Riviera (hotel and casino)

Last updated
Riviera
Riviera Las Vegas logo.svg
Riviera Hotel & Casino, Las Vagas.jpg
Riviera facade in 2008
Location Winchester, Nevada
Address 2901 South Las Vegas Boulevard
Opening dateApril 20, 1955
Closing dateMay 4, 2015;5 years ago (May 4, 2015)
Theme Mediterranean [1]
No. of rooms2,100
Total gaming space110,000 sq ft (10,000 m2)
Permanent showsCrazy Girls
Casino typeLand-based
Owner Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority
Operating license holder Paragon Gaming
ArchitectRoy F. France & Son, Welton Becket, Harold Levitt, Martin Stern Jr.
Renovated in1959, 1965, 1974, 1977, 1988-1990, 1999
Coordinates 36°08′06″N115°09′43″W / 36.135°N 115.162°W / 36.135; -115.162 Coordinates: 36°08′06″N115°09′43″W / 36.135°N 115.162°W / 36.135; -115.162
Website rivierahotel.com

Riviera (colloquially, "the Riv") was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, Nevada, [2] which operated from April 1955 to May 2015. It was last owned by the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority, which decided to demolish it to make way for the Las Vegas Global Business District. [3]

Contents

The hotel had more than 2,100 rooms, fewer than half of which were located in a 23-story tower. The casino had 110,000 sq ft (10,000 m2) of gaming space.

History

Development and founding

The casino was first proposed by Detroit mobster William Bischoff as the Casa Blanca, and received a gaming license in 1952. Bischoff later withdrew from the project, which was taken over by Miami businessman Samuel Cohen. [4] By March 1955, Cohen, identified as a member of Miami's S & G gambling syndicate, was no longer part of the investment group, though rumors persisted that he secretly maintained an involvement. [5] Marx Brothers Harpo and Gummo held minority interests at the opening. [5]

The Riviera opened on April 20, 1955 as the first high-rise at 9 stories, and the ninth resort on the Las Vegas Strip. The resort was designed by Miami architects Roy F. France & Son with J Maher Weller of Las Vegas serving as associate architect. [6] The general contractor selected to build the resort was Taylor Construction Co. of Miami. [7] Liberace cut the opening ribbon, and became the first resident performer. The Riviera became one of the oldest and most famous casino resorts in Las Vegas Valley. The Riviera also broke new ground in its design: previously, Strip resorts resembled roadside motor courts.

The opening of the Riviera, along with The Dunes and the Royal Nevada casino resorts within a month were the subject of a famous issue of Life magazine, on June 20, 1955 with a Moulin Rouge showgirl on its cover. The headline was "Las Vegas—Is Boom Overextended?" and a story about how Las Vegas had built too many hotel rooms to be profitable.

Bankruptcy and new ownership

The old marquee in 1962, with Debbie Reynolds headlining, and Billy Williams, along with Roberta Linn on the under-billing 6212-LasVegasStrip-RivieraHotelMarquee.jpg
The old marquee in 1962, with Debbie Reynolds headlining, and Billy Williams, along with Roberta Linn on the under-billing

The Riviera casino went bankrupt just three months after opening. A group of former Flamingo Hotel managers led by Gus Greenbaum took over operation of the property, leasing it from the ownership group. [8] [9] Greenbaum had recently retired, and it was widely suspected that he was coerced to return to work by threats from Chicago mob boss Tony Accardo. [10] [11]

Among Greenbaum's staff was entertainment director William Nelson, who was soon discovered to be mob informer Willie Bioff, leading to his murder in November 1955. [12]

Greenbaum's drug and gambling addictions led to his embezzling from the casino. In December 1958, Greenbaum and his wife were murdered in their Phoenix, Arizona home, reportedly on the orders of either Meyer Lansky or Tony Accardo. [13]

An 8-story expansion was made off the south side of the original 9-story tower in 1959. It was designed by Los Angeles architect Welton Becket. A 12-story tower was added off the south west side of the 8-story tower in 1965. The new tower expansion was designed by Harold W. Levitt with Ernest W. Le Duc and William H. Farwell as consulting architects. [14]

