View of Sjøsanden, a beach in Mandal
Mandal within Agder
|• Total||222.83 km2 (86.04 sq mi)|
|• Land||210.61 km2 (81.32 sq mi)|
|• Water||12.22 km2 (4.72 sq mi)|
|Area rank||321 in Norway|
|• Rank||77 in Norway|
|• Density||74.1/km2 (192/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||9.9%|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-1002|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Mandal. The town of Mandal is the second largest town by population in Vest-Agder county after the nearby town of Kristiansand and it is also the fourth largest city in all of the Sørlandet/Agder region. Besides the town of Mandal, the municipality also includes the villages of Bykjernen, Skjebstad, Sånum-Lundevik, Skogsfjord-Hesland, Krossen, Harkmark, Skinsnes-Ime, and Tregde-Skjernøy.
The 223-square-kilometre (86 sq mi) municipality is the 321st largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Mandal is the 77th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 15,600. The municipality's population density is 74.1 inhabitants per square kilometre (192/sq mi) and its population has increased by 9.9% over the last decade.
The river Mandalselva is a salmon river that flows through the municipality with its river mouth just outside the town. Mandal has many small, white-painted wooden houses, which is typical of towns at the South Coast of Norway (Sørlandet). The European route E39 highway connecting Kristiansand and Stavanger is the main road through Mandal. There are connecting airplane flights and ferries to Europe from Kristiansand.
The town of Mandal was established as a ladested municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). On 1 July 1921, a part of the neighboring municipality of Halse og Harkmark (population: 221) that was next to the town of Mandal was merged with the town. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the town of Mandal (population: 5,446) was merged with the rural municipalities of Halse og Harkmark (population: 3,676) and Holum (population: 1,127) to form a new, large municipality of Mandal. On 1 January 1965, an unpopulated area of Mandal called Svalemyren was transferred to the neighboring municipality of Søgne.
On 1 January 2020, the three neighboring municipalities of Mandal, Marnardal, and Lindesnes will be merged into one large municipality called Lindesnes with its administrative centre being the town of Mandal.
The municipality is named after the town of Mandal, which in turn is named after the Mandalen river valley in which it is located. The name Mandal which comes from the Old Norse name Marnardalr. The first element is the genitive case of the river name Mǫrn (now Mandalselva) and the last element is dalr which means "valley" or "dale".
Prior to 1653, the town was named Vesterrisør (meaning "western Risør"). The name was originally referring to the island Risøya outside the town, and the first element was added in the 16th century to distinguish it from the town of Østerrisør (meaning "eastern Risør"), which is now simply called Risør .
The coat-of-arms is from modern times; they were granted on 2 July 1921, just after Mandal became a town. The arms show three white/silver salmon on a blue background. They fish symbolize the importance of salmon fishing on the river Mandalselva. Mandal is the southernmost municipality in Norway that has a large salmon population, so therefore, salmon fishing also played a major role in the economic development of the village and its trade with the rest of southern Norway.
The Church of Norway has two parishes (sokn) within the municipality of Mandal. It is part of the Mandal prosti ( deanery ) in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark.
|Parish (Sokn)||Church Name||Location of the Church||Year Built|
All municipalities in Norway, including Mandal, are responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor.
The municipal council (Kommunestyre) of Mandal is made up of 35 representatives that are elected to four year terms. Currently, the party breakdown is as follows:
|Party Name (in Norwegian)||Number of|
|Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)||11|
|Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)||8|
|Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne)||1|
|Conservative Party (Høyre)||7|
|Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)||4|
|Centre Party (Senterpartiet)||1|
|Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)||1|
|Liberal Party (Venstre)||2|
|Total number of members:||35|
Mandal borders the North Sea to the south, the municipality of Lindesnes to the west and northwest, the municipality of Marnardal to the north, and the municipality of Søgne to the east. The municipality includes many islands and skerries along the coast including Hille, Pysen, Skjernøy, and Skogsøy. The Hatholmen Lighthouse and Ryvingen Lighthouse mark the sides of the Mannefjorden which leads north into the town of Mandal. The majority of the municipality is located in the southern Mandalen valley which follows the river Mandalselva.
