Sovfoto

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Sovfoto was established in 1932 as the only agency to represent Soviet photojournalism in America. [1] [2] It continues today as a commercial entity Sovfoto/Eastfoto. Collections from its archive are held also at MacLaren Art Centre in Barrie, Canada which in 2001 was donated 23,116 vintage gelatin silver prints dating from 1936 to 1957, [3] while Amhurst University holds the Tass Sovfoto Photograph Collection, 1919–1963, the majority being from 1943–1963.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining.

Archive institution responsible for storing, preserving, describing, and providing access to historical records

An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism", and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity.

Contents

History

Sovfoto agency was originally established by the USSR in New York in the early 1930s to distribute Soviet press photography throughout North America. After 1941 Sovfoto received photographs, on consignment, from the Sovinformburo (Совинформбюро), culled from TASS. All were printed in the USSR with English captions as they were intended for a North American audience. [4] Associated Press and all the major wire agencies sourced the material, and offered it to illustrated magazines like Life and Look , and also communist-aligned and communist-sympathetic publications, as well as selling to the State Department as the only source of regular visual reportage on the Soviet Union.

Consignment stock is stock legally owned by one party, but held by another, meaning that the risk and rewards regarding to the said stock remains with the first party while the second party is responsible for distribution or retail operations.

Soviet Information Bureau

Soviet Information Bureau' was a leading Soviet news agency, operating from 1941 to 1961.

<i>Life</i> (magazine) American magazine

Life was an American magazine published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent "special" until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. During its golden age from 1936 to 1972, Life was a wide-ranging weekly general interest magazine known for the quality of its photography.

After World War II, it continued, adding imagery from Eastern European countries of the Communist bloc as well as China. The agency started doing business as Sovfoto/Eastfoto in the late 1940s, moving offices several times under a series of American owners, including Helen Black (at 11 West Forty-second Street, New York City 18, then 15 West 44th Street) up to 1952, Edwin S. Smith to 1964 (at 24 West 45th Street), then Liuba Solov at 25 West 43rd Street. Solov managed the business until 1974 when Leah Siegel took ownership, moving in 1987 to 225 West 34th Street Suite 1505, and employing Victoria Edwards who bought the company in the early 1990s. Edwards’ son Vanya took over upon her retirement and is the current owner/manager.

Eastern Bloc 20th-century group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe

The Eastern Bloc was the group of Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union (USSR) during the Cold War (1947–1991) in opposition to the non-Communist Western Bloc. Generally, in Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc comprised the USSR and its East European satellite-states in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon); in Asia, the Socialist bloc comprised the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of Kampuchea; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China ; and in the Americas, the Communist Bloc included the Caribbean Republic of Cuba, since 1961.

Until the fall of the Communist/Soviet bloc, Sovfoto remained the exclusive legitimate source of news photography from the Communist countries and it continues to represent ITAR-TASS in Russia and Xinhua in China and others, while maintaining the historical archive.

Xinhua News Agency official press agency of the Peoples Republic of China

Xinhua News Agency or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua is the biggest and most influential media organization in China, as well as the largest news agency in the world in terms of correspondents worldwide. Xinhua is a ministry-level institution subordinate to the Chinese central government, and is the highest ranking state media organ in the country alongside the People's Daily. Its president is a member of the Central Committee of China's Communist Party.

As a Communist bloc agency, Sovfoto came under suspicion during the McCarthy era. When Sovfoto released photographs of purported biological warfare committed by the Americans, the then-owner Edwin Smith was brought before the House Un-American Activities Committee to testify on his role in their publication. [5] At the time of his ownership as ‘Foreign Principal’, the Report of the Attorney General to the Congress of the United States on the Administration of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 as Amended June 1951, for the Calendar Year 1955, notes that ‘Propaganda photographs (for the U.S.S.R.) are distributed by Edwin S. Smith, doing business under the name of Sovfoto Agency’ as well as ‘propaganda material from Communist China’. [6] Smith (1891–1975) was owner and manager of Am-Rus Literary and Music Agency, also Sovfoto and Eastfoto Agency from 1952–64, and represented legations and press and photo agencies Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga, Moscow; Czechopress, Prague; China Photo Service, Peking; Agerpress, Bucharest; Zentral Bild, East Berlin; Hungarian Review Photo Service (formerly Hungarian Bulletin), Budapest; Legation of the Hungarian People's Republic; Czechoslovakian Embassy; Legation of the People's Republic of Rumania; Polish Embassy; Czechoslovak Life, Prague; Cartimex (previouslyj Centrul de Librarii Si Difuzare a Cartii "IMEX"), Bucharest; and Artia, Prague. The agency received $40,872.75 from sale of photographs in 1955. [7]

McCarthyism Phenomenon in the US of making accusations of subversion or treason without evidence

McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term refers to U.S. senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin) and has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting from the late 1940s through the 1950s. It was characterized by heightened political repression as well as a campaign spreading fear of Communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents.