Mob fixer Sidney Korshak played a major role in the property's management. [15] Law enforcement agencies suspected that he represented the Chicago Outfit's interest in the Riviera, and was responsible for skimming the casino's revenue and delivering the proceeds to Chicago. [16]

The Riviera was purchased in June 1968 by a group including bankers E. Parry Thomas and Jerome Mack, and investors tied to the Parvin-Dohrmann Corp., owner of the Aladdin, Stardust, and Fremont casinos. [17] In 1969, a deal was made to sell the Riviera to the Parvin-Dohrmann Corp., [18] but the sale was blocked by the Nevada Gaming Control Board due to the company's previous failure to report a change of ownership. [17]

Dean Martin was hired in 1969 to perform in the casino's showroom, and was given a 10% interest in the Riviera. [19] Martin left in 1972, after management refused his request to cut his performance schedule from two nightly shows to one; the Riviera bought back his shares. [19]

In 1973, the Riviera was purchased for $60 million by AITS Inc., a Boston-based travel company controlled by Meshulam Riklis and Isidore Becker. [20] [21] The Riviera is the setting for the movie Fake-Out (aka. Nevada Heat, 1982), which was financed by Riklis and starring his wife, Pia Zadora.

The 17 story Monte Carlo Tower was constructed circa 1974. The tower was designed by Martin Stern Jr. & Associates. [22] The 6 story San Remo Tower also a Stern design was constructed in 1977 by the Del E. Webb Corporation. [23] [24]

Expansion (1983–2009)

The Riviera filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1983. [25] Riklis pledged money to keep the business in operation, [25] and appointed Jeffrey Silver as CEO to turn the Riviera around. [26] Silver began shifting the Riviera's marketing focus away from high rollers, and towards middle- and working-class gamblers. [27] He opened a Burger King franchise in the building, the first fast food chain outlet in a casino; this move inspired the phrase "Burger King Revolution" to refer to the broader trend of Las Vegas casinos catering to middle-class customers. [26] [28]

The Riviera underwent an expansion from 1988 to 1990 this included the 24 story Monaco Tower also designed by Martin Stern Jr. and two parking garages. [29] [30] The project went significantly over budget, leading the parent company to file again for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1991. [29] [31] The business emerged from bankruptcy in 1993 as Riviera Holdings Corp., owned by the previous secured creditors. [31]

2010 bankruptcy

On July 12, 2010, Riviera Holdings filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Its bankruptcy included a reorganization plan under which secured lenders, led by Starwood Capital Group, would receive new debt and stock. The plan was negotiated with holders of 2/3 of the secured debt worth over $275 million, which included a $225 million term loan, unpaid interest and amounts owing on a swap agreement. Riviera Holdings listed assets and liabilities of $100 to $500 million each.

Under the terms of the agreement negotiated by Starwood, secured lenders would receive a new $50 million loan plus 80% of the new stock. Lenders who provide $20 million in a so-called new money loan would receive 8% of the new stock plus warrants for another 10%. Creditors who provide a $10 million working capital loan would receive 7% of the new stock. The last 5% of the new stock goes to the lenders in return for providing a backstop insuring availability for the $30 million in loans. Existing Riviera shareholders received nothing.

The Riviera lost $4.5 million on income of $30.8 million in the first quarter of 2010. The decline in popularity of the Riviera was caused in part by the decline of pedestrian foot traffic in the vicinity. Previously, the Riviera was surrounded by the Stardust, New Frontier, and Westward Ho, properties which were demolished to make room for new construction. A shutdown in the new construction in progress at the adjacent Fontainebleau Resort Las Vegas and Echelon Place contributed to the Riviera's decline. The company had 1300 employees in Las Vegas and 260 employees in Black Hawk, Colorado.