|Climate data for Mandal|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||152|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||15.8||11.1||12.6||9.7||10.3||9.7||9.6||11.9||14.4||15.7||17.5||15.2||153.5|
|Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute|
Mandal is a very popular holiday resort, with its mild and refreshing summer climate. It is famous for its long-stretching beaches surrounding the town. Sjøsanden (The Sea Sand) is the most famous beach, as it stretches for almost a kilometre just outside the town centre. It is frequently ranked as one of Norway's most popular beaches.
The city center is known for its charming concentration of old, white, wooden houses and the Mandalselva river running through it. Another attraction is the city's church: Mandal Church. It is the largest wooden church in Norway, with 1,800 seats and a pulpit on the wall behind the altar. Also, the library, art gallery, cinema, concert hall, and theater is located in the Buen kulturhus (culture house) which was built in 2012.
The artists Gustav Vigeland, Adolph Tidemand, Amaldus Nielsen, and Olaf Isaachsen are all from Mandal, so the town is sometimes called "The Little Town with the Great Artists".
Hogganvik, in the Sånum-Lundevik area of Mandal, is the site of discovery of the Hogganvik runestone in 2009.
Mandal is famous for its shipbuilding and engineering industries. There was much trade in sailing ships, where the natural harbor of Kleven at Gismerøya was used. Large yard providing ships and marine equipment in Norway and abroad are Westermoen Hydrofoil and Båtservice yard at Skogfjorden, the later Umoe Mandal.
Moreover, the textile industry has been substantial, with several manufacturing companies that had at most 200-300 employees.
Mandal is also famous for its annual Shellfish festival (Skalldyrfestivalen) the second weekend of August when many people gather in downtown to eat Norwegian seafood.
Mandal has sister city agreements with the following places:
Vennesla is a municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Vennesla. Other villages in Vennesla include Grovane, Hægeland, Homstean, Mushom, Øvre Eikeland, Øvrebø, Røyknes, and Skarpengland. Vennesla lies about 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of the city of Kristiansand in the Otra river valley.
Lindesnes is a municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Vigeland. Other villages in Lindesnes include Åvik, Høllen, Skofteland, Svenevig, and Vigmostad.
Audnedal was a municipality in Vest Agder county, Norway. It was located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Konsmo. Other villages in Audnedal include Byremo and Vivlemo.
Åseral is a municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Kyrkjebygda. Other villages in Åseral include Eikerapen, Kylland, Ljosland, and Åknes.
Marnardal was a municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Heddeland. Other villages in Marnardal include Bjelland, Breland, Koland, Laudal, and Øyslebø.
Søgne was an independent municipality until January 1, 2020 when the municipality was merged with the municipalities Songdalen and Kristiansand into the "new" Kristiansand municipality. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet, just outside of the city of Kristiansand, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Tangvall. Other villages in Søgne include Ausviga, Eig, Høllen, Langenes, Lohne, Lunde, Ny-Hellesund, Trysnes, Vedderheia, Ålo, and Åros.
Songdalen was an independent municipality until January 1, 2020 when the municipality was merged with the municipalities Søgne and Kristiansand into the "new" Kristiansand municipality. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet, just outside of the city of Kristiansand. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Nodeland. Other villages in the municipality include Brennåsen, Finsland, Kilen, Nodelandsheia, and Volleberg. The Sørlandsbanen railway line runs through the municipality, stopping at Nodeland Station. The European route E39 highway also runs through the southern part of the municipality.
Kristiansand Region is a statistical metropolitan region in the counties of Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder in southern Norway. It is centered on the city of Kristiansand. The region consist of 6 municipalities in the centre of Southern Norway. Vennesla, Songdalen, and Birkenes are inland municipalities while Kristiansand, Søgne, and Lillesand are coastal municipalities. Kristiansand is the largest municipality in population in the region and Birkeland is the largest in area.
