripamonti||AQ||Summer||Chile||1982||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Ardley Island||Active||UTC-3|
| King Baudouin |
|AQ||Permanent||Belgium||1957||National Center for Polar Research||Princess Ragnhild Coast||Closed 1961|
| King Baudouin |
|AQ||Permanent|| Belgium |
|1964||National Center for Polar Research||Princess Ragnhild Coast||Closed 1967|
|King Sejong||AQ KSG||Permanent||South Korea||1988||Korea Polar Research Institute||King George Island||Active||UTC−3|
|Kohnen||AQ KHN||Summer||Germany||2001||Alfred Wegener Institute||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Komsomolskaya||AQ||Permanent||Soviet Union||1957||Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute||Queen Mary Land||Closed|
|Kunlun||AQ||Summer||China||2009||Polar Research Institute of China||Dome A||Active|
|Law||AQ LAW||Summer||Romania||1986||Romanian Polar Research Institute|| Larsemann Hills |
Princess Elizabeth Land
|Lázarev||AQ||Permanent||Soviet Union||1959||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Lazarev Ice Shelf||Closed 1961|
|Lenie||AQ||Summer||United States||1985||United States Antarctic Program||Admiralty Bay||Active|
|Leningradskaya||AQ||Summer||Russia||1971||Russian Antarctic Expedition|| Oates Coast |
|Little America||AQ||Permanent||United States||1929||Ross Ice Shelf||Lost|
|Little Rockford||AQ||Summer||United States||1958||Marie Byrd Land||Closed 1965|
|Machu Picchu||AQ||Summer||Peru||1989||Instituto Antártico Peruano|| Admiralty Bay |
King George Island
|Maitri||AQ MTR||Permanent||India||1989||National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research||Schirmacher Oasis||Active|
|Maldonado||AQ||Summer||Ecuador||1990||Instituto Antártico Ecuatoriano||Greenwich Island||Active|
|Marambio||AQ MRB||Permanent||Argentina||1969||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Marambio Island||Active||UTC−3||-8.1|
|Matienzo||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1961||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Graham Land||Active||UTC−3||-11.6|
|Maudheim||AQ||Permanent|| Norway |
|1949||Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Mawson||AQ MAW||Permanent||Australia||1954||Australian Antarctic Division||Mac Robertson Land||Active||UTC+6||-8.3|
|McMurdo||AQ MCM||Permanent||United States||1956||United States Antarctic Program||Ross Island||Active||UTC+12*||-19.7|
|Melchior||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1947||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Melchior Islands||Active||UTC−3||-3.6|
|Mendel||AQ||Summer||Czech Republic||2006||Masaryk University||James Ross Island||Active|
|Russian Antarctic Expedition||Drygalski Island||Closed|
|Mirny||AQ MIR||Permanent||Russia||1956||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Davis Sea||Active||-11.3|
|Mizuho||AQ||Summer||Japan||1970||National Institute of Polar Research||Mizuho Plateau||Active|
|Russian Antarctic Expedition|| Thala Hills |
|Neumayer I||AQ NEU||Permanent||Germany||1981||Alfred Wegener Institute||Princess Martha Coast||Closed|
|Neumayer II||AQ NEU||Permanent||Germany||1992||Alfred Wegener Institute||Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Neumayer III||AQ NEU||Permanent||Germany||2009||Alfred Wegener Institute||Atka Bay||Active||UTC|
|Norway||AQ||Permanent||Norway||1957||Sixth Norwegian Antarctic Expedition||Fimbul Ice Shelf||Closed 1960|
|Novolazarevskaya||AQ NOV||Permanent||Russia||1961||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Queen Maud Land||Active||-10.3|
| Oasis |
|AQ||Summer|| Soviet Union |
|Russian Antarctic Expedition||Bunger Hills||Active|
|Oazis 2||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1987||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Bunger Hills||Closed|
|Orcadas||AQ ORC||Permanent||Argentina||1904|| Instituto Antartico Argentino |
| Laurie Island |
South Orkney Islands
|Palmer||AQ PLM||Permanent||United States||1968||United States Antarctic Program||Anvers Island||Active||UTC−3||-2|
|Petrel||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1952||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Dundee Island||Active||UTC−3||-6|
|Pionérskaya||AQ||Permanent||Soviet Union||1956||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Queen Mary Land||Closed|
|Plateau||AQ||Permanent||United States||1965|| United States Navy |
National Science Foundation
|Queen Maud Land||Closed|
|Pobeda||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1960||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Queen Mary Land||Closed|
|Pole of inaccessibility||Soviet Union||1958||Kemp Land||Closed|
|Port Martin||AQ||Permanent||France||1950||French Antarctic Expedition||Cape Margerie||Closed|
|Primavera||AQ||Summer||Argentina||1977||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Graham Land||Active||UTC−3|
|Princess Elisabeth||AQ||Summer||Belgium||2007|| International Polar Foundation |
Energy passive station.
