The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates

Last updated

The silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus), found only in Madagascar, has been on The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates list since its inception in 2000. Between 100 and 1,000 individuals are left in the wild. Propithecus candidus 003.jpg
The silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus), found only in Madagascar, has been on The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates list since its inception in 2000. Between 100 and 1,000 individuals are left in the wild.

The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates is a list of highly endangered primate species selected and published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC) Primate Specialist Group (PSG), the International Primatological Society (IPS), Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC), and Bristol Zoological Society (BZS). [1] The IUCN/SSC PSG worked with Conservation International (CI) to start the list in 2000, but in 2002, during the 19th Congress of the International Primatological Society, primatologists reviewed and debated the list, resulting in the 2002–2004 revision and the endorsement of the IPS. The publication was a joint project between the three conservation organizations until the 2012–2014 list when BZS was added as a publisher. [2] The 2018–2020 list was the first time Conservation International was not among the publishers, replaced instead by GWC. The list has been revised every two years following the biannual Congress of the IPS. [1] Starting with the 2004–2006 report, the title changed to "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates". [3] That same year, the list began to provide information about each species, including their conservation status and the threats they face in the wild. [4] The species text is written in collaboration with experts from the field, with 60 people contributing to the 2006–2008 report [5] and 85 people contributing to the 2008–2010 report. [4] The 2004–2006 and 2006–2008 reports were published in the IUCN/SSC PSG journal Primate Conservation , [3] [6] , since then they have been published as independent publications. [4] [7] [2] [8] [9] [1]

Contents

The 25 species on the 2018–2020 list are distributed between 32 countries. The country with the most species on the list is Madagascar with five species, Indonesia, Brazil, Ghana, and Cote d'Ivoire each have three. The list is broken into four distinct regions: the island of Madagascar, the continent of Africa, the continent of Asia including the islands of Indonesia, and the Neotropics (Central and South America). [1]

The purpose of the list, according to Russell Mittermeier, the president of CI, is "to highlight those [primate species] that are most at risk, to attract the attention of the public, to stimulate national governments to do more, and especially to find the resources to implement desperately needed conservation measures." [10] Species are selected for the list based on two primary reasons: extremely small population sizes and very rapid drops in numbers. These reasons are heavily influenced by habitat loss and hunting, the two greatest threats primates face. More specifically, threats listed in the report include deforestation due to slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing for pasture or farmland, charcoal production, firewood production, illegal logging, selective logging, mining, land development, and cash crop production; forest fragmentation; small population sizes; live capture for the exotic pet trade; and hunting for bushmeat and traditional medicine. [4] Twelve species were dropped for the 2018-2020 list, Mittermeier notes this was not because their situation has improved but instead to focus attention on other species that are also have "bleak prospects for their survival. [1]

Key

Key for column headings
SpeciesCommon and scientific name of the species, including a picture if available
Years listedYears the species has been included in the IUCN's list of the "Top 25 Most Endangered Primates"
Location(s)Countries in which it is found
Estimated populationLatest population estimate from the IUCN
IUCN statusConservation status of the species, per the IUCN as of the date of the latest list publication
ThreatsA list of threats facing the species; used by the IUCN in assessing conservation status

