St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle

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St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
The King's Free Chapel of the College of St George, Windsor Castle
St. Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle (2).jpg
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
51°29′01″N00°36′25″W / 51.48361°N 0.60694°W / 51.48361; -0.60694 Coordinates: 51°29′01″N00°36′25″W / 51.48361°N 0.60694°W / 51.48361; -0.60694
Location Windsor
CountryEngland
Denomination Church of England
Previous denomination Roman Catholicism
Churchmanship High Church
Website stgeorges-windsor.org
History
StatusChapel
Founded1475
Dedication St George
Architecture
Functional statusActive
Heritage designation Grade I listed
Style Gothic
Years built1475
Completed1511
Specifications
Capacity800
Administration
Diocese Jurisdiction: Royal Peculiar
Location: Oxford
Deanery Dean and Canons of Windsor
Clergy
Dean David Conner
Precentor Martin Poll (Chaplain)
Canon(s) Mark Powell (Steward)
Canon Treasurer Hueston Finlay (Vice-Dean)
Laity
Organist/Director of music James Vivian
Music group(s) Choir of St George's Chapel

St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England is a castle chapel built in the late-medieval Perpendicular Gothic style. It is both a Royal Peculiar (a church under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch) and the Chapel of the Order of the Garter. St George's Chapel was founded in the 14th century by King Edward III and extensively enlarged in the late 15th century. It is located in the Lower Ward of the castle. [1] The castle has belonged to the monarchy for almost 1,000 years and was a principal residence of Elizabeth II before her death. The chapel has been the scene of many royal services, weddings and burials – in the 19th century, St George's Chapel and the nearby Frogmore Gardens superseded Westminster Abbey as the chosen burial place for the British royal family. [2] The running of the chapel is the responsibility of the dean and Canons of Windsor who make up the College of Saint George. They are assisted by a clerk, verger and other staff. The Society of the Friends of St George's and Descendants of the Knights of the Garter, a registered charity, was established in 1931 to assist the college in maintaining the chapel.

Contents

History

Development of the building

St George's Chapel (left) at Windsor Castle in 1848, showing the absence of the Queen's Beasts on the pinnacles (since replaced). Watercolour by Joseph Nash WindsorLowerBaileyJosephNash1848 edited.jpg
St George's Chapel (left) at Windsor Castle in 1848, showing the absence of the Queen's Beasts on the pinnacles (since replaced). Watercolour by Joseph Nash

In 1348, King Edward III founded two religious colleges: St Stephen's at Westminster and St George's at Windsor. The new college at Windsor was attached to the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor which had been constructed by Henry III in the early thirteenth century. The chapel was then re-dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, George the Martyr and Edward the Confessor, but soon became known only by its dedication to St George. [3] Edward III also built the Aerary Porch in 135354. [4]

The Choir of St George's Chapel, by Charles Wild, from W. H. Pyne's Royal Residences, 1818 Windsor Castle, Quire of St George's, by Charles Wild, 1818 - royal coll 922115 257036 ORI 0.jpg
The Choir of St George's Chapel, by Charles Wild, from W. H. Pyne's Royal Residences, 1818
The Horseshoe Cloister, built in 1480 and reconstructed in the 19th century Windsor horseshoe cloister 01.JPG
The Horseshoe Cloister, built in 1480 and reconstructed in the 19th century

The period 1475–1528 saw a radical redevelopment of St George's Chapel set in motion by Edward IV and continued by Henry VII under the supervision of his most esteemed counsellor, Sir Reginald Bray, and by Henry VIII. The thirteenth-century Chapel of St Edward the Confessor was enlarged into a cathedral-like space under the direction of Richard Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, and the master mason, Henry Janyns. [5]

The Chapel suffered a great deal of destruction during the English Civil War. Parliamentary forces broke into and plundered the chapel and treasury on 23 October 1642. Further pillage occurred in 1643 when the fifteenth-century chapter house was destroyed, lead was stripped off the chapel roofs, and elements of Henry VIII's unfinished funeral monument were stolen. Following his execution in 1649, Charles I was buried in a small vault in the centre of the choir at St George's Chapel, which also contained the coffins of Henry VIII and Queen Jane (née Seymour). [6]

