River Tyne

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River Tyne
Newcastle Quayside with bridges.jpg
River Tyne Quayside
Location
Country United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Physical characteristics
Source South Tyne
  location Alston Moor, Cumbria, England
2nd source North Tyne
  locationDeadwater Fell, Kielder, Northumberland, England
Mouth Tynemouth
  location
North Shields, North Tyneside, England
  coordinates
55°0′37″N1°25′8″W / 55.01028°N 1.41889°W / 55.01028; -1.41889 Coordinates: 55°0′37″N1°25′8″W / 55.01028°N 1.41889°W / 55.01028; -1.41889
Length118 km (73 miles) [1]
Basin size2,933 km2 (1,132 square miles) [2]
Discharge 
  location Bywell [2]
  average44.6 m3/s (1,580 cu ft/s) [2]
Basin features
Tributaries 
  left River Derwent
Confluence of North (right) and South Tyne (left) near Warden Watersmeet - geograph.org.uk - 1254483.jpg
Confluence of North (right) and South Tyne (left) near Warden

The River Tyne /ˈtn/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) is a river in North East England. Its length (excluding tributaries) is 73 miles (118 km). [1] It is formed by the North Tyne and the South Tyne, which converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed 'The Meeting of the Waters'.

Contents

The Tyne Rivers Trust measure the whole Tyne catchment as 2,936 km2 (1,134 square miles), containing 4,399 km (2,733 miles) of waterways. [3]

Course

North Tyne

The North Tyne rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water. It flows through Kielder Forest, and in and out of the border. It then passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham.

South Tyne

The South Tyne rises on Alston Moor, Cumbria and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle and Haydon Bridge, in a valley often called the Tyne Gap. Hadrian's Wall lies to the north of the Tyne Gap. Coincidentally, the source of the South Tyne is very close to those of the Tees and the Wear. The South Tyne Valley falls within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) – the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England and Wales.

Tyne

From the confluence of the North and South Tyne at Warden Rock just to the north west of Hexham, the river enters the county of Tyne and Wear between Clara Vale (in the Borough of Gateshead on the south bank) and Tyne Riverside Country Park (in Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank) and continues to divide Newcastle and Gateshead for 13 miles (21 km), in the course of which it flows under ten bridges. To the east of Gateshead and Newcastle, the Tyne divides Hebburn and Jarrow on the south bank from Walker and Wallsend on the north bank. The Tyne Tunnel runs under the river to link Jarrow and Wallsend. Finally the river flows between South Shields and Tynemouth into the North Sea. [2]

Geography

Thomas John Taylor (1810–1861) [4] theorised that the main course of the river anciently flowed through what is now Team Valley, its outlet into the tidal river being by a waterfall at Bill Point (in the area of Bill Quay). [5] His theory was not far from the truth, as there is evidence that prior to the last Ice Age, the River Wear once followed the current route of the lower River Team and merged with the Tyne at Dunston. Ice diverted the course of the Wear to its current location, flowing east the course of the Tyne) and joining the North Sea at Sunderland. [6]

The River Tyne is estimated to be around 30 million years old. [7]

Conservation history

The conservation of the Tyne has been handled by various bodies over the past 500 years. Conservation bodies have included: Newcastle Trinity House, [8] and the Tyne Improvement Commission. [8] The Tyne Improvement Commission conservation lasted from 1850 until 1968. [8] The 1850–1950 era was the worst period for pollution of the river. [8] The Tyne Improvement Commission laid the foundations for what has become the modern day Port of Tyne. [9] Under the management of the Tyne Improvement Commissioners, over a period of the first 70 years the Tyne was deepened from 1.83 to 9.14 m (6 feet 0 inches to 30 feet 0 inches) and had 150 million tonnes dredged from it. [9] Inside these 70 years, the two Tyne piers were built; [9] Northumbrian, Tyne and Albert Docks were built, [9] as well as the staithes at Whitehill and Dunston. [9] This infrastructure enabled millions of tonnes of cargo to be handled by the Port by 1910. [9] The tidal river has been managed by the Port of Tyne Authority since 1968. [8] [9]