Closure and demolition (2015–16)

Demolition of Riviera casino facade.jpg
View of Riviera demolition.jpg
Demolition work

In February 2015, the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority acquired the Riviera hotel and its associated land for $182.5 million. The property was leased back to its existing operators, Paragon Gaming, who officially closed the establishment on Monday, May 4, 2015. [3] After winding down operations the hotel was closed and demolished to make way for a planned expansion of LVCVA's Las Vegas Global Business District exhibit and meeting center project. [32]

Due to its size, the Riviera was demolished through two separate implosions conducted in June and August 2016. Work began by gutting the Monaco Tower while the hotel parking garages and the Versailles Theater were demolished - the work took place during the summer. Next came the demolition of the San Remo Tower. Much of the property was demolished during the first implosion. Asbestos was discovered in the hotel's Monte Carlo tower and in the 1960s towers, and was removed prior to the implosion. Demolition cost a total of $42 million. [33] [34]

The first implosion took place at 2:35 a.m. (Pacific Time) on June 14, 2016, taking down the 24-story Monaco tower. A firework display and countdown led up to the implosion. [35] [36]

After the implosion of the Monaco Tower, the casino area was demolished followed by the 8 story 1959 tower. The original 9 story tower built in 1955 was demolished next. It was the oldest remaining structure on the Strip. [34]

On August 16, 2016 at 2:30 a.m., the Monte Carlo tower along with the 12 story tower constructed in 1965 were imploded. [34] [37]

In 2019, LVCVA is currently selling 10-acres of the Riviera. [38] [39] [40]

Gaming

The 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) casino floor offered about 1,000 slot machines and 25 table games, including craps, blackjack, and roulette, along with mini-baccarat, Let It Ride, and Three Card Poker. The Riviera poker room closed in 2013, two years before the remaining gaming operations.

In August 2011, the Riviera re-opened its bingo room, in an attempt to bring in new customers and compete against newer resorts on the Strip. At that time, it was the only casino on the Strip to offer bingo. [41] The Riviera also had one of the largest bingo rooms in Las Vegas, and was voted the 'Best Bingo Room' by the Las Vegas Review-Journal.[ citation needed ] The Riviera later launched a marketing partnership with Buffalo Studios, a company that had created a Facebook bingo game titled Bingo Blitz. Beginning in May 2012, the game allowed players to play online bingo on a web page that featured an image of the Riviera, as a marketing move to attract customers. [41]

The casino had a sportsbook operated by William Hill.

Entertainment

Liberace was the featured headliner at the resort's opening, and for many years afterward.

In 2006, Splash, a traditional Las Vegas revue created by Jeff Kutash, ended an extended 22-year run at the Riviera.

In 2009, An Evening at La Cage, featuring female impersonators including Frank Marino and his impersonation of Joan Rivers, ended one of the longest runs in Strip history.

Crazy Girls

The resort had one long-running show:

All of these shows were associate produced and booked by Sam Distefano, the resort's Vice-President of Entertainment and Special Events, who signed George Burns, Bob Hope, Tony Bennett, and Frank Sinatra to a special two-year contract to perform on a recurring basis. [46]

Jan Rouven

Previous acts

Pocket billiards (Pool)

As of 2010, the Riviera had a near-monopoly on championship-level North American and international amateur pool (pocket billiards) tournaments held in the United States, aside from the Florida-based U.S. Amateur Championship. The hotel's convention center hosted the Billiard Congress of America, [49] American Poolplayers Association, [50] Valley National 8-Ball Association [51] and American Cuesports Alliance [52] pool leagues' annual international championships, and various related events. BCA scheduled their 2011 and 2012 amateur championships at the Riviera, as well as the 2011 professional U.S. Open Ten-ball Championship. [49] BCA moved their 2013 events to Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino [53] VNEA announced in May 2010 that their event would move to Bally's, further down the Strip, in 2011. [54]

APA held annual events at the Riviera for 23 years up until its closure. In the week prior to the Riviera's close, the APA held their Annual League Operator's Convention as well as their 2015 National Singles Championship. At 7PM on May 3, 2015 APA President Reneé Lyle and Marketing Director Jason Bowman held an awards ceremony for the APA's 2015 8-Ball Classic - the final event to be held at the Riviera. [50]

The Riviera was often chosen as a shooting location due to its history and recognition as a landmark. Portions of the following features were filmed at The Riviera:

The majority of the television series Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling was shot in the Riviera Hotel during its four-year run and subsequent 1991 pay-per-view. The game show Hollywood Squares also taped its final syndicated season at the Riviera, from 1980-81. There was also a radio booth inside the casino where live telecasts were made featuring various guests.