Current list

The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2018–2020: Madagascar [1]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Bemanasy mouse lemur
Microcebus manitatra
2018Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[11]
  • loss of habitat (agricultural encroachment)
Hapalemur alaotrensis Hapalemur alaotrensis JJLM.JPG
Hapalemur alaotrensis
Lac Alaotra bamboo lemur
Hapalemur alaotrensis
2000
2014
2016
2018
Madagascar2,500
(2018 estimate)
Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[12]
  • loss of habitat (agricultural encroachment, burning of marshlands [to create rice paddies, catch fish, and for cattle grazing]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (local pet trade)
James' sportive lemur
Lepilemur jamesorum
2016
2018
Madagascar1,386
(2010 estimate)
Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[13]
  • habitat loss (shifting agriculture)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Indri indri Indri 2.jpg
Indri indri
Indri
Indri indri
2012
2018
Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[14]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, firewood)
  • hunting (bushmeat, skins)
Daubentonia madagascariensis Wild aye aye.jpg
Daubentonia madagascariensis
Aye-aye
Daubentonia madagascariensis
2016
2018
Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[15]
  • habitat loss (selective logging for local use [boats, houses, coffins], agricultural encroachment, fire)
  • hunting (pests, local taboos, bushmeat)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Africa [2]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Rondo dwarf galago
Galagoides rondoensis
2006
2008
2010
2012
Tanzaniaunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[16]
  • very small range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, logging)
Cercopithecus roloway Cercopithecus roloway.jpg
Cercopithecus roloway
Roloway monkey
Cercopithecus roloway
2002
2006
2008
2010
2012
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[17]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, logging)
Tana River red colobus
Procolobus rufomitratus
2002
2004
2006
2008
2012
Kenya1,100–1,300 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[18]
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, fire, firewood, selective logging for local use [houses, canoes])
  • habitat degradation (livestock, dam construction, irrigation projects)
  • parasitic infection of isolated populations
Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii Piliocolobus pennantii.jpg
Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
Bioko red colobus
Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
2004
2006
2010
2012
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island)fewer than 5,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[19]
  • habitat degradation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • small range
Gorilla beringei graueri Flachlandgorilla.jpg
Gorilla beringei graueri
Eastern lowland gorilla
Gorilla beringei graueri
2010
2012
Democratic Republic of the Congo5,000 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[20]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, pastoral farming, illegal mining, charcoal production, wood and bamboo harvesting)
  • hunting (bushmeat, infant capture)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Asia [2]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Nycticebus javanicus Nycticebus javanicus by OpenCage.jpg
Nycticebus javanicus
Javan slow loris
Nycticebus javanicus
2008
2010
2012
Indonesia (Java)unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[21]
  • live capture (pet trade [intense])
  • hunting (traditional medicine [intense])
  • habitat loss (agriculture, development activities [roads], human disturbance)
Pig-tailed langur
Simias concolor
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Indonesia (Mentawai Islands)700–3,347 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[22]
  • habitat loss (human encroachment, product extraction, commercial logging, conversion to cash crops and oil palm plantations)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Trachypithecus delacouri Langur de Delacour.jpg
Trachypithecus delacouri
Delacour's langur
Trachypithecus delacouri
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnamfewer than 250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[23]
  • habitat fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Cat Ba Langur 9.jpg
Golden-headed langur
Trachypithecus poliocephalus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam60–70 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[24]
  • habitat fragmentation (human encroachment, development for tourism)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Purple faced langur.jpg
Western purple-faced langur
Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Sri Lankaunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[25]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (urbanization, agricultural encroachment)
  • dependent on gardens for survival
  • live capture (pet trade)
  • hunting (pests)
  • other human factors (electrocution [power lines], road kill, dog attacks)
Cuc.Phuong.Primate.Rehab.center.jpg
Grey-shanked douc
Pygathrix cinerea
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam600–700 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[26]
  • restricted range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, illegal logging, firewood)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Rhinopithecus avunculus Tonkin snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus avunculus).jpg
Rhinopithecus avunculus
Tonkin snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus avunculus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Vietnam200–250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[27]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (logging, firewood, roads)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Eastern black crested gibbon
Nomascus nasutus
2008
2010
2012
China
Vietnam
around 110 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[28]
  • habitat loss, fragmentation, and disturbance (agricultural encroachment, pastoral farming, firewood, charcoal production)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Pygmy tarsier
Tarsius pumilus
2012Indonesia (Sulawesi)unknown Status iucn3.1 DD.svg
Data deficient
[29]
  • habitat loss (human encroachment)
The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates, 2012–2014: Neotropics [2]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Ateles hybridus BrownSpiderMonkey (edit2).jpg
Ateles hybridus
Brown spider monkey
Ateles hybridus
2004 [N 1]
2006
2008
2010
2012
Colombia
Venezuela
unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[30]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agricultural encroachment, cattle-ranching, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Brown-headed spider monkey
Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
2006
2012
Ecuadorunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[31]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Kaapori capuchin
Cebus kaapori
2012Brazilunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[32]
  • habitat loss and degradation (selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Rio Mayo titi
Callicebus oenanthe
2012Peruunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[33]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (rice and coffee plantations, roads, cattle-ranching)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Alouatta guariba guariba Brown Howler Monkey 4.jpg
Alouatta guariba guariba
Northern brown howler
Alouatta guariba guariba
2012Brazilfewer than 250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[34]
  • habitat loss (selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • disease epidemics