Port of Tyne

The River Tyne at Bill Quay Quiet River Tyne - geograph.org.uk - 205421.jpg
The River Tyne at Bill Quay

With its proximity to surrounding coalfields, the Tyne was a major route for the export of coal from the 13th century until the decline of the coal mining industry in North East England in the second half of the 20th century. The largest coal staithes (a structure for loading coal onto ships) were located at Dunston in Gateshead, Hebburn and Tyne Dock, South Shields. The wooden staithes at Dunston, built in 1890, have been preserved, although they were partially destroyed by fire in 2006 and then a further fire in May 2020 means that the Staithes is becoming more vulnerable to vandalism and would need extensive financing to preserve it and make it secure. [10] In 2016, Tyne Dock, South Shields was still involved with coal, importing 2 million tonnes of shipments a year. The lower reaches of the Tyne were, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, one of the world's most important centres of shipbuilding, and there are still shipyards in South Shields and Hebburn to the south of the river. To support the shipbuilding and export industries of Tyneside, the lower reaches of the river were extensively remodelled during the second half of the 19th century, with islands (including Kings Meadow, the largest) removed and meanders in the river straightened.

Name and etymology

Nothing definite is known of the origin of the designation Tyne, nor is the river known by that name until the Saxon period: Tynemouth is recorded in Anglo-Saxon as Tinanmuðe (probably dative case). The Vedra on the Roman map of Britain may be the Tyne, or may be the River Wear. Ptolemy's Tína could be a "misplaced reference" to either this river or the Tyne in East Lothian. [11] There is a theory that *tīn was a word that meant "river" in the local Celtic language or in a language spoken in England before the Celts came: compare Tardebigge.

A supposed pre-Celtic root *tei, meaning 'to melt, to flow' has also been proposed as an etymological explanation of the Tyne and similarly-named rivers, [12] as has a Brittonic derivative of Indo-European *teihx, meaning 'to be dirty' (Welsh tail, 'manure'). [12]

River crossings

River Tyne

The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. Taken from the deck of the Gateshead Millennium Bridge, looking west and upstream. Tyne Bridge - Newcastle Upon Tyne - England - 2004-08-14.jpg
The Tyne Bridge across the River Tyne between Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead. Taken from the deck of the Gateshead Millennium Bridge, looking west and upstream.
The River Tyne flowing through Newcastle upon Tyne River Tyne - geograph.org.uk - 596360.jpg
The River Tyne flowing through Newcastle upon Tyne
NameCarriesOpened
Shields Ferry   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Pedestrians and bicycles1377 [13]
Second Tyne vehicle tunnel   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A19 road 25 Feb 2011
First Tyne vehicle tunnel   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A19 road 19 Oct 1967
Tyne pedestrian and cyclist tunnel   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Walkway, bike lane 24 Jul 1951
Gateshead Millennium Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Walkway 2000
Tyne Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A167 road 10 Oct 1928
Swing Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 15 Jun 1876
High Level Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Durham Coast Line, East Coast Main Line, B1307 road27 Sep 1849
Queen Elizabeth II Metro Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Tyne and Wear Metro 1981
King Edward VII Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg East Coast Main Line 10 Jul 1906
Redheugh Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A189 road 18 May 1983
Scotswood Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A695 road 1964
Scotswood Railway Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Tyne Valley line, piping 1871
Blaydon Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A1 road 3 Dec 1990
Newburn Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1893
Wylam Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1836
Wylam Railway Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Scotswood, Newburn and Wylam Railway, National Cycle Route 72 6 Oct 1876
Ovingham footbridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Walkway, National Cycle Route 72 1974 [14]
Ovingham road bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 20 Dec 1883 [14]
Bywell Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg B6309 road1838
Styford Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A68 road 1979
Corbridge Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg B6321 road1674 [15]
Hexham Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A6079 road, National Cycle Route 72 1793 [15]
Hexham Old Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Road 1770 [15]
Border Counties Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Border Counties Railway 1856
Constantius Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A69 road 1976