Sports

The Riviera was the site of the first boxing match between Larry Holmes and Michael Spinks on September 21, 1985. Spinks won in an upset on a unanimous decision, winning Holmes's International Boxing Federation heavyweight championship, and preventing Holmes from tying Rocky Marciano's undefeated 49–0 record.

In 1994, the Riviera was the host of the practice field for the short lived Las Vegas Posse of the Canadian Football League during the league's brief U.S. expansion . Built on a former parking lot on Riviera property, the Posse practiced on a smaller-than-regulation field (only 70 yards long) where a sign read "Field of ImPOSSEable Dreams." The team folded after the 1994 season.

Related Research Articles

Las Vegas Strip 4 mile stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard with many resorts, shows, and casinos

The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada, that is known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos. The Strip, as it is known, is about 4.2 mi (6.8 km) long, and is immediately south of the Las Vegas city limits in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester, but is often referred to simply as "Las Vegas".

Boardwalk Hotel and Casino Las Vegas hotel

The Boardwalk Hotel and Casino was a Coney Island-style hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. It was owned and operated by MGM Mirage. It was part of the Holiday Inn hotel chain until it was acquired by MGM in 2000. It was built before the era of the mega-casinos, and with 653 rooms was relatively small compared to many properties in its vicinity.

Stardust Resort and Casino Defunct casino hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada

The Stardust Resort and Casino was a casino resort located on 60 acres (24 ha) along the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, Nevada. The Stardust was conceived by Tony Cornero, and construction began in 1954. Cornero died in 1955, and the project was taken over by his brother. The Stardust had numerous creditors, and construction was stopped in 1956, when the project ran out of money.

The Hacienda was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, that operated from 1956 to 1996. It was opened by Warren Bayley, who owned other Hacienda properties in California as well. Bayley opened the hotel portion in June 1956, although the opening of the casino was delayed as the Nevada Gaming Control Board objected to his choice of casino manager, Jake Kozloff. The casino portion eventually opened on October 17, 1956. The $6 million property had 266 rooms and the largest pool on the Las Vegas Strip. Like its sister properties in California, the resort included a neon sign that depicted a cowboy riding a palomino horse.

Dunes (hotel and casino)

The Dunes Hotel was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, that operated from May 23, 1955 to January 26, 1993. Designed by architects John Replogle, Robert Dorr Jr., Milton Schwartz and Maxwell Starkman, it was the tenth resort to open on the Strip. Bellagio now stands on the former grounds. The Dunes golf course is now occupied by parts of Park MGM, New York-New York, CityCenter, Cosmopolitan, and T-Mobile Arena.

Landmark (hotel and casino) Former casino hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada

The Landmark was a hotel and casino located in Paradise, Nevada, east of the Las Vegas Strip and across from the Las Vegas Convention Center. The resort included a 31-floor tower, inspired by the design of the Space Needle tower in Seattle. Frank Caroll, the project's original owner, purchased the property in 1961. Fremont Construction began work on the tower that September, while Caroll opened the adjacent Landmark Plaza shopping center and Landmark Apartments by the end of the year. The tower's completion was expected for early 1963, but because of a lack of financing, construction was stopped in 1962, with the resort approximately 80 percent complete. Up to 1969, the topped-off tower was the tallest building in Nevada until the completion of the International Hotel across the street.

Desert Inn Former hotel casino in Las Vegas, Nevada

The Desert Inn, also known as the D.I., was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, which operated from April 24, 1950, to August 28, 2000. Designed by architect Hugh Taylor and interior design by Jac Lessman, it was the fifth resort to open on the Strip, the first four being El Rancho Vegas, The New Frontier, the still-operating Flamingo, and the now-defunct El Rancho. It was situated between Desert Inn Road and Sands Avenue.