Biological warfare use of biological toxins or infectious agents with the intent to kill or otherwise neutralize enemies as an act of war

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons are living organisms or replicating entities that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. Entomological (insect) warfare is also considered a type of biological weapon. This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and chemical warfare, which together with biological warfare make up NBC, the military initialism for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare using weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). None of these are considered conventional weapons, which are deployed primarily for their explosive, kinetic, or incendiary potential.

House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Fascist or Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security". When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.

The Agency continues to operate from 263 West 20th St. #3 New York 10011 under the management of Vanya Edwards.

Archive

The Sovfoto archive is of high historical and social value in representing perspectives from the other side of the Iron Curtain. It holds the largest collection of photographs of Stalinist USSR outside of the state archives in Moscow. Furthermore, it includes images of Russia from the time of the Tsars, through Lenin, Stalin, Khruschev, Gorbachev, and Yeltsin, World War II and Militaria and a wide range of areas from Soviet society. Dr. Margarita Tupitsyn, curator and author of The Soviet Photograph, 1924–1937 wrote:

Iron Curtain term symbolizing the ideological-political conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe during the Cold War

The Iron Curtain was the name for the physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and its allied states. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union, while on the west side were the countries that were allied to the United States or nominally neutral. Separate international economic and military alliances were developed on each side of the Iron Curtain:

Stalinism theory and practice for developing a communist society

Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from around 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953). Stalinist policies and ideas as developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time.

Tsardom of Russia former country  (1547-1721)

The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

"The Sovfoto archive is of unquestionable status....Many of the photographs stand out as artistically remarkable and strong images as well as documentation of the human experience... The Sovfoto archive presents a visual depository for rich interdisciplinary studies, including photography, sociology, psychology and history...The annotations on the back of each photograph further enables the researcher to delve into invaluable historical layers of knowledge that would require a long time to find in other sources...The Sovfoto archive is the only one of its kind in North America."

These photographs present the state-sanctioned, propagandistic promotion of the progress and achievements of socialism. At the outbreak of World War II, many Soviet photographers became war correspondents, incorporating the photographic invention of the revolutionary avant-garde in documenting the lives and deaths of Russian troops, conflict, destruction and German atrocities.

The photographers

The archive contains images taken by many anonymous photographers, as well as the foremost Soviet photographers, documenting a period of history in the twentieth century which has had a very lasting impact. It includes hundreds of examples of photographs by some of the most important Soviet artists of their time. After the crackdown of 1932, many of the Soviet Union's leading avant-garde photographers found that their only available means of expression was press photography. The Sovfoto archive includes images from many Soviet photographers who have become historically important:

Max Alpert (1899-1980)

Worked in the newspaper "Pravda", where he made portraits of major Soviet and many foreign politicians, military and writers. During the Great Patriotic War he was a TASS correspondent and Information Bureau, has worked both in the rear and at the front, in a combat situation. His most famous photograph "Combat" became one of the symbols of the Soviet war. In the postwar years he collaborated with different publications. He was the lead photographer for the press agency "Novosti".

Dmitri Baltermans

D. Samson Cernov (1887–1929)

photographed the Balkan War and World War I 1912–18

Mark Markov-Grinberg (1907–2006)

Samary Mikhailovitch Gurary, (Samarii Gurarii)

His famous portrait of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill at the Yalta Conference appeared on the front page of Pravda 13 Feb 1945

Boris Vsevolodovich Ignatovich (1899–1979)

Yevgeny Khaldei (1917-1997)

At 18 years old Khaldei began working as a photographer and in 1939 represented the TASS "News in pictures". Photographed the Dnieper Dam project and its worker hero Alexey Stakhanov. He photographed throughout World War II, his most famous image being the "Victory Banner over the Reichstag". He documented the liberation of Sevastopol, the storming of Novorossiysk, Kerch, liberation of Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Severomorsk and the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet, the Paris Foreign Ministers' Meeting, the defeat of the Japanese, the Potsdam Conference of Heads of Allied Powers, the signing of the act of surrender of Germany, the Nuremberg trials.