During his life and reign, King George III was responsible for reigniting royal interest in Windsor Castle, which had been much overlooked after the House of Hanover came to the throne of the Great Britain in 1714. On 12 August 1776 the royal family first attended the Sunday morning service at St George's Chapel – which they called "the Cathedral". George III was committed to St George's Chapel; he inspired and in large part funded an extensive restoration of the chapel from 1780 to 1790. [7]

The reign of Queen Victoria saw further changes made to the structure of the chapel. The east end of the choir was reworked in memory of Prince Albert. The Lady Chapel, which had been abandoned by Henry VII, was completed and renamed the Albert Memorial Chapel. [8]

By the early twentieth century, the bowing walls, cracked vaulting, decayed stone and stripped lead required urgent attention. In 1920 a much needed ten-year restoration project began at George's Chapel, overseen by the consulting architect Sir Harold Brakspear. [9] As part of this programme, Mahomet Thomas Phillips - an Anglo-Congolese sculptor - produced a falcon and a unicorn in 1923. [10]

The King George VI Memorial Chapel was constructed in 1969 between the Rutland Chapel and the north choir of St George's Chapel to a design by George Pace. [11]

St George's Chapel in the Lower Ward at centre right, partially behind tree WindsorCastlePano-Wyrdlight.jpg
St George's Chapel in the Lower Ward at centre right, partially behind tree

The Queen's Beasts

The Queen's Beasts shown atop the pinnacles St Georges Chapel Windsor 02.jpg
The Queen's Beasts shown atop the pinnacles

On the roof of the chapel, standing on the pinnacles, and also on pinnacles at the sides, are seventy-six heraldic statues representing the Queen's Beasts, showing the Royal supporters of England. They represent fourteen of the heraldic animals: the lion of England, the red dragon of Wales, the panther of Jane Seymour, the falcon of York, the black bull of Clarence, the yale of Beaufort, the white lion of Mortimer, the greyhound of Richmond, the white hart of Richard II, the collared silver antelope of Bohun, the black dragon of Ulster, the white swan of Hereford, the unicorn of Edward III and the golden hind of Kent. [12]

The original beasts dated from the sixteenth century, but were removed in 1682 on the advice of Sir Christopher Wren. Wren had criticised the Reigate Stone, the calcareous sandstone from which they were constructed. The present statues date from 1925 when the chapel was restored. [13] [14]

The choir of St George's Chapel

The Choir of St George's Chapel continues to this day and numbers 20. The choristers are boarders at St George's School, Windsor Castle. [15]

Dean and Canons

Order of the Garter

Garter Service

Emblem of the Order of the Garter Order of the Garter 01.jpg
Emblem of the Order of the Garter
Members of the public outside St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting for the Garter Procession St George's Chapel Garter Day.jpg
Members of the public outside St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting for the Garter Procession

Members of the Order of the Garter meet at Windsor Castle every June for the annual Garter Service. After lunch in the State Apartments (Upper Ward of the Castle), they process on foot in their robes and insignia, down to St George's Chapel for the service. The Garter Service was revived in 1948 by King George VI for the 600th anniversary of the founding of the Order and has since become an annual event. [16]

Heraldry

Interior of the chapel St Georges Chapel Windsor Castle.jpg
Interior of the chapel

After their installation, members are each assigned a stall in the chapel choir above which his or her heraldic devices are displayed. A member's sword is placed beneath a helmet which is decorated with a mantling and topped with a crest, coronet or crown. Above this, a member's heraldic banner is hoisted emblazoned with his arms. [17]

A Garter stall plate, a small elaborately enamelled plate of brass, is affixed to the back of the stall displaying its member's name and arms with other inscriptions. On a member's death, the sword, helmet, mantling, crest, coronet or crown, and banner are removed. A service marking the death of a late member must be held before the stall can be assigned to anyone else. The ceremony takes place in the chapel, during which the Military Knights of Windsor carry the banner of the deceased member and offer it to the Dean of Windsor, who places it on the altar. The stall plates, however, are not removed. They remain permanently affixed to the stall, so the stalls of the chapel are emblazoned with a collection of 800 plates of the members throughout history. [18]