Former list members

With each new publication, species are both added and removed from the list. In some cases, removal from the list signifies improvement for the species. With the publication of the 2006–2008 list, four species were removed because of increased conservation efforts: the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus), golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei), and Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus perrieri). [35] In 2008, the black lion tamarin went from critically endangered to endangered and the golden lion tamarin was similarly promoted in 2003 after three decades of collaborative conservation efforts by zoos and other institutions. Well-protected species such as these still have very small populations, and due to deforestation, new habitat is still needed for their long-term survival. [10] The Hainan black crested gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), which was removed from the 2008–2010 list, still has fewer than 20 individuals left, but significant efforts to protect it are now being made. [4] Mittermeier claimed in 2007 that all 25 species could be elevated off the list within five to ten years if conservation organizations had the necessary resources. [35]

Unlike the changes in the 2006–2008 report, not all species were removed from the 2008–2010 list due to improvement in their situation. Instead, new species were added to bring attention to other closely related species with very small populations that are also at risk of extinction. For example, the highly endangered eastern black crested gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) replaced the Hainan black crested gibbon. The Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) replaced the Horton Plains slender loris (Loris tardigradus nycticeboides) because the former has been hit the hardest of Asian lorises, all of which are declining rapidly due primarily to capture for the exotic pet trade, as well as use in traditional medicines and forest loss. In another case, the brown-headed spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps fusciceps) was omitted from the list since no spokesperson could be found for the species. [4] The same approach was taken with the 2012–2014 list. [2]

Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Madagascar [4] [7] [2] [8] [9]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Prolemur simus Greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus) male 2.jpg
Prolemur simus
Greater bamboo lemur
Prolemur simus
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
Madagascar500 or fewer Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[36]
  • small, isolated populations
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, mining, illegal logging, cutting of bamboo)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • reduced availability of drinking water due to climatic change
  • extreme dietary specialization and dependency on giant bamboo
Varecia variegata Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur, Mantadia, Madagascar.jpg
Varecia variegata
Black-and-white ruffed lemur
Varecia variegata
2010Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[37]
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, mining, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
White-collared brown lemur.jpg
Gray-headed lemur
Eulemur cinereiceps
2004
2006
2008
Madagascar7,265 ± 2,268 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[38]
  • very small range (~700 km2)
  • hybridization with red-fronted lemur (E. rufifrons)
  • low population densities
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fragmented, small populations)
  • cyclones
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Propithecus tattersalli Propithecus tattersalli 001.jpg
Propithecus tattersalli
Golden-crowned sifaka
Propithecus tattersalli
2000Madagascar6,000–10,000 [39] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[39]
  • hunting (by gold miners)
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, uncontrolled grass fires, wood extraction [housing & firewood], selective logging, gold mining) [39]
Hapalemur aureus Golden bamboo lemur (Hapalemur aureus).jpg
Hapalemur aureus
Golden bamboo lemur
Hapalemur aureus
2000Madagascarfewer than 5,916 [40] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[40]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, cutting of bamboo [for building houses, carrying water, making baskets and other local uses])
  • hunting (bushmeat) [40]
Lepilemur sahamalazensis Lepilemur sahamalazensis c.png
Lepilemur sahamalazensis
Sahamalaza sportive lemur
Lepilemur sahamalazensis
2006Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 DD.svg
Data deficient
[41]
  • loss of habitat (agricultural encroachment, charcoal production, selective logging for local use [houses])
  • hunting (bushmeat) [41]
Propithecus perrieri Propithecus perrieri 001.jpg
Propithecus perrieri
Perrier's sifaka
Propithecus perrieri
2000
2002
2004
2014
2016
Madagascararound 915 [42] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[42]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, charcoal production, fires to clear forest for pasture, mining)
  • hunting (bushmeat) [42]
Eulemur flavifrons Blue-Eyed Black Lemur.jpg
Eulemur flavifrons
Blue-eyed black lemur
Eulemur flavifrons
2008
2010
2012
Madagascar450–2,300 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[43]
  • very small range (~2,700 km2)
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, selective logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Northern sportive lemur
Lepilemur septentrionalis
2008
2010
2012
Madagascararound 19 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[44]
Propithecus candidus Propithecus candidus 002.jpg
Propithecus candidus
Silky sifaka
Propithecus candidus
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
Madagascarfewer than 250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[45]
  • very small range
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, firewood)
Microcebus berthae Madame Berthe's Mouse Lemur.jpg
Microcebus berthae
Madame Berthe's mouse lemur
Microcebus berthae
2012Madagascarfewer than 8,000 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[46]
  • loss of habitat and fragmentation (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging)
Varecia rubra Varecia rubra (habitus).jpg
Varecia rubra
Red ruffed lemur
Varecia rubra
2012Madagascarunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[47]
  • loss of habitat (slash-and-burn agriculture, illegal logging, human encroachment)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Lavasoa Mountains dwarf lemur
Cheirogaleus lavasoensis
2014Madagascar ? [48] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[48]
Gerp's mouse lemur
Microcebus gerpi
2016Madagascar ? [49] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[49]
Ring-tailed lemur
Lemur catta
2016Madagascar ? [50] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[50]
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Africa [4] [2]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Mount Rungwe galago
Galagoides sp.
2004Tanzaniaunknown Not evaluated
  • loss of habitat (logging, agricultural encroachment, charcoal production)
  • hunting (bushmeat) [3]
Sclater's guenon Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) at CERCOPAN sanctuary.JPG
Sclater's guenon
Sclater's guenon
Cercopithecus sclateri
2000Nigeriaunknown Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[51]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (logging, agricultural encroachment, oil exploration)