|Queen Maud Land||Reopened|
23 November 2017
|Progress||AQ PRO||Permanent|| Soviet Union |
|1988||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Prydz Bay||Active||-9.4|
|Risopatrón||AQ||Summer||Chile||1954||Instituto Antártico Chileno||Robert Island||Active|
| Rothera |
(ex Station R)
|AQ ROT||Permanent||United Kingdom||1975||British Antarctic Survey||Adelaide Island||Active|
|Russkaya||AQ||Summer|| Soviet Union |
reopened in 2007
|Russian Antarctic Expedition||Marie Byrd Land||Closed 1990|
| UTC−6 |
|Salyut||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1978||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Queen Mary Land||Closed|
|San Martín||AQ SMT||Permanent||Argentina||1951||Instituto Antartico Argentino||Barry Island||Active||UTC−3||-4.6|
|SANAE I||AQ SNA||Permanent||South Africa||1960||South African National Antarctic Programme||Fimbul Ice Shelf||Closed 1963|
|SANAE II||AQ SNA||Permanent||South Africa||1971||South African National Antarctic Programme||Fimbul Ice Shelf||Closed 1979|
|SANAE III||AQ SNA||Permanent||South Africa||1979||South African National Antarctic Programme||Fimbul Ice Shelf||Closed 1997|
|SANAE IV||AQ SNA||Permanent||South Africa||1960|
|South African National Antarctic Programme|| Vesleskarvet |
Queen Maud Land
|Sarie Marais||AQ||Summer||South Africa||1982||South African National Antarctic Programme||Ahlmann Ridge||Closed 1999|
|Scott Base||AQ SBA||Permanent||New Zealand||1957||Antarctica New Zealand||Ross Island||Active||UTC+12||-19.6|
|Shirreff||AQ||Summer||United States||1991||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration||Cape Shirreff||Active|
| Signy |
(ex Station H)
|AQ SGN||Permanent |
|United Kingdom||1947||British Antarctic Survey|| Signy Island |
South Orkney Islands
|Site 2||AQ||Summer||United States||1957||Law Dome||Closed 1966|
|Syowa||AQ SYW||Permanent||Japan||1957||National Institute of Polar Research||East Ongul Island||Active||UTC+3||-10.5|
|Siple||AQ||Summer||United States||1973||Stanford's STAR Lab||Ellsworth Land||Closed|
|Sobral||AQ||Permanent||Argentina||1965||Instituto Antártico Argentino||Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf||Closed|
|Sodrúzhestvo||AQ||Summer||Soviet Union||1971||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Amery Ice Shelf||Closed|
|South Ice||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1957||Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition||Edith Ronne Land||Closed 1958|
|Sovetskaya||AQ||Permanent||Soviet Union||1958||Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute||Kaiser Wilhelm II Land||Closed|
|Soyuz||AQ||Permanent||Soviet Union||1982||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Prince Charles Mountains||Closed|
|St. Kliment Ohridski||AQ||Summer||Bulgaria||1988||Bulgarian Antarctic Institute|| Emona Anchorage |
|Station A||AQ||Summer||United Kingdom||1944||United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust||Goudier Island||Active|
|Station B||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1944||Falkland Islands and Dependencies Aerial Survey Expedition||Deception Island||Closed|
|Station C||AQ||Summer||United Kingdom||1946||British Antarctic Survey||Cape Geddes||Closed 1947|
|Station D||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1945||British Antarctic Survey||Hope Bay||Closed|
|Station E||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1946||British Antarctic Survey||Stonington Island||Closed|
| Station F |
|AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1947||British Antarctic Survey||Galindez Island||Closed|
|Station G||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1947||British Antarctic Survey||Admiralty Bay||Closed|
|Station J||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1957||British Antarctic Survey||Prospect Point||Closed 1959|
|Station N||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1955||British Antarctic Survey||Anvers Island||Closed 1958|