Chantries

Tierceron-lierne vaulting of the choir and fan vaulting of the crossing of St George's Chapel, with the Garter banners on either side below Castell de Windsor - Capella de Sant Jordi.JPG
Tierceron-lierne vaulting of the choir and fan vaulting of the crossing of St George's Chapel, with the Garter banners on either side below

St George's Chapel is among the most important medieval chantry foundations to have survived in England. The college was itself part of a medieval chantry, and there are a number of other chantry elements in the form of altars and small chapels in memory of various English monarchs and of a number of prominent courtiers, deans and canons. Special services and prayers would also be offered in memory of the founder. Henry VIII had originally intended another chantry to be set up in the chapel, despite the fact that his ecclesiastical changes led to the Reformation in England and the eventual suppression of chantries. [19]

The much-admired iron gates in the sanctuary of the chapel as well as the locks on the doors of the chapel are the work of the medieval Cornish metalsmith John Tresilian. [20]

Rutland Chantry

Monumental brass in St Leger Chantry to Anne of York (1439-1476) and her second husband Thomas St Leger (c. 1440 - 1483), founder of the chapel Anne of York and Sir Thomas St. Leger.jpg
Monumental brass in St Leger Chantry to Anne of York (1439–1476) and her second husband Thomas St Leger (c. 1440 – 1483), founder of the chapel

The Rutland Chantry chapel, forming the northern transept of St George's Chapel, was founded in 1491 in honour of Sir Thomas St Leger (c. 1440 – 1483) and Anne of York (1439–1476). [21] Sir Thomas was Anne's second husband. She was the eldest surviving daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and thus elder sister of kings Edward IV (1442–1483) and Richard III (1452–1485). A monumental brass in memory of Anne and Sir Thomas survives on the east wall of the Rutland Chantry, the inscription of which records that the chantry was founded "with two priests singing forevermore":

"Wythin thys Chappell lyethe beryed Anne Duchess of Exetur suster unto the noble kyng Edward the forte. And also the body of syr Thomas Sellynger knyght her husband which hathe funde within thys College a Chauntre with too prestys sy’gyng for ev’more. On whose soule god have mercy. The wych Anne duchess dyed in the yere of oure lorde M Thowsande CCCCl xxv" [22]

The chantry received its current name in honour of the Earls of Rutland, descendants of Anne and Sir Thomas: their daughter, also Anne, married George Manners, 11th Baron Ros, and their son was Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland. The tomb of George and Anne Manners is a prominent feature of the chantry. Their effigies are carved in English alabaster. [21]

The chantry comprises five panels which represent the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Adoration of the Magi, the Temptations of Christ in the wilderness and the Miracle at Cana. They were commissioned from embroiderer Beryl Dean and took five years to complete. Only one panel is normally on display to the public, but the others may be seen on request. [23]

Weddings

Wedding of the Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark, in 1863 St George's Chapel, 10 March 1863.jpg
Wedding of the Prince of Wales and Alexandra of Denmark, in 1863

The chapel has been the site of many royal weddings, particularly of the children of Queen Victoria. They have included:

YearGroomBride
1863 Albert Edward, Prince of Wales Princess Alexandra of Denmark
1866 Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg The Princess Helena
1871 John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne The Princess Louise
1879 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
1880 Alphons, Baron von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Frederica of Hanover
1882 Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Princess Helen of Waldeck and Pyrmont
1891 Prince Aribert of Anhalt Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein--Sonderburg-Augustenburg
1904 Prince Alexander of Teck Princess Alice of Albany
1905 Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden Princess Margaret of Connaught
1919Major John Evelyn Gibbs Lady Helena Cambridge
1957 David Ian Liddell-Grainger Anne Abel Smith
1992Timothy Taylor Lady Helen Windsor
1999 The Prince Edward Sophie Rhys-Jones
2008 Peter Phillips Autumn Kelly
2018 Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Meghan Markle [24]
Jack Brooksbank Princess Eugenie of York
2019Thomas Kingston Lady Gabriella Windsor

Charles III, then-Prince of Wales, and Camilla Parker Bowles received a blessing from the Archbishop of Canterbury following their marriage in 2005.

