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In mathematics, a real-valued function is a function whose values are real numbers. In other words, it is a function that assigns a real number to each member of its domain.
Real-valued functions of a real variable (commonly called real functions) and real-valued functions of several real variables are the main object of study of calculus and, more generally, real analysis. In particular, many function spaces consist of real-valued functions.
Let be the set of all functions from a set X to real numbers . Because is a field, may be turned into a vector space and a commutative algebra over the reals with the following operations:
These operations extend to partial functions from X to with the restriction that the partial functions f + g and fg are defined only if the domains of f and g have a nonempty intersection; in this case, their domain is the intersection of the domains of f and g.
Also, since is an ordered set, there is a partial order
on which makes a partially ordered ring.
The σ-algebra of Borel sets is an important structure on real numbers. If X has its σ-algebra and a function f is such that the preimage f −1(B) of any Borel set B belongs to that σ-algebra, then f is said to be measurable. Measurable functions also form a vector space and an algebra as explained above in § Algebraic structure.
Moreover, a set (family) of real-valued functions on X can actually define a σ-algebra on X generated by all preimages of all Borel sets (or of intervals only, it is not important). This is the way how σ-algebras arise in (Kolmogorov's) probability theory, where real-valued functions on the sample space Ω are real-valued random variables.
Real numbers form a topological space and a complete metric space. Continuous real-valued functions (which implies that X is a topological space) are important in theories of topological spaces and of metric spaces. The extreme value theorem states that for any real continuous function on a compact space its global maximum and minimum exist.
The concept of metric space itself is defined with a real-valued function of two variables, the metric , which is continuous. The space of continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space has a particular importance. Convergent sequences also can be considered as real-valued continuous functions on a special topological space.
Continuous functions also form a vector space and an algebra as explained above in § Algebraic structure, and are a subclass of measurable functions because any topological space has the σ-algebra generated by open (or closed) sets.
Real numbers are used as the codomain to define smooth functions. A domain of a real smooth function can be the real coordinate space (which yields a real multivariable function), a topological vector space,an open subset of them, or a smooth manifold.
Spaces of smooth functions also are vector spaces and algebras as explained above in § Algebraic structure and are subspaces of the space of continuous functions.
A measure on a set is a non-negative real-valued functional on a σ-algebra of subsets. f ∈ Lp(X) and x ∈ X which is not an atom, the value f(x) is undefined. Though, real-valued Lp spaces still have some of the structure described above in § Algebraic structure. Each of Lp spaces is a vector space and have a partial order, and there exists a pointwise multiplication of "functions" which changes p, namelyLp spaces on sets with a measure are defined from aforementioned real-valued measurable functions, although they are actually quotient spaces. More precisely, whereas a function satisfying an appropriate summability condition defines an element of Lp space, in the opposite direction for any
For example, pointwise product of two L2 functions belongs to L1.
Other contexts where real-valued functions and their special properties are used include monotonic functions (on ordered sets), convex functions (on vector and affine spaces), harmonic and subharmonic functions (on Riemannian manifolds), analytic functions (usually of one or more real variables), algebraic functions (on real algebraic varieties), and polynomials (of one or more real variables).
In mathematics, any vector space has a corresponding dual vector space consisting of all linear forms on , together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition and scalar multiplication by constants.
In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is described informally as a variable whose values depend on outcomes of a random phenomenon. The formal mathematical treatment of random variables is a topic in probability theory. In that context, a random variable is understood as a measurable function defined on a probability space that maps from the sample space to the real numbers.
In mathematical analysis and in probability theory, a σ-algebra on a set X is a collection Σ of subsets of X that includes X itself, is closed under complement, and is closed under countable unions.
In mathematics, weak topology is an alternative term for certain initial topologies, often on topological vector spaces or spaces of linear operators, for instance on a Hilbert space. The term is most commonly used for the initial topology of a topological vector space with respect to its continuous dual. The remainder of this article will deal with this case, which is one of the concepts of functional analysis.
In mathematics and in particular measure theory, a measurable function is a function between the underlying sets of two measurable spaces that preserves the structure of the spaces: the preimage of any measurable set is measurable. This is in direct analogy to the definition that a continuous function between topological spaces preserves the topological structure: the preimage of any open set is open. In real analysis, measurable functions are used in the definition of the Lebesgue integral. In probability theory, a measurable function on a probability space is known as a random variable.
In mathematics, the Lp spaces are function spaces defined using a natural generalization of the p-norm for finite-dimensional vector spaces. They are sometimes called Lebesgue spaces, named after Henri Lebesgue, although according to the Bourbaki group they were first introduced by Frigyes Riesz. Lp spaces form an important class of Banach spaces in functional analysis, and of topological vector spaces. Because of their key role in the mathematical analysis of measure and probability spaces, Lebesgue spaces are used also in the theoretical discussion of problems in physics, statistics, finance, engineering, and other disciplines.
Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis. Distributions make it possible to differentiate functions whose derivatives do not exist in the classical sense. In particular, any locally integrable function has a distributional derivative. Distributions are widely used in the theory of partial differential equations, where it may be easier to establish the existence of distributional solutions than classical solutions, or appropriate classical solutions may not exist. Distributions are also important in physics and engineering where many problems naturally lead to differential equations whose solutions or initial conditions are distributions, such as the Dirac delta function.
In mathematics, an infinite series of numbers is said to converge absolutely if the sum of the absolute values of the summands is finite. More precisely, a real or complex series is said to converge absolutely if for some real number . Similarly, an improper integral of a function, , is said to converge absolutely if the integral of the absolute value of the integrand is finite—that is, if
In mathematical analysis, Hölder's inequality, named after Otto Hölder, is a fundamental inequality between integrals and an indispensable tool for the study of Lp spaces.
In mathematics, Fatou's lemma establishes an inequality relating the Lebesgue integral of the limit inferior of a sequence of functions to the limit inferior of integrals of these functions. The lemma is named after Pierre Fatou.
In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets. Often, the domain and/or codomain will have additional structure which is inherited by the function space. For example, the set of functions from any set X into a vector space has a natural vector space structure given by pointwise addition and scalar multiplication. In other scenarios, the function space might inherit a topological or metric structure, hence the name function space.
In probability theory, the conditional expectation, conditional expected value, or conditional mean of a random variable is its expected value – the value it would take “on average” over an arbitrarily large number of occurrences – given that a certain set of "conditions" is known to occur. If the random variable can take on only a finite number of values, the “conditions” are that the variable can only take on a subset of those values. More formally, in the case when the random variable is defined over a discrete probability space, the "conditions" are a partition of this probability space.
In mathematics, a Radon measure, named after Johann Radon, is a measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a Hausdorff topological space X that is finite on all compact sets, outer regular on all Borel sets, and inner regular on open sets. These conditions guarantee that the measure is "compatible" with the topology of the space, and most measures used in mathematical analysis and in number theory are indeed Radon measures.
In mathematics, a filtration is an indexed family of subobjects of a given algebraic structure , with the index running over some totally ordered index set , subject to the condition that
In mathematics, a norm is a function from a real or complex vector space to the nonnegative real numbers that behaves in certain ways like the distance from the origin: it commutes with scaling, obeys a form of the triangle inequality, and is zero only at the origin. In particular, the Euclidean distance of a vector from the origin is a norm, called the Euclidean norm, or 2-norm, which may also be defined as the square root of the inner product of a vector with itself.
In mathematics, particularly in functional analysis, a projection-valued measure (PVM) is a function defined on certain subsets of a fixed set and whose values are self-adjoint projections on a fixed Hilbert space. Projection-valued measures are formally similar to real-valued measures, except that their values are self-adjoint projections rather than real numbers. As in the case of ordinary measures, it is possible to integrate complex-valued functions with respect to a PVM; the result of such an integration is a linear operator on the given Hilbert space.
In mathematical analysis, and applications in geometry, applied mathematics, engineering, and natural sciences, a function of a real variable is a function whose domain is the real numbers ℝ, or a subset of ℝ that contains an interval of positive length. Most real functions that are considered and studied are differentiable in some interval. The most widely considered such functions are the real functions, which are the real-valued functions of a real variable, that is, the functions of a real variable whose codomain is the set of real numbers.
In probability theory, random element is a generalization of the concept of random variable to more complicated spaces than the simple real line. The concept was introduced by Maurice Fréchet (1948) who commented that the “development of probability theory and expansion of area of its applications have led to necessity to pass from schemes where (random) outcomes of experiments can be described by number or a finite set of numbers, to schemes where outcomes of experiments represent, for example, vectors, functions, processes, fields, series, transformations, and also sets or collections of sets.”
In probability theory, a random measure is a measure-valued random element. Random measures are for example used in the theory of random processes, where they form many important point processes such as Poisson point processes and Cox processes.
In mathematics, , the vector space of bounded sequences with the supremum norm, and , the vector space of essentially bounded measurable functions with the essential supremum norm, are two closely related Banach spaces. In fact the former is a special case of the latter. As a Banach space they are the continuous dual of the Banach spaces of absolutely summable sequences, and of absolutely integrable measurable functions. Pointwise multiplication gives them the structure of a Banach algebra, and in fact they are the standard examples of abelian Von Neumann algebras.
Weisstein, Eric W. "Real Function". MathWorld .