|Station O||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1956||British Antarctic Survey||Danco Island||Closed 1959|
|Station P||AQ||Summer||United Kingdom||1957||British Antarctic Survey||Mateev Cove||Closed|
|Station T||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1961||British Antarctic Survey||Adelaide Island||Closed|
|Station V||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1953||British Antarctic Survey||View Point||Closed|
|Station W||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1956||British Antarctic Survey||Detaille Island||Closed|
|Station Y||AQ||Permanent||United Kingdom||1955|
|British Antarctic Survey||Horseshoe Island||Closed|
|Svea||AQ||Summer||Sweden||1988||Swedish Polar Research Secretariat||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Taishan||AQ||Summer||China||2014||Polar Research Institute of China||Princess Elizabeth Land||Active|
|Tor||AQ TOR||Summer||Norway||1993||Norwegian Polar Institute||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Troll||AQ TRL||Permanent||Norway||1990||Norwegian Polar Institute||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Union Glacier||AQ||Summer||Chile||2014|| Chilean Army |
Chilean Air Force
Instituto Antártico Chileno
|Vanda||AQ||Permanent until 1974|
Summer since 1976
|New Zealand||1969||Antarctica New Zealand||Victoria Land||Active||-19.7|
|Vechernyaya||AQ||Summer||Belarus||2007||National Academy of Sciences of Belarus||Mount Vechernyaya, Thala Hills||Active|
| Vernadsky |
(ex Station F)
|AQ VKY||Permanent|| Ukraine |
|1994||National Antarctic Scientific Center of Ukraine||Galindez Island||Active||UTC−3||-3.3|
|Vostok||AQ VOS||Permanent|| Soviet Union |
|1957||Russian Antarctic Expedition||Antarctic Ice Sheet||Active||UTC+6||-55.2|
|Vostok I||AQ VOS||Permanent||Soviet Union||1957||Russian Academy of Sciences||East Antarctica||Closed 1957|
|Wasa||AQ WSA||Summer||Sweden||1989||Swedish Polar Research Secretariat||Queen Maud Land||Active|
|Weddell 1||AQ||Summer|| Russia |
|1992|| Russian Antarctic Expedition |
National Science Foundation
|World Park||AQ||Permanent||1987||Greenpeace||Cape Evans||Dismantled|
|Instituto Antártico Chileno|| South Bay |
|Zhongshan||AQ ZGN||Permanent||China||1989||Polar Research Institute of China|| Larsemann Hills |
|Zucchelli||AQ MZU||Summer||Italy||1986|| National Antarctic Research Program |
|Terra Nova Bay||Active|| UTC+12*|
|Alfred Faure||TF||Permanent||France||1963||Île de la Possession||Active|
| Bird |
(ex Station BI)
|GS||Permanent||United Kingdom||1957||British Antarctic Survey||Bird Island||Active|
Bird and seal research
|Campbell||NZ||Permanent||New Zealand||1946||MetService||Campbell Island||Active|
|Gough||SH TDC||Permanent||South Africa||1956||South African Weather Service||Gough Island||Active|
| King Edward Point |
(ex Station M)
|GS||Permanent||United Kingdom||1950||British Antarctic Survey||King Edward Point||Active|
Support sustainable fishing
|Macquarie||AUS||Permanent||Australia||1948||Australian Antarctic Division||Macquarie Island||Active|
|Marion||ZA||Permanent||South Africa||1948||South African National Antarctic Programme||Prince Edward Islands||Active|
|Port-aux-Français||TF PFR||Permanent||France||1963||Kerguelen Islands||Active|
This map shows permanent research stations only.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scientific stations in Antarctica .|
The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle, was coined by Marinus of Tyre in the 2nd century AD.
The Mawson Station, commonly called Mawson, is one of three permanent bases and research outposts in Antarctica managed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD). Mawson lies in Holme Bay in Mac Robertson Land, East Antarctica in the Australian Antarctic Territory, a territory claimed by Australia. Established in 1954, Mawson is Australia's oldest Antarctic station and the oldest continuously inhabited Antarctic station south of the Antarctic Circle.
