South of Heaven

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South of Heaven
Slayer South of Heaven Cover.jpg
Studio album by Slayer
ReleasedJuly 5, 1988 (1988-07-05)
RecordedDecember 1987 – February 1988
StudioHit City West, Los Angeles, California
Chung King, New York, New York
Genre Thrash metal
Length36:54
Label Def Jam
Producer Slayer, Rick Rubin
Slayer chronology
Reign in Blood
(1986)
South of Heaven
(1988)
Seasons in the Abyss
(1990)

South of Heaven is the fourth studio album by American thrash metal band Slayer. Released on July 5, 1988, the album was the band's second collaboration with record producer Rick Rubin, whose production skills on Slayer's previous album Reign in Blood had helped the band's sound evolve.

Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and often fast tempo. The songs usually use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead work. The lyrics often deal with social issues and criticism of The Establishment, using direct and denunciatory language, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk.

Slayer American thrash metal band

Slayer is an American thrash metal band from Huntington Park, California. The band was formed in 1981 by vocalist and bassist Tom Araya and guitarists Kerry King and Jeff Hanneman. Slayer's fast and aggressive musical style made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Metallica, Megadeth and Anthrax. Slayer's current lineup comprises King, Araya, drummer Paul Bostaph and guitarist Gary Holt. Hanneman and drummers Dave Lombardo and Jon Dette are former members of the band.

Rick Rubin American music producer

Frederick Jay Rubin is an American record producer and former co-president of Columbia Records. Along with Russell Simmons, he is the co-founder of Def Jam Recordings and also established American Recordings. With the Beastie Boys, LL Cool J, Public Enemy, Geto Boys, and Run-DMC, Rubin helped popularize hip hop music.

Contents

South of Heaven was Slayer's second album to enter the Billboard 200 and its last to be released by Def Jam Recordings, although the album became an American Recordings album after Rubin ended his partnership with Russell Simmons. It was one of only two Def Jam titles to be distributed by Geffen Records through Warner Bros. Records because of original distributor Columbia Records' refusal to release work by the band. The release peaked at number 57 and in 1992 was awarded a gold certification by the Recording Industry Association of America.

The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart grew from a weekly top 10 list in 1956 to become a top 200 in May 1967, and acquired its present title in March 1992. Its previous names include the Billboard Top LPs (1961–72), Billboard Top LPs & Tape (1972–84), Billboard Top 200 Albums (1984–85) and Billboard Top Pop Albums.

Def Jam Recordings American record label

Def Jam Recordings is an American record label focused predominantly on hip hop and urban music, owned by Universal Music Group. In the UK, the label takes on the name Def Jam UK and is operated through Virgin EMI Records, while in Japan, it is known as Def Jam Japan, operating through Universal Music Japan. The label distributes releases of various record labels, including Kanye West's GOOD Music, and Listen Up Forever Records, headed by producer, Ronny J. Current artists include Justin Bieber, Logic, Big Sean, Kanye West, Nas, 2 Chainz, Teyana Taylor, YG, Dave East, Jeezy, Jeremih, Q-Tip, Valee, Pusha T, Vince Staples, Fabolous, Desiigner and Jhené Aiko.

Russell Simmons American entrepreneur, producer and author

Russell Wendell Simmons is an American entrepreneur, record producer, and author. The chair and CEO of Rush Communications, he co-founded the hip-hop music label Def Jam Recordings and created the clothing fashion lines Phat Farm, Argyleculture, and Tantris. Simmons's net worth was estimated at $340m in 2011.

In order to offset the pace of the group's previous album, Slayer deliberately slowed down the album's tempo. In contrast to their previous albums, the band utilized undistorted guitars and toned-down vocals. While some critics praised this musical change, others—more accustomed to the style of earlier releases—were disappointed. The songs "Mandatory Suicide" and the title track, however, have become permanent features of the band's live setlist.

In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is typically indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is usually measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will typically simply be stated in bpm.