Oleg Knorring (1907-1968)

a photojournalist from the beginning of the thirties. He collaborated in the magazine Наши достижения ('Our achievements'), and other publications. During World War II he was a photographer for the newspaper Red Star.

Nikolai Kolli

(not to be confused with Nikolai Kolli, architect)

Vladimir Musinov

His work appeared in LIFE 29 Mar 1943 (p. 114) in a special edition on Russia, and in an article in the 11 Jan 1943 edition.

Vladimir Savostyanov

Arkady Shaikhet

Shakhovskoy

His work was collected by Philippe Halsman

Major David Sholomovich

Formerly a cameraman for the Moscow Newsreel Studios, he mastered the duties of gunner and navigator in order to fly to record the dive-bombing and strafing of Nazi troops by Soviet planes.

Abram Petrowitch Shterenberg

Viktor Antonovich Temin (October 21 [or November 3] 1908- January 1987)

From 1922 Temin worked for Izvestia, photographing Maxim Gorky in 1929, the expedition to the North Pole in 1930, the Russian-Finnish War (1939–40).

Alexander Uzylan (1908–198?)

A staff photographer for Izvestia , Pravda and Ogoniok magazine. During the Second World War, he was assigned to the Black Sea Fleet as a correspondent for the Soviet information Bureau.

Alexander Vorontsov

Filmed and photographed the rescue of children at the liberation of the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp by the Red Army, January 27, 1945

Boris Borisovich Zeitlin (a.k.a. Tseitlin)

"We had brought with us to Waldia one European who did not belong to our Unit, the Russian, B. Zeitlin, a fearless and indefatigable film-photographer." [8] [9]

George Anatolievich 'Zelma' Zelmanovich (1906-1984)

Zelma was a photojournalist on "Izvestia", "Ogonyok", "Red Star" and other publications during the 1920s and 30s, and a military photographer of "Izvestia" newspaper. He worked at the front in Moldavia, Odessa and Ukraine. His most famous photographs were taken during the Battle of Stalingrad, where the photographer created a chronicle of the battle for the city. After the war, Georgi Zelma worked for "Ogonyok" magazine, and from 1962 for the agency "Novosti".

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References

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  2. "Reviews: of leading stock industry source across the country & beyond. (Stock Photography Guide 2003)", Photo District News, The Nielsen Company, 23 (4): S10(13), 2003-04-01, ISSN   1045-8158
  3. Hadzihasanovi; Wlasenko, O.; Pacific, R.C.; Beveridge, S.; Fraser, S.; MacLaren Art Centre (2007), September 2007: Broken Promises, Soviet Photography in the Age of Stalin : Olexander Wlasenko, Robin Pacific, Sadko Hadz̆ihasanovi, O., MacLaren Art Centre, ISBN   9780973882933
  4. Shneer, David; ebrary, Inc (2011), Through Soviet Jewish eyes photography, war, and the Holocaust, Rutgers University Press, retrieved 20 September 2015
  5. Edwin S. Smith, [in] 1948 was identified by Lewis F. Budenz as a Communist in sworn testimony. When asked about this and other evidence before this subcommittee in 1953, he invoked his privilege under the fifth amendment[…]Since his departure from government service, Smith has taken off his mask and become an official propagandist for the Soviet government, as American agent of Sovfoto, a Soviet agency, and a long list of Soviet and Chinese communist principals. In his capacity, among other duties, he distributes photographs purporting to show that American troops have been engaged in germ warfare in Korea United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary (1953), Interlocking subversion in Government Departments. : Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-third Congress, second session [-Eighty-fourth Congress, first session], U.S. Govt. Print. Off, retrieved 20 September 2015(p.569)
  6. "There is very clear evidence that a man who is now working for Sovfoto, the Soviet propaganda organisation in America, decidedly influenced the administration of Labour policy in the late thirties." "McCARTHYISM ON TRIAL—II Communists In U.S.: Fact And Fiction". The Sydney Morning Herald . 8 November 1954. p. 2. Retrieved 24 September 2015 via National Library of Australia.
  7. REPORT of the ATTORNEY GENERAL to the CONGRESS of the UNITED STATES on the ADMINISTRATION of the FOREIGN AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, as AMENDED June 1951, for the Calendar Year 1955
  8. Macfie, J. W. S (1936), An Ethiopian diary : a record of the British Ambulance Service in Ethiopia, Uni. Press of Liverpool, Hodder & Stoughton, retrieved 26 September 2015
  9. Mochulsky, Fyodor Vasilevich; Kaple, Deborah A (2010), Gulag boss a Soviet memoir, Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-974266-0