Burials

The chapel has been the site of many royal funerals and interments. People interred in the Chapel include:

Altar

Quire

Royal Vault

Near West Door

King George VI Memorial Chapel

Albert Memorial Chapel

Gloucester Vault

Others

Former burials

In literature

See also

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References

Notes

  1. "Harry and Meghan to wed at Windsor in May". BBC News. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  2. Petter, Olivia (16 October 2020). "What will happen when the Queen dies and where will she be buried" . The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  3. P H Ditchfield; William Page, eds. (1907). "Collegiate churches: Windsor (St George's chapel)". A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 2. Victoria County History. p. 106.
  4. "The Aerary Porch". St. George's Chapel website. Archived from the original on 15 September 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  5. James, Sara N. (2016). Art in England: The Saxons to the Tudors: 600-1600. Oxbow Books. p. 216. ISBN   978-1785702266.
  6. "12 November 1537 – Jane Seymour's remains moved to Windsor". The Tudor Society. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  7. "The legacy of King George III". St George's Chapel. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  8. "The Wolsey Chapel". St George's Chapel. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  9. Baillie, Albert (13 February 1931). "The Restoration of St George's Chapel, Windsor". Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 79 (4082): 306–319. JSTOR   41358709 . Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  10. Hughes, H (17 October 2022). "Mahomet Thomas Phillips Part 2". University of Lincoln.
  11. Keay, Douglas (15 February 2002). "Princess Margaret's ashes to rest by her father". The Times . No. 67375. p. 3. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  12. "Windsor Royal Beasts on St George's Chapel roof". Wordpress. 6 July 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  13. London, H. Stanford (1953). "The" Queen's Beasts: An Account with New Drawings of the Heraldic Animals Witch Stood at the Entrance to Westminster Abbey on the Occasion of the Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II., 2. June 1953. Newman Neame. p. 15.
  14. "Sir Frederick Minter". The Times . 15 July 1976. p. 19.
  15. Wridgway, Neville (1980). The Choristers of St George's Chapel. Chas. Luff & Co. p. 132.
  16. "Order of the Garter Timeline" (PDF). The Companion. 2015. p. 3. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  17. "St George's Chapel Banners of Arms Hand-Painted by Flagmakers". Flagmakers. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  18. "Register of Stall Plates in St George's Chapel" (PDF). The Companion. p. 18. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  19. Lindley, Phillip (18 July 2013). "'Pickpurse' Purgatory, the Dissolution of the Chantries and the Suppression of Intercession for the Dead". Journal of the British Archaeological Association. 164: 277–304. doi:10.1179/174767011X13184281108289. S2CID   194045544 . Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  20. Blackburne, Harry W. (2008). The Romance of St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Wildside Press. pp. 14–. ISBN   978-1-4344-7428-5.
  21. 1 2 Eleanor Cracknell (15 July 2011). "The Rutland Chantry". College of St George. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  22. "The Roos Monument in the Rutland Chantry Chapel". St George's Chapel. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  23. "Beryl Dean Panels". College of St George. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  24. Yeginsu, Ceylan (2 March 2018). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Invite Members of Public to Wedding Day". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 18 September 2022.
  25. "Royal Burials in the Chapel since 1805". College of St George. 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  26. "Royal Burials in the Chapel by location". College of St George. 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  27. "The Roos Monument in the Rutland Chantry Chapel". College of St George. 10 September 2010.
  28. "View and Ground Plan of St. George's Chapel, Windsor - Wenceslaus Hollar". 21 June 2016.
  29. "View and Ground Plan of St. George's Chapel, Windsor - Wenceslaus Hollar". 8 May 2015.
  30. "View and Ground Plan of St. George's Chapel, Windsor - Wenceslaus Hollar". 21 June 2016.
  31. "Picture" (JPG). www.antiqueprints.co.
  32. "Free stock images for genealogy and ancestry researchers". www.ancestryimages.com.

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