Background

The album was recorded in Los Angeles, California with Reign in Blood producer Rick Rubin. PopMatters reviewer Adrien Begrand observed that Rubin's production "shoves [Dave] Lombardo's drumming right up front in the mix". [1] Guitarist Jeff Hanneman has since said that South of Heaven was the only album the band members discussed before writing the music. Aware that they "couldn't top Reign in Blood ", and that whatever they recorded would be "compared to that album", he believed they "had to slow down", something Slayer had never done on albums before, or since. [2] Guitarist Kerry King cited the need to "keep people guessing" as another reason for the musical shift. [3] "In order to contrast the aggressive assault put forth on Reign in Blood, Slayer consciously slowed down the tempo of the album as a whole", according to Slayer's official biography. "They also added elements like undistorted guitars and toned-down vocal styles not heard on previous albums." [4]

<i>Reign in Blood</i> album by Slayer

Reign in Blood is the third studio album by American thrash metal band Slayer, released on October 7, 1986 by Def Jam Recordings. The album was the band's first collaboration with producer Rick Rubin, whose input helped the band's sound evolve. The release date of the album was delayed because of concerns regarding the lyrical subject matter of the song “Angel of Death.” The opening track "Angel of Death", which refers to Josef Mengele and describes acts such as human experimentation that he committed at the Auschwitz concentration camp, provoked allegations of Nazism. However, the band's members stated numerous times that they did not condone Nazism and were merely interested in the subject.

PopMatters is an international online magazine of cultural criticism that covers many aspects of popular culture. PopMatters publishes reviews, interviews, and detailed essays on most cultural products and expressions in areas such as music, television, films, books, video games, comics, sports, theater, visual arts, travel, and the Internet.

Dave Lombardo Cuban drummer

David Lombardo is a Cuban-American drummer, best known as a co-founding member of American thrash metal band Slayer. Lombardo played drums on nine Slayer albums, including the 1986 album Reign in Blood and the 2006 album Christ Illusion, for which he received critical praise. Lombardo's music career has spanned forty years, during which he has been involved in the production of thirty-five commercial recordings covering a number of genres. He has performed with numerous bands, including Grip Inc., Fantômas, Testament, and Suicidal Tendencies, in addition to Slayer. Lombardo is currently playing drums with Suicidal Tendencies, Dead Cross and the Misfits.

King has since been critical of his performance, which he describes as his "most lackluster". King attributes this to the fact he had recently married, and moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Describing himself as "probably the odd man out at that point", he stated he "didn't participate as much because of that". Hanneman said: "We go through dry spells sometimes, but the good thing about having two guitar players that can write music is that you are never gonna go without. I guess at that time, Kerry was hitting a dry spell." King has also been critical of the album in general, describing it as one of his least favorite Slayer albums. He feels vocalist Tom Araya moved too far away from his regular vocal style, and "added too much singing". [2] Drummer Dave Lombardo has since observed: "There was fire on all the records, but it started dimming when South of Heaven came into the picture. And that's me personally. Again, I was probably wanting something else." [5]

Phoenix, Arizona State capital in Arizona, United States

Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona. With 1,626,078 people, Phoenix is the fifth most populous city nationwide, the most populous state capital in the United States, and the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents.

Tom Araya American singer and bassist

Tomás "Tom" Enrique Araya Díaz is a Chilean-American musician, best known as the lead vocalist and bassist of the American thrash metal band Slayer. Araya is ranked fifty-eighth by Hit Parader on their list of the 100 Greatest Metal Vocalists of All Time.

Judas Priest's "Dissident Aggressor" is the first cover version to appear on a Slayer studio album. The song was chosen due to its war-themed lyrics. Hanneman described the track as "more just like one of those odd songs that a lot of people didn't know, but it was a favorite of Kerry and I, so we just picked that one". [6] Meanwhile, "Cleanse the Soul" has been heavily criticized by King who said that he hates the track: "That's one of the black marks in our history, in my book. I just fucking think it's horrible. [Laughs] I hate the opening riff. It's what we call a 'happy riff.' It's just like 'la-lala-la-la-la.' I can't see myself playing it, but after that, where it gets heavier, I like that section. If we ever did a medley, I'd put part of that in there." [7] The Slayer boxset Soundtrack to the Apocalypse featured, along with four songs of the album, an early version of the title track, recorded at Hanneman's home. [8]

Judas Priest British heavy metal band

Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in West Bromwich in 1969. The band has sold over 50 million copies of their albums to date. They are frequently ranked as one of the greatest metal bands of all time. Despite an innovative and pioneering body of work in the latter half of the 1970s, the band struggled with indifferent record production and lack of major commercial success or attention until 1980, when they adopted a more simplified sound on the album British Steel, which helped shoot them to rock superstar status.

"Dissident Aggressor" is a song by the British heavy metal band Judas Priest that was first released on Sin After Sin in 1977. Thirty-three years after its release, the song won the 2010 Grammy Award for Best Metal Performance after being released again on A Touch of Evil: Live.