  • high human density
  • hunting (bushmeat) [51]
Mandrillus leucophaeus Drill Lincolnparkzoo.jpg
Mandrillus leucophaeus
Drill
Mandrillus leucophaeus
2000Cameroon
Equatorial Guinea (Bioko)
Nigeria
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[52]
  • small range
  • loss of habitat (clearcutting [for chipboard factories and settlement])
  • hunting (bushmeat, persecution as pests) [52]
Cercocebus galeritus.jpg
Tana River mangabey
Cercocebus galeritus galeritus
2002Kenya1,000–1,200 [53] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[53]
  • loss of habitat (palm oil production, logging, agricultural encroachment, grass fires intended to prevent forest regeneration, overgrazing, damming and irrigation projects)
  • hunting (persecution as pests) [53]
Cercocebus sanjei Tanzania -Sanje Mangabey.jpg
Cercocebus sanjei
Sanje mangabey
Cercocebus sanjei
2000
2002
2004
Tanzaniafewer than 1,300 [54] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[54]
  • loss of habitat (logging, charcoal production)
  • hunting (persecution as pests) [54]
Cercocebus atys lunulatus Barcelona.Zoologico.Mangabey.Gris.jpg
Cercocebus atys lunulatus
Sooty mangabey
Cercocebus atys lunulatus
2000
2002
2004
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[55]
  • habitat loss and degradation
  • hunting (bushmeat) [55]
Miss Waldron's red colobus
Piliocolobus badius waldronae
2000
2002
2006
Côte d'Ivoire
Ghana
unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[56]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat) [56]
Gorilla beringei beringei Susa group, mountain gorilla.jpg
Gorilla beringei beringei
Mountain gorilla
Gorilla beringei beringei
2000
2002
2004
Rwanda
Uganda
around 880 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[57]
  • two isolated populations
  • political instability
  • human diseases
  • hunting (bushmeat) [57]
Piliocolobus epieni.jpg
Niger Delta red colobus
Procolobus epieni
2008
2010
Nigeriaunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[58]
  • very small range (~1,500 km2)
  • hunting (bushmeat)
  • habitat loss and degradation (logging of important food trees, loss of marsh forests due to canal construction)
Rungwecebus kipunji Kipunji walking h.jpg
Rungwecebus kipunji
Kipunji
Rungwecebus kipunji
2006
2008
Tanzaniaaround 1,117 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[59]
  • very small range
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat)
Gorilla gorilla diehli Cross river gorilla.jpg
Gorilla gorilla diehli
Cross River gorilla
Gorilla gorilla diehli
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Cameroon
Nigeria
200–300 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[60]
  • small, restricted range
  • habitat loss (agricultural encroachment, fires to clear forest or improve pasture, development activities [roads])
  • hunting (bushmeat, wire snares set for other wildlife)
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Asia [4]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Horton Plains slender loris
Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
2004
2006
Sri Lankaunknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[61]
  • five isolated populations
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat) [61]
Natuna Island surili
Presbytis natunae
2002Indonesiafewer than 10,000 [62] Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable
[62]
  • two isolated populations
  • habitat loss and degradation
  • live capture (pet trade) [62]
White-headed langur
Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus
2002China, Vietnamfewer than 250 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[63]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss
  • hunting [63]
Presbytis hosei canicrus.jpg
Miller's grizzled langur
Presbytis hosei canicrus
2004Indonesia (Kalimantan)unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[64]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting [64]
Black Snub-nosed Monkey (44489823001).jpg
Black snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus bieti
2002Chinafewer than 2,000 [65] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[65]
  • habitat loss (logging, fires for agricultural use, pasture)
  • pesticide use
  • hunting (non-targeted [snares]) [65]
Rhinopithecus brelichi Smit.jpg
Gray snub-nosed monkey
Rhinopithecus brelichi
2002Chinaaround 750 [66] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[66]
  • one isolated population (vulnerable to epidemic disease or catastrophes)
  • habitat loss (forest clearing, development for tourism, agricultural expansion, firewood)
  • hunting (non-targeted) [66]
Hylobates moloch Silbergibbon mit Nachwuchs.jpg
Hylobates moloch
Silvery gibbon
Hylobates moloch
2000Indonesia (Java)4,000–4,500 [67] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[67]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • live capture (pet trade) [67]
Nomascus hainanus Nomascus nasutus hainanus.jpg
Nomascus hainanus
Hainan black crested gibbon
Nomascus hainanus
2000
2004
2006
China (Hainan)around 20 [68] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[68]
  • extremely small population size
  • suboptimal, protected habitat
  • possible gender bias in recent births
  • hunting (bushmeat) [68]