River North Tyne

NameCarriesOpened
Chesters Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Military Way 122
Chollerford Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Military Road 1785
Wark Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1878
Bellingham Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg B6320 road 1834
Tarset Bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1974
Greystead Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1862
Falstone Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1843
Kielder Viaduct   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Border Counties Railway, Lakeside Way1862
Butteryhaugh Bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1962
Kerseycleugh Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1853

River South Tyne

NameCarriesOpened
Warden Railway Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Tyne Valley line 1904
Warden Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road Nov 1903
New Haydon Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A686 road 1970
Old Haydon Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1776
Haydon Bridge Viaduct   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A69 road 25 Mar 2009
Lipwood Railway Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Tyne Valley line 1866
Ridley Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1792
Ridley Railway Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Tyne Valley line 1907
Millhouse Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1883
Haltwhistle A69 Bridge (East)   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A69 road 1994
Alston Arches Viaduct   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Alston line, footpath May 1851
Blue Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Pennine Cycleway, footpath 1875
Bellister Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1967
Haltwhistle A69 Bridge (West)   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A69 road 1997
Featherstone Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1775
Featherstone Castle Footbridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1990
Diamond Oak Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1975
Lambley Footbridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1992
Lambley Viaduct   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Alston line, footpath 1852
Eals footbridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath 1961 [14]
Eals Bridge   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road 1733
Parson Shields bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Agricultural road 1972 [14]
Williamston Bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road
Kirkhaugh footbridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Footpath
Alston railway bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg South Tynedale Railway 1852
Alston bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg A686 road 1836
Garrigill Bridge  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg Unclassified road

Artworks and sculpture

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

River God Tyne by David Wynne at Newcastle Civic Centre Civic Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, 7 August 2010.jpg
River God Tyne by David Wynne at Newcastle Civic Centre

The river is represented, and personified, in a sculpture unveiled in 1968 as part of the new Civic Centre (seat of Newcastle City Council). Sculpted by David Wynne, the massive bronze figure incorporates flowing water into its design. [16]

Salmon Trail

The Environment Agency is currently working with architects and cultural consultancy xsite, in collaboration with Commissions North, to create a travelling sculpture trail along the River Tyne.

The Tyne Salmon Trail will serve as a celebration of the river, [17] its heritage and its increasingly diverse ecosystem. Historically a major symbol in the regional identity of the North East of England, the river plays host to a plethora of different species, the number of which is growing year on year in line with the rivers improving health. The trail looks to capture the imagination of residents and tourists visiting the area – providing them with the ultimate 'fact finding' design experience, which celebrates the salmon's migratory journey in the Northeast of England.

FINS, REFLECTION and JOURNEY were the first three cubes to be launched in December 2007 from a family of ten. Each cube is inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon. With each offering a 'modern day keepsake' to take away, in the form of a designed Bluetooth message.

The other cubes will be moving along the River Tyne over one year visiting different locations from Kielder to the Mouth of the Tyne in the summer 2008 before starting their long journey back to their birthplace.

Conversation Piece

Conservation piece Little Haven beach, weebles.jpg
Created by acclaimed Spanish sculptor, Juan Muñoz in 1999. Celebrating the Tyne Salmon; [17] here with the 2008 River Tyne Bluetooth Salmon Trail Cubes, [18] are the 22 bronze life size figures that command and celebrate a superb view of South Shields Harbour and the Tyne Piers.

Bamboo Bridge

For three days, from 18 to 20 July 2008, a temporary bamboo artwork was installed over the Tyne close to the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The Bambuco Bridge was created as part of that year's 'SummerTyne' festival.

Conservation

The River Tyne has a charity dedicated to protecting and enhancing its waters and surrounding areas. The Tyne Rivers Trust, established in 2004, is a community-based organisation that works to improve habitat, promote better understanding of the Tyne catchment area and build the reputation of the Tyne catchment as a place of environmental excellence. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Tyne and Wear Metropolitan county in North East England

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in North East England, situated around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside and the City of Sunderland. The county is bordered to the north by Northumberland, to the south by County Durham and to the east of the county lies the North Sea. It is the smallest county in North East England by area, but by far the largest in terms of population.