Cover version later version of a song already established with a different earlier performer

In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or simply cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a previously recorded, commercially released song.

Photography and illustration

Artist Larry Carroll and illustrator Howard Schwartzberg designed the cover artwork for South of Heaven, having designed the artwork for Slayer's previous album Reign in Blood. [2] Photographer Glen E. Friedman took the promotional shot which surfaced as the back cover of South of Heaven around the time of 1986's Reign in Blood . Lombardo felt it made Slayer seem as though they "had matured a little bit", while Friedman himself deemed it "a really cool back cover" and "one of the most classic shots of them [Slayer] ever". [2]

Critical reception

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar empty.svg [9]
Robert Christgau B– [10]
Collector's Guide to Heavy Metal 10/10 [11]
Kerrang! Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg [12]
Metal Forces 8/10 [13]
Rock Hard 8.5/10 [14]
Rolling Stone Star full.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svgStar empty.svg [15]
Spin Alternative Record Guide 8/10 [16]

South of Heaven was released on July 5, 1988, and was the final Slayer album distributed via Def Jam Records. When label co-founders Russell Simmons and Rubin parted ways, Slayer signed to Rubin's newly founded Def American Recordings label. [9] The album peaked at number 57 on the Billboard 200 album chart, [17] and on November 20, 1992, became Slayer's second album to be certified gold in the United States. [18] South of Heaven was awarded silver certification in the United Kingdom on January 1, 1993, Slayer's first record to do so in that country. [19] Slayer's official biography states that "some critics praised the album as demonstrating Slayer's desire to grow musically and avoid repeating themselves." [4] Alex Henderson of AllMusic described the record as "disturbing and powerful," [9] while Joe Matera of Ultimate Guitar deemed the album a slight departure; he wrote that while the pace was slowed down, it "didn't sacrifice any of the heaviness inherent in Slayer's music". [3]

Reviewing the 2003 Slayer box set Soundtrack to the Apocalypse , Adrien Begrand of PopMatters described the album as "their most underrated, and on this set, its five selections show how highly the band thinks of the record". [1] KNAC.com's Peter Atkinson was also positive, saying the album has a "grandiosity and imposing presence" which makes the record "so magnificent". [20] Grave's Ola Lindgren and Bolt Thrower's Karl Willetts both rate South of Heaven as amongst the top five albums of all time, [21] [22] while Max Kolesne of Brazilian death metal group Krisiun remembers hearing the song "Silent Scream" for the first time: "It just blew me away. It was like fast double-bass, fast kicks during the whole song. That was very inspiring for me." [23] When discussing Slayer in an October 2007 interview, Evile frontman Matt Drake stated that while Reign in Blood "was just speed", South of Heaven proved that the group could write "slow material as well". [24] Metal Forces reviewer gives "the band credit for at least making an effort to try something new and not being afraid to experiment at such a crucial stage of their career", creating "one of the more original sounding thrash / speed metal albums he heard in a long while". He remarks, however, that "if you're expecting to hear Reign in Blood Part Two, you'll be in for a major disappointment". [13]

Kim Neely of Rolling Stone dismissed the album as "genuinely offensive satanic drivel". [15] However, the magazine would later rank the album 47th on their 2017 "100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time" list. [25] Slayer's official biography states: "The new sounds disappointed some of the band's fans who were more accustomed to the style of earlier releases." [2] Michael Roberts of Westworld Online said this was due to some of the numbers moving "at the sludgier speed of Black Sabbath". [26] Araya commented that the "album was a late bloomer—it wasn't really received well, but it kind of grew on everybody later". [2] Decibel inducted South of Heaven into the Decibel Magazine Hall of Fame in January 2013. Due to Jeff Hanneman's passing in May of the same year, South of Heaven would be the second and final classic Slayer album to receive an induction into Decibel's Hall of Fame. [27] [28]

Cover versions

The title track and the song "Mandatory Suicide" have received various cover interpretations, particularly on Slayer tribute albums. Toni Ferguson recorded string quartet adaptations of both tracks on the album The String Quartet Tribute to Slayer: The Evil You Dread, with "South of Heaven" being described as having "menacing chord shifts" by AllMusic's Johnny Loftus. [29]