Siau Island Tarsier - Tarsius tumpara 01.jpg
Siau Island tarsier
Tarsius tumpara
2006
2008
2010
Indonesia (Siau Island)Low thousands at best Not evaluated
  • island population (near an active volcano)
  • very small range
  • high human density
  • hunting [bushmeat (used as snack food)]
  • habitat degradation
Hoolock hoolock Hoolock hoolock 001.jpg
Hoolock hoolock
Western hoolock gibbon
Hoolock hoolock
2006
2008
Bangladesh
India
Myanmar
fewer than 5,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[69]
  • very small populations (recent, very rapid declines in numbers)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (human encroachment, tea plantations, slash-and-burn cultivation)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Pongo abelii Orangutan 01.jpg
Pongo abelii
Sumatran orangutan
Pongo abelii
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Indonesia (Sumatra)around 6,600 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[70]
  • recent, very rapid declines in numbers
  • only 10 fragmented habitat units
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires, agriculture and oil palm plantations, roads, logging, encroachment)
  • hunting (pests, bushmeat) [occasional]
  • live capture (pet trade) [occasional]
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus Orang Utan, Semenggok Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia crop.JPG
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
Northwest Bornean orangutan
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
2010Indonesia (West Kalimantan, Borneo)
Malaysia (Sarawak)
unknown Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[71]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires, agriculture and oil palm plantations, roads, logging, encroachment)
  • hunting (pests, bushmeat, traditional medicine)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Macaca silenus Lion-tailed macaque with baby.jpg
Macaca silenus
Lion-tailed macaque
Macaca silenus
2010Indiafewer than 4,000 Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[72]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (agriculture and tea/coffee plantations, logging)
  • hunting (bushmeat, traditional medicine)
Primates formerly listed in the Top 25 Most Endangered Primates: Neotropics [4]
SpeciesYears listedLocation(s)Estimated populationIUCN statusThreats
Leontopithecus rosalia Golden lion tamarin family.jpg
Leontopithecus rosalia
Golden lion tamarin
Leontopithecus rosalia
2000Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)3,200 [73] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[73]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (fires to clear forest for pasture)
  • live capture (pet trade) [73]
Leontopithecus chrysopygus Black Lion Tamarin 4.jpg
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
Black lion tamarin
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
2000Brazil (São Paulo)around 1,000 [74] Status iucn3.1 EN.svg
Endangered
[74]
  • small population size (11 isolated populations, but only one is viable)
  • habitat loss and fragmentation [74]
Superagui lion tamarin Leontopithecus caissara.jpg
Superagui lion tamarin
Superagui lion tamarin
Leontopithecus caissara
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Paraná and São Paulo)fewer than 400 [75] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[75]
  • small, isolated populations
  • habitat loss and degradation (agricultural encroachment, palm heart harvesting, tourism)
  • high human density (increased squatting by impoverished people, land speculation)
  • hunting (bushmeat) [75]
Cebus xanthosternos La Palmyre 030.jpg
Cebus xanthosternos
Golden-bellied capuchin
Cebus xanthosternos
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais?)unknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[76]
  • habitat loss
  • hunting (bushmeat) [76]
Northern muriqui Brachyteles hypoxanthus2.jpg
Northern muriqui
Northern muriqui
Brachyteles hypoxanthus
2000
2002
2004
Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais)fewer than 1,000 [77] Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[77]
  • small, isolated populations
  • habitat loss and fragmentation
  • hunting (bushmeat [past], sport [past]) [77]
Oreonax flavicauda Cola amarilla.jpg
Oreonax flavicauda
Yellow-tailed woolly monkey
Oreonax flavicauda
2000
2006
2008
2010
Peruunknown Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[78]
  • restricted range
  • low population densities
  • habitat loss (agriculture, logging, roads, colonization)
  • hunting (bushmeat, fur)
  • live capture (pet trade)
Saguinus oedipus Lisztaffe - Cottontop Tamarin - Saguinus oedipus.jpg
Saguinus oedipus
Cotton-top tamarin
Saguinus oedipus
2008Colombiafewer than 6,000 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[79]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (large-scale agricultural production [cattle] and farming, logging, oil palm plantations, hydroelectric projects)
  • live capture (pet trade [current], biomedical research [past])
Sapajus flavius S. flavius SP Zoo.jpg
Sapajus flavius
Blond capuchin
Cebus flavius
2010Brazil180 Status iucn3.1 CR.svg
Critically Endangered
[80]
  • habitat loss and fragmentation (coastal development and sugar cane plantations)
  • live capture (pet trade)
  • hunting (bushmeat)