The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole, overlapping the Antarctic claims of Argentina and Chile.
Halley Research Station is a research facility in Antarctica on the Brunt Ice Shelf operated by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The base was established in 1956 to study the Earth's atmosphere. Measurements from Halley led to the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985. The current base is the sixth in a line of structures and includes design elements intended to overcome the challenge of building on a floating ice shelf without being buried and crushed by snow. As of 2020, the base has been left unmanned through winter since 2017, due to concerns over the propagation of an ice crack and how this might cut off the evacuation route in an emergency. The Halley Bay Important Bird Area with its emperor penguin colony lies in the general vicinity of the base.
The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean, about 604 kilometres (375 mi) north-east of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 844 kilometres (524 mi) south-west of South Georgia Island. They have a total area of about 620 square kilometres (240 sq mi). The islands are claimed both by Britain, and by Argentina as part of Argentine Antarctica. Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, sovereignty claims are held in abeyance.
William Speirs Bruce was a British naturalist, polar scientist and oceanographer who organized and led the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition to the South Orkney Islands and the Weddell Sea. Among other achievements, the expedition established the first permanent weather station in Antarctica. Bruce later founded the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in Edinburgh, but his plans for a transcontinental Antarctic march via the South Pole were abandoned because of lack of public and financial support.
Operation Tabarin was a secret British Antarctic expedition, during World War II. It was launched in 1943 under the pretense of patrolling the Antarctic for German commerce raiders and U-boats that threatened Allied shipping.
The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) of 1955–1958 was a Commonwealth-sponsored expedition that successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. It was the first expedition to reach the South Pole overland for 46 years, preceded only by Amundsen's expedition and Scott's expedition in 1911 and 1912.
This is a timeline of the history of New Zealand's involvement with Antarctica.
The United States Antarctic Program is an organization of the United States government which has presence in the continent of Antarctica. Founded in 1959, the USAP manages all U.S. scientific research and related logistics in Antarctica as well as aboard ships in the Southern Ocean.
The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (SNAE), 1902–1904, was organised and led by William Speirs Bruce, a natural scientist and former medical student from the University of Edinburgh. Although overshadowed in terms of prestige by Robert Falcon Scott's concurrent Discovery Expedition, the SNAE completed a full programme of exploration and scientific work. Its achievements included the establishment of a manned meteorological station, the first in Antarctic territory, and the discovery of new land to the east of the Weddell Sea. Its large collection of biological and geological specimens, together with those from Bruce's earlier travels, led to the establishment of the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory in 1906.
The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation. It is part of the Natural Environment Research Council. With over 400 staff, BAS takes an active role in Antarctic affairs, operating five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in both polar regions, as well as addressing key global and regional issues. This involves joint research projects with over 40 UK universities and more than 120 national and international collaborations.
The Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration was an era in the exploration of the continent of Antarctica which began at the end of the 19th century, and ended after the First World War; the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition of 1921–1922 is often cited by historians as the dividing line between the "Heroic" and "Mechanical" ages.
Farthest South refers to the most southerly latitude reached by explorers before the conquest of the South Pole in 1911. Significant steps on the road to the pole were the discovery of lands south of Cape Horn in 1619, Captain James Cook's crossing of the Antarctic Circle in 1773, and the earliest confirmed sightings of the Antarctic mainland in 1820. From the late 19th century onward, the quest for Farthest South latitudes became in effect a race to reach the pole, which culminated in Roald Amundsen's success in December 1911.
There are seven sovereign states who have made eight territorial claims in Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom. These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation, and countries without claims such as India, Italy, Russia, Pakistan and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole.
Queen Maud Land is a c. 2.7 million square kilometre (1.04 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the claimed British Antarctic Territory to the west and the similarly claimed Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales (1869–1938).
Kenneth Victor Blaiklock OBE was a British Antarctic surveyor who took part in Sir Vivian Fuchs's Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition that completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica. During this expedition, he reached the South Pole by dog sled for the first time since Amundsen. He was awarded the Polar Medal with three bars. His daughter is British politician, Catherine Blaiklock.