1995 Slayer tribute album Slatanic Slaughter featured three songs which originally appeared on South of Heaven, with "South of Heaven", "Mandatory Suicide" and "Spill the Blood" interpreted by Cemetary, Crown of Thorns and Grope, respectively. [30] Its 1998 follow up Slatanic Slaughter, Vol. 2 only featured two tracks originally from the album: "Silent Scream", arranged by Vader, and "Read Between the Lies", interpreted by Anathema. [31] 1999's Straight to Hell: A Tribute to Slayer collected four Slayer renditions which originated on the album, with versions of "South of Heaven" performed by Abaddon, (Venom) and Electric Hellfire Club, "Mandatory Suicide" cut by Chapter 7 and "Behind the Crooked Cross" adapted by Gigantor. [32] The 2006 Argentine tribute album Al Sur Del Abismo (Tributo Argentino A Slayer) saw Nafak and Climatic Terra also respectively cover "South of Heaven" and "Mandatory Suicide". [33]

Live performances

Two songs taken from the album ("Mandatory Suicide" and "South of Heaven") have become near constant fixtures in the band's live setlist, [4] notching up appearances on the following: the live DVDs Live Intrusion , [34] War at the Warfield , [35] Still Reigning , [36] Soundtrack to the Apocalypse's deluxe edition's bonus live disc, [37] and the live double album Decade of Aggression . [38] Lombardo guested with Finnish cellist group Apocalyptica on a live medley of the two tracks at 1998's Headbanger's Heaven festival in the Netherlands. [39] Adrien Begrand of PopMatters described "South of Heaven" as "an unorthodox set opener in theory", noting "the song went over like a megaton bomb detonating the place: dozens of inverted crosses projected behind the high drum riser, the sinewy opening notes kicked in, followed by an overture of bass, cymbal crashes, and tom fills, leading up to the slowly building crescendo" in a concert review. [40] Lombardo remembers listening to a live rendition of "South of Heaven" and thinking, "'Man! There's just so much groove in that song.' To my kids I was saying, 'Listen to that! Listen to how groovy that is!' And it's heavy." [5] A live version of the track featured on the JÄGERMUSIC Rarities 2004 promotional CD, given away to attendees at the Spring 2004 Jägermeister Music Tour. [41] A live rendition of "South of Heaven" was also included on a bonus DVD which came with the group's 2007 re-release of ninth studio album Christ Illusion , shot in Vancouver, British Columbia during 2006's Unholy Alliance tour. [42]

"Behind the Crooked Cross" is rarely played live as Hanneman hates the track, though King has always wanted to play it "because it's got a cool intro" despite it not being his favorite song. King said "that's fine" when speaking of the situation, noting "there are songs that he wants to play that I always shoot down". [2] "Ghosts of War" isn't King's favorite song either, which he attests "everybody always wants to hear" performed live. He confessed; "I like the ending, you know, I like the big heavy part and I always say, 'Let's put the heavy ending at the end of "Chemical Warfare" and just do the last half.' But I could never make that fly." [43]

Slayer has toyed with the idea of creating a live set mixed with selections from the album and 1990's Seasons in the Abyss , though Hanneman said it's something which hasn't been "seriously considered". [44] Metal Maniacs asked Slayer in a 2006 interview whether they would consider playing South of Heaven in the footsteps of the Still Reigning tour, to which Araya replied, "It's becoming a trendy thing now. I don't know. We have some really cool albums, but I don't think we'll ever do that again." King was equally unsure, commenting, "Probably not. And I just don't like enough songs off South of Heaven." [7]

"South of Heaven" was released as a downloadable song for Rock Band 3 in April 10, 2012 along with "Raining Blood" and "Seasons In The Abyss".

"South of Heaven"'s drum and bass beats were covered for a MIDI track known as "Shawn's Got the Shotgun" on various maps for the popular PC computer game Doom II .

Track listing

Side one
No.TitleLyricsMusicLength
1."South of Heaven" Tom Araya Jeff Hanneman 4:58
2."Silent Scream"Araya
3:07
3."Live Undead"
  • Araya
  • King
Hanneman3:50
4."Behind the Crooked Cross"HannemanHanneman3:15
5."Mandatory Suicide"Araya
  • Hanneman
  • King
4:05
Side two
No.TitleLyricsMusicLength
6."Ghosts of War"King
  • Hanneman
  • King
3:53
7."Read Between the Lies"
  • Araya
  • King
Hanneman3:20
8."Cleanse the Soul"
  • Araya
  • King
Hanneman3:02
9."Dissident Aggressor" (Judas Priest cover) Rob Halford 2:35
10."Spill the Blood"HannemanHanneman4:48

Personnel

Slayer

Production

Charts and certifications

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