Gateshead Human settlement in England

Gateshead is a large town in North East England and principal settlement of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, situated on the southern bank of the River Tyne. Gateshead is joined to Newcastle via seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge. The town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are usually referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's town population in 2011 was 120,046.

Bill Quay Human settlement in England

Bill Quay is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 4 miles (6.4 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 12 miles (19 km) from Sunderland, and 17 miles (27 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Heworth and Pelaw recorded a total population of 9,100.

Wylam Human settlement in England

Wylam is a village and civil parish in the county of Northumberland. It is located about 10 miles (16 km) west of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Tyne Bridge (UK Parliament constituency)

Tyne Bridge was a parliamentary constituency in the north east of England, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, from 1983 until 2010. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

Dunston railway station Railway station in Tyne and Wear, England

Dunston is a railway station on the Tyne Valley Line, which runs between Newcastle and Carlisle via Hexham. The station, situated 2 miles 23 chains (3.7 km) west of Newcastle, serves the suburb of Dunston, Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is owned by Network Rail and managed by Northern Trains.

Hebburn Human settlement in England

Hebburn is a town on the south bank of the River Tyne in North East England situated between the towns of Jarrow and Gateshead and to the south of Walker. The population of Hebburn was 18,808 in 2001, reducing to 16,492 at the 2011 Census for the two Hebburn Wards. Once part of the private Ellison estate, and made an independent Urban District in 1894, in 1974 it became part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Hebburn lies within historic County Durham.

Gateshead TMD Locomotive maintenance yard in the North of England

Gateshead TMD was a railway Traction Maintenance Depot situated in Gateshead, England. The depot code was 52A during the steam era and GD later on.

River Tyne Police

The River Tyne Police was a police force established under the Newcastle upon Tyne Port Act 1845 which patrolled the River Tyne in England between 1845 and 1968.

The first settlers of the South Shields area were the Brigantes, although there is no evidence they built a settlement at South Shields. The Romans built a fort there to help supply Hadrian's Wall. Many ruins still exist today. The fort was abandoned as the empire declined.

Heworth, Tyne and Wear Human settlement in England

Heworth is a residential area in Gateshead, located around 3 miles (4.8 km) from Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 miles (18 km) from Sunderland, and 17 miles (27 km) from Durham. In 2011, Census data for the Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council ward of Heworth and Pelaw recorded a total population of 9,100.

Transport in Tyne and Wear Overview of transport in Tyne and Wear

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.

Gateshead Garden Festival

The Gateshead Garden Festival was the fourth of the United Kingdom's five national garden festivals. Held between May and October 1990, in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, it lasted 157 days, and received over three million visitors. Attractions included public art displays, a Ferris wheel, and dance, music, theatre and sporting events. The site comprised four areas: Norwood, Riverside, Dunston and Eslington Park, and several modes of transport were provided around the site: a monorail which ran between Norwood and Eslington, a narrow gauge steam railway between Dunston and Redheugh, and a road train which covered the entire site. A ferry across the River Tyne, between Dunston Staithes and Newcastle Quayside, was also provided.

Tyne Valley line Railway line in north of England

The Tyne Valley Line is a 58-mile (93 km) route, linking Newcastle upon Tyne with Hexham and Carlisle. The line follows the course of the River Tyne through Tyne and Wear and Northumberland. Five stations and two viaducts on the route are listed structures.

The Port of Tyne comprises the commercial docks on and around the River Tyne in Tyne and Wear in the northeast of England.

Brandling Junction Railway

The Brandling Junction Railway was an early railway in County Durham, England. It took over the Tanfield Waggonway of 1725 that was built to bring coal from Tanfield to staiths on the River Tyne at Dunston. The Brandling Junction Railway itself opened in stages from 1839, running from Gateshead to Wearmouth and South Shields. Wearmouth was regarded at the time as the "Sunderland" terminal.