New Frontier Hotel and Casino

The New Frontier was a hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. It was the second resort that opened on the Las Vegas Strip and operated continuously from October 30, 1942 until it closed on July 16, 2007. The building was demolished on November 13, 2007. Wynn Resorts currently owns the land. The resort had the distinction of hosting Elvis Presley's first Vegas appearance in 1956, and the final performance of The Supremes with Diana Ross as lead singer on January 14, 1970.

Planet Hollywood Las Vegas Casino resort in Las Vegas, Nevada

Planet Hollywood Las Vegas is a casino hotel on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. It is owned and operated by Caesars Entertainment. The property was previously the site of an earlier resort known as the Aladdin, which operated from 1962 to 1997. It was demolished in 1998, to make room for a new resort that would also be named Aladdin. The new Aladdin resort opened in August 2000, but suffered financial difficulties and was eventually purchased in 2003 by a partnership of Planet Hollywood and Starwood, which renamed it as Planet Hollywood in 2007.

Sahara Las Vegas Casino hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada

Sahara Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, Nevada. It is owned and operated by the Meruelo Group. The hotel has 1,616 rooms, and the casino contains 50,662 square feet (4,706.7 m2). The Sahara anchors the northern end of the Las Vegas Strip, at the corner of Sahara Avenue. It is the site of the northernmost station of the Las Vegas Monorail.

The Castaways Hotel and Casino, formerly the Showboat Hotel and Casino, was a hotel and casino located at the north end of the Boulder Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada. The hotel consisted of a 19 story tower containing 445 rooms, a casino and an adjacent RV park. The Castaways hotel was demolished on January 11, 2006 to make way for a new resort. However, construction never started on the project, and the property became the site of the Showboat Park Apartments in 2021.

South Point Hotel, Casino & Spa

The South Point Hotel and Casino consists of a 24-story hotel tower, casino and 90,000 square feet (8,400 m2) convention center located on a 60 acres (24 ha) site along Las Vegas Boulevard in Enterprise, Nevada and adjacent to Silverado Ranch. The casino is owned and operated by Michael Gaughan and it serves as the primary sponsor of Gaughan's son Brendan Gaughan's race car.

Martin Stern Jr. was an American architect who was most widely known for his large scale designs and structures in Las Vegas, Nevada. He is credited with originating the concept of the structurally integrated casino resort complex in Las Vegas.

Las Vegas Club

Las Vegas Club was a hotel and casino located on the Fremont Street Experience in downtown Las Vegas, Nevada. The Las Vegas Club opened in 1930, joining the Las Vegas Hotel which had opened in 1908. The Las Vegas Club was relocated across the street in 1949. At its new location, the Las Vegas Club operated within the Overland Hotel, which was established in 1905.

The El Rancho Hotel and Casino was a hotel and casino that operated on the Las Vegas Strip in Winchester, Nevada. It originally opened on September 2, 1948, as the Navajo-themed Thunderbird. The Thunderbird was owned by building developer Marion Hicks and Lieutenant Governor of Nevada Clifford A. Jones. A sister property, the Algiers Hotel, was opened in 1953. During the mid-1950s, the state carried out an investigation to determine whether underworld Mafia figures held hidden interests in the resort. Hicks and Jones ultimately prevailed and kept their gaming licenses. Hicks died in 1961, and his position as managing director was taken over by Joe Wells, another partner in the resort. Wells added a horse racing track known as Thunderbird Downs, located behind the resort. The Thunderbird also hosted numerous entertainers and shows, including Flower Drum Song and South Pacific.

Joel Bergman was an American architect who has designed several landmark casinos.

The LV Strip is one of the designated Nevada Gaming Control Boards reporting areas. It consists of the Las Vegas Strip casinos and many of the surrounding casinos. The Strip earns roughly 50% of the gaming revenue from all sources for the state of Nevada.