Øyslebø is a village in Marnardal municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The village is located in the Mandalen valley along the Mandalselva river, about 21 kilometres (13 mi) north of the town of Mandal. The Sørlandet Line passes the village to the north, stopping at the Marnardal Station, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of Øyslebø on the north side of the village of Heddeland. Øyslebø was the administrative centre of the old municipality of Øyslebø which existed from 1899 until 1964.
Halse og Harkmark is a former municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The 105-square-kilometre (41 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1964. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Halse, which at that time was a suburb of the town of Mandal. It was located in the southern part of the present-day municipality of Mandal. When it was a municipality, it encompassed the rural areas that surrounded the town of Mandal, including many islands such as Hille, Skjernøy, and Pysen.
Sør-Audnedal is a former municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The municipality was in the central part of the present-day municipality of Lindesnes. The administrative centre was the village of Vigeland where Valle Church is.
Marnardal Station is a railway station of the Sørlandet Line situated just north of the village of Heddeland in Lindesnes municipality in Agder county, Norway. Located 402.02 kilometers (249.80 mi) from Oslo Central Station, it is served by long-distance trains operated by Go-Ahead Norge. In addition to intercity services to Oslo and Stavanger, the reight daily trains in each direction trains serve as a commuter link to Kristiansand Station. The station features two platform and three tracks, as well as a station building.
Mandalen is a river valley in Agder county, Norway. The 75-kilometre (47 mi) long valley runs from the lake Øre in Åseral municipality south through the municipality of Marnardal and it ends at the sea at the town of Mandal in Mandal municipality in the south. The river Mandalselva runs through the valley. The side valleys are Ljoslandsdalen and Lognadalen.
Kristiansand District Court is a district court located in Kristiansand, Norway. It covers the municipalities of Kristiansand, Bykle, Valle, Bygland, Evje og Hornnes, Iveland, Vennesla, Birkenes, Lillesand, Søgne, Songdalen, Mandal, Marnardal, Lindesnes, Åseral and Audnedal, and is subordinate Agder Court of Appeal.
Mandalselva or Mandalsåni or Marna is a river in Agder county in Norway. The river has its origins in the mountains between Ose in Setesdal and the Upper Sirdal valley. The river flows south to its mouth at the North Sea at the town of Mandal. The river is 115 kilometres (71 mi) long and flows through the municipalities Åseral, Audnedal, Marnardal, and Mandal. The largest tributaries are Monn, Logna, Skjerka, Kosåna, Logåna, and Røyselandsbekken. Skjerka, Monn and Logna all flow into the lake Øre in Åseral which is considered the beginning of the main Mandalselva river. The river passes through the villages of Kylland, Bjelland, Laudal, Heddeland, Øyslebø, and Krossen.
The Lindesnes Region is the metropolitan region surrounding the town of Mandal in Southern Norway. The region has no governmental functions, but it encompasses five municipalities in Vest-Agder county, primarily covering two large river valleys: Mandalen and Audnedalen. The region is Norway's southernmost region and it borders the Kristiansand Region to the east and the Lister Region to the west.
Mandal is the administrative centre of Mandal municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. It is the second largest town by population in Vest-Agder county after Kristiansand and the fourth largest town in the Sørlandet/Agder region. The town is located at the mouth of the river Mandalselva at the southern end of the Mandalen valley. The 6.32-square-kilometre (1,560-acre) town has a population (2015) of 10,725 which gives the town a population density of 1,697 inhabitants per square kilometre (4,400/sq mi).
Finsland is a former municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The 118-square-kilometre (46 sq mi) municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1964. The administrative centre was the village of Finsland where Finsland Church is located. The municipality generally encompassed the northern part of the present-day municipality of Songdalen.