The geology of Tyne and Wear in northeast England largely consists of a suite of sedimentary rocks dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods into which were intruded igneous dykes during the later Palaeogene Period.

Newcastle & Carlisle Railway

The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway (N&CR) was an English railway company formed in 1825 that built a line from Newcastle upon Tyne on Britain's east coast, to Carlisle, on the west coast. The railway began operating mineral trains in 1834 between Blaydon and Hexham, and passengers were carried for the first time the following year. The rest of the line opened in stages, completing a through route between Carlisle and Gateshead, south of the River Tyne in 1837. The directors repeatedly changed their intentions for the route at the eastern end of the line, but finally a line was opened from Scotswood to a Newcastle terminal in 1839. That line was extended twice, reaching Newcastle Central station in 1851.

1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election election

The 1973 Tyne and Wear County Council election was held on 12 April 1973 as part of the first elections to the new local authorities established by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales. 104 councillors were elected from 95 electoral divisions across the region's five boroughs. Each division returned either one or two county councillors each by First-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The election took place ahead of the elections to the area's metropolitan borough councils, which followed on 10 May 1973.

References

  1. 1 2 Owen, Susan; et al. (2005). Rivers and the British Landscape. Carnegie. ISBN   978-1-85936-120-7.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Environment Agency – River Tyne Salmon Action Plan Review" (PDF). Environment Agency – APEM REF EA 410230. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  3. "The River: Fascinating Facts about the River Tyne". Tyne Rivers Trust. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  4. "Thomas John Taylor". Grace's Guide to British Industrial History. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  5. James Guthrie (1880). The river Tyne: its history and resources. Andrew Reid and Company Limited. p.  2.
  6. Land Use Consultants (2003). "Urban Landscape Study of the Tyne Gorge" (PDF). Gateshead Council. Retrieved 15 May 2020.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. Tyne river trust staff. "The Tyne's origins". Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Henderson, Tony (16 January 2015), "River Tyne's story revealed in study by environmental historian", The Journal, North East England
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Port of Tyne staff (30 July 2017). "Tyne Improvement Commission". portoftyne.co.uk. Port of Tyne. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  10. "Coal heritage goes up in flames". BBC. 20 November 2003. Retrieved 25 August 2008. "The staithes is a lot more than just a lump of wood in the Tyne, it is a magnificent structure and very important to the area's industrial heritage.
  11. Watson, W J (1926). The History of the Celtic Placenames of Scotland. Chippenham: Irish Academic Press. p. 51.
  12. 1 2 "The Brittonic Language in the Old North" (PDF). Scottish Place Name Society.
  13. https://www.shieldsgazette.com/news/ferry-gets-first-woman-boss-in-700-years-1-1295528
  14. 1 2 3 4 Bridges On The Tyne, 2006, Wikidata   Q105064675
  15. 1 2 3 Frank Graham (1992). Hexham and Corbridge: A Short History and Guide. Thropton: Butler Publishing. ISBN   0-946928-19-3. Wikidata   Q105036820.
  16. Usherwood, Beach & Morris (2000). Public Sculpture of North-East England. Liverpool University Press.
  17. 1 2 "Tyne Salmon Trail". 2008. Archived from the original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008. Ten cubes inspired by the textures, changing colours, movement and journey of the salmon will migrate along the River Tyne, following the amazing journey of the salmon.
  18. Strug, Leah (21 July 2008). "Attraction's sending art lovers fishy messages". South Shields Gazette.
  19. "Tyne Rivers Trust". Charity. Tynerivertrust.org. 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008. The Tyne Rivers Trust is an independent charity established to assist in management and improvement of the environment in the Tyne Catchment. The Trust aims to achieve this through Actions to: Improve Habitat; Get Better Information and Promote Better Understanding; Grow the Reputation of the Tyne Catchment and the Tyne Rivers Trust nationally and internationally

Sources