Las Vegas in the 1950s

The 1950s was a time of considerable change for Las Vegas. By the 1950s, there were 44,600 living in the Las Vegas Valley. Over 8 million people were visiting Las Vegas annually in 1954, pumping $200 million into casinos, which consolidated its image as "wild, full of late-night, exotic entertainment". The population grew dramatically from 8,422 during World War II to over 45,000. From 1952 to 1957, through money and institutional lending provided by the Teamsters Union and some Mormon bankers they built the Sahara, the Sands, the New Frontier, the Royal Nevada, the Showboat, the Riviera, the Fremont, Binion's Horseshoe, and finally the Tropicana. Gambling was no longer the only attraction by the 1950s; the biggest stars of films and music like Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford, Andy Williams, Liberace, Bing Crosby, Carol Channing, and others performed in intimate settings and brought a whole new brigade of Hollywood film stars and others in the entertainment business to the city. In 1957, the first topless show "Minsky's Follies" was started here.

Ahern Hotel Hotel in Las Vegas, US

Ahern Hotel and Convention Center is a boutique hotel and former casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. The resort is located on 2.5 acres (1.0 ha) of land at 300 West Sahara Avenue, near the Las Vegas Strip.

The Aladdin was a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. Toy manufacturer Edwin S. Lowe originally opened the 450-room Tallyho Hotel on the property in 1962. The Tallyho was the only major hotel in Nevada to not include a casino; it closed at the end of the year and was sold to Kings Crown Inns of America, a hotel chain which reopened the property a month later as the King's Crown Tallyho. The company added a casino and showroom but plans to open the casino were halted when the Nevada Gaming Control Board declined to issue a gambling license because of concerns about the resort being inadequately financed.

References

  1. "Riviera - Las Vegas Hotels & Casinos".
  2. "2901 S LAS VEGAS BLVD". ClarkCountyData. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  3. 1 2 Richard N. Velotta; Howard Stutz (February 20, 2015). "In historic vote, LVCVA approves purchase of Riviera". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2015-02-20.
  4. Michael Newton (2009). Mr. Mob: The Life and Crimes of Moe Dalitz. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN   9780786453627.
  5. 1 2 Milt Sosin (March 3, 1955). "Beach men granted Nevada casino OKs". Miami Daily News via Google News.
  6. "Riviera | UNLV Digital Collections | UNLV Libraries Digital Collections". digital.library.unlv.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  7. "taylor-usa.com | HOME". www.taylor-usa.com. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  8. "Clark County's Riviera Hotel changes hands". Nevada State Journal. Reno, NV. UP. July 28, 1955.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  9. "Finances of Riviera are under scrutiny". Nevada State Journal. Reno, NV. UP. October 27, 1955.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  10. Alan Balboni (Fall 1995). "Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews: Cautious Cooperation in Las Vegas Casinos, 1940-1967" (PDF). Nevada Historical Society Quarterly: 163. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-22.
  11. Gus Russo (2008). Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became America's Hidden Power Brokers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 215–16. ISBN   9781596918986.
  12. Gus Russo (2008). Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became America's Hidden Power Brokers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 143–44. ISBN   9781596918986.
  13. The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes by Michael Newton, Checkmark Books (August 2004) ISBN   0-8160-4981-5
  14. "CONTENTdm". d.library.unlv.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  15. Gus Russo (2008). Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became America's Hidden Power Brokers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 209–16. ISBN   9781596918986.
  16. Gus Russo (2008). Supermob: How Sidney Korshak and His Criminal Associates Became America's Hidden Power Brokers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 215. ISBN   9781596918986.
  17. 1 2 Philip Greer (May 30, 1969). "Combination may now be right for full Las Vegas potential". Greeley Daily Tribune. Greeley, CO. Washington Post.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  18. "Swiss firm sells stock as ordered". Nevada State Journal. UPI. April 24, 1969.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  19. 1 2 "Dean Martin in show hassle". Billboard. March 4, 1972 via Google Books.
  20. "Las Vegas Riviera sale approved". Redlands Daily Facts. Redlands, CA. UPI. September 20, 1973.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  21. Marlo Barnhart (April 8, 1976). "Giant firm lost 3 buildings here". The Daily Mail. Hagerstown, MD.  via Newspapers.com (subscription required)
  22. "UNLV Libraries Digital Collections: Photograph of a rendering of the Riviera Hotel Monte Carlo tower addition (Las Vegas), circa 1974". digital.library.unlv.edu. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  23. "Webb Spinner 1975-1978" (PDF).
  24. "sky001395". d.library.unlv.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  25. 1 2 "Riviera Chapter 11". New York Times. AP. August 26, 1983. ProQuest   424752402.  via ProQuest (subscription required)
  26. 1 2 Al Martinez (April 27, 1984). "Fast food invades Riviera hotel as Vegas seeks middle class". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. L.A. Times-Washington Post News Service.
  27. Nicholas D. Kristof (November 28, 1995). "Vegas courts low rollers". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  28. D.G. Schwartz (2010). "The Burger King Revolution: How Las Vegas bounced back, 1983-1989". Gaming Law Review and Economics: Regulation, Compliance, and Policy. 14 (4): 261–273. doi:10.1089/glre.2010.14405 . Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  29. 1 2 Form 10-K: Annual Report (Report). Riviera Holdings Corporation. March 10, 1997. p. 3. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  30. GmbH, Emporis. "Riviera Hotel & Casino | Buildings | EMPORIS". www.emporis.com. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  31. 1 2 "Casino exits Chap. 11". The Star-Ledger. Newark, NJ. AP. July 2, 1993 via NewsBank.
  32. Las Vegas Sun
  33. Jarvis, Katherine; Lazara, Gina (April 12, 2016). "Riviera to be demolished in June, August". KTNV-TV . Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  34. 1 2 3 Cashed Out Casino (2017) , retrieved 2018-09-15
  35. http://www.foxcarolina.com/story/32214299/rivieras-first-implosion-brings-down-monaco-tower
  36. Implosion 6/14/16
  37. Jackie Valley (August 16, 2016). "Final Riviera tower imploded, closing chapter of Las Vegas history". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
  38. https://www.casino.org/news/lvcva-selling-former-riviera-land-property-includes-10-acres/
  39. https://www.reviewjournal.com/business/casinos-gaming/lvcva-puts-10-acres-of-the-former-riviera-site-up-for-sale-1627170/
  40. https://www.reviewjournal.com/business/conventions/lvcva-to-sell-10-acres-of-former-riviera-site-1602664/
  41. 1 2 Las Vegas Sun
  42. Crazy Girls News
  43. Crazy Girls Main Page
  44. Crazy-Girls-Butts.jpg
  45. BUTT SERIOUSLY …
  46. "Short Takes: Riviera Signs Frank Sinatra". Los Angeles Times, September 28, 1990. Accessed December 19, 2015.
  47. REVIEW-JOURNAL, MIKE WEATHERFORD LAS VEGAS (2016-03-18). "Tropicana drops Rouven's magic show after child pornography arrest" . Retrieved 2016-06-30.
  48. "Why'd the lights dim? The Las Vegas mystery behind the demise of G.L.O.W. - Las Vegas Weekly". lasvegasweekly.com. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  49. 1 2 "Upcoming Events". PlayBCA.com. Henderson, NV: CueSports International. 2010. "Events" section. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  50. 1 2 "National Singles Championships - American Poolplayers Association". PoolPlayers.com. Lake Saint Louis, MO: American Poolplayers Association. 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  51. "30th Anniversary: VNEA International Pool Championships" (PDF). VNEA.com. Bay City, MI: Valley National 8-Ball Association (VNEA). 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 5, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  52. "2010 National 8-Ball & 9-Ball June 612, 2010: Tournament Guidelines and Entry Forms". AmericanCueSports.org. Green Bay, WI: American CueSports Alliance. 2010. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  53. Mike Fieldhammer (2013). "BCAPL CSI Move to the Rio Hotel Las Vegas in July" . Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  54. 2010 VNEA Int'l Championships Tournament Program. VNEA, op. cit. 2010. p. 2.
  55. Lawrence, Christopher (November 4, 2015). "When James Bond Came to Las Vegas". Las Vegas Review-Journal . Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  56. Barker, Aaron (February 5, 2016). "Car crashes into Riviera as part of 'Bourne 5' filming". KVVU-TV . Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  57. Lupiani, Joyce (April 21, 2016). "Official trailer for new 'Bourne' movie released". KTNV-TV . Retrieved June 28, 2016.