List history

With the exception of the 2000–2002 publication, which was written collaboratively by the IUCN/SSC PSG and CI, the list has been revised every two years following the biannual Congress of the IPS. The 2002–2004 list resulted from the 19th Congress of the IPS in Beijing, China; the 2004–2006 list followed the 20th Congress of the IPS, held in Torino, Italy; the 2006–2008 list after the 21st Congress in Entebbe, Uganda; the 2008–2010 list followed the 22nd Congress held in Edinburgh, UK; the 2010-2012 list followed the 23rd Congress in Kyoto, Japan; the 2012–2014 list after the 24th Congress in Cancún, Mexico; the 2014–2016 list after the 25th Congress in Hanoi, Vietnam; the 2016–2018 list after the 26th Congress in Chicago, US; and the 2018–2020 list after the 27th Congress in Nairobi, Kenya. [4]

The 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species offered assessments of 634 primate taxa, of which 303 (47.8%) were listed as threatened (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered). A total of 206 primate species were ranked as either critically endangered or endangered, 54 (26%) of which have been included at least once in The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates since 2000. [4]

Historical membership [4]
MadagascarAfricaAsiaNeotropics
2000–2002
  • Propithecus candidus [N 2]
  • Propithecus perrieri [N 3]
  • Propithecus tattersalli
  • Hapalemur aureus
  • Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis [N 4]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei [N 5]
  • Cercocebus sanjei [N 6]
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus badius waldronae [N 7]
  • Cercopithecus sclateri
  • Mandrillus leucophaeus
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus [N 8]
  • Pygathrix cinerea [N 9]
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Hylobates moloch
  • Nomascus hainanus [N 10]
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
  • Leontopithecus rosalia
  • Leontopithecus chrysopygus
  • Oreonax flavicauda [N 11]
2002–2004
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Prolemur simus
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei
  • Cercocebus galeritus sanjei
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus badius waldronae [N 7]
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Cercocebus g. galeritus
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus [N 8]
  • Pygathrix cinerea [N 9]
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Presbytis natunae
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus [N 12]
  • Rhinopithecus bieti
  • Rhinopithecus brelichi
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
2004–2006
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps [N 13]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Gorilla b. beringei [N 5]
  • Cercocebus galeritus sanjei
  • Cercocebus atys lunulatus
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Procolobus p. pennantii
  • Galagoides sp.
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
  • Presbytis hosei canicrus
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Nomascus hainanus [N 10]
  • Brachyteles hypoxanthus
  • Cebus xanthosternos
  • Leontopithecus caissara
  • Ateles hybridus brunneus
2006–2008
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur sahamalazensis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps [N 13]
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Procolobus p. pennantii
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Rungwecebus kipunji
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Procolobus badius waldroni [N 7]
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus vetulus nestor
  • Hoolock hoolock
  • Nomascus hainanus
  • Loris tardigradus nycticeboides
  • Tarsius tumpara [N 14]
  • Ateles hybridus [N 1]
  • Oreonax flavicauda
  • Ateles f. fusciceps [N 15]
2008–2010
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Eulemur cinereiceps
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Gorilla gorilla diehli
  • Procolobus rufomitratus
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Rungwecebus kipunji
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Procolobus epieni
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Simias concolor
  • Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
  • Hoolock hoolock
  • Tarsius tumpara
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Ateles hybridus [N 1]
  • Oreonax flavicauda
  • Saguinus oedipus
2010–2012
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Prolemur simus
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Varecia variegata
  • Cercopithecus diana roloway
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
  • Piliocolobus epieni
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Tarsius tumpara
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Macaca silenus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus
  • Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus
  • Ateles hybridus [N 1]
  • Cebus flavius
  • Callicebus barbarabrownae
  • Oreonax flavicauda
2012–2014
  • Propithecus candidus
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Eulemur flavifrons
  • Microcebus berthae
  • Varecia rubra
  • Indri indri
  • Cercopithecus roloway
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Piliocolobus pennantii pennantii
  • Piliocolobus rufomitratus
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus
  • Pygathrix cinerea
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Simias concolor
  • Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
  • Tarsius pumilus
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Nomascus nasutus
  • Ateles hybridus [N 1]
  • Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
  • Cebus kaapori
  • Callicebus oenanthe
  • Alouatta guariba guariba
2014–2016
  • Cheirogaleus lavasoensis
  • Hapalemur alaotrensis
  • Varecia rubra
  • Lepilemur septentrionalis
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Galagoides rondoensis
  • Cercopithecus roloway
  • Piliocolobus preussi
  • Piliocolobus rufomitratus
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Carlito syrichta
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus delacouri
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Semnopithecus ajax
  • Semnopithecus vetulus nestor
  • Nomascus hainanus
  • Pongo abelii
  • Ateles hybridus [N 1]
  • Ateles fusciceps fusciceps
  • Cebus kaapori
  • Callicebus oenanthe
  • Alouatta guariba guariba
2016–2018
  • Microcebus gerpi
  • Hapalemur alaotrensis
  • Lemur catta
  • Lepilemur jamesorum
  • Propithecus perrieri
  • Daubentonia madagascariensis
  • Paragalago orinus
  • Cercopithecus roloway
  • Colobus vellerosus
  • Piliocolobus epieni
  • Gorilla beringei graueri
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus
  • Rhinopithecus avunculus
  • Trachypithecus geei
  • Semnopithecus vetulus
  • Macaca nigra
  • Nomascus hainanus
  • Pongo pygmaeus
  • Plecturocebus caquetensis
  • Cebus kaapori
  • Alouatta guariba guariba
  • Ateles geoffroyi
  • Ateles fusciceps
2018–2020
  • Microcebus manitatra
  • Hapalemur alaotrensis
  • Lepilemur jamesorum
  • Indri indri
  • Daubentonia madagascariensis
  • Paragalago rondoensis
  • Cercopithecus roloway
  • Rungwecebus kipunji
  • Colobus vellerosus
  • Piliocolobus epieni
  • Piliocolobus rufomitratus
  • Pan troglodytes verus
  • Nycticebus javanicus
  • Simias concolor
  • Trachypithecus poliocephalus
  • Trachypithecus geei
  • Semnopithecus vetulus
  • Hoolock tianxing
  • Pongo tapanuliensis
  • Callithrix aurita
  • Saguinus bicolor
  • Cebus aequatorialis
  • Plecturocebus olallae
  • Alouatta guariba
  • Ateles geoffroyi

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The subspecies Ateles hybridus brunneus was listed in the 2004–2006 report, but the listing was expanded to cover both subspecies of Ateles hybridus starting with the 2006–2008 report. [4] [3] [6]
  2. In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Propithecus diadema candidus, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Propithecus candidus. [4] [81] [82]
  3. In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Propithecus diadema perrieri, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Propithecus perrieri. [4] [81] [82]
  4. In the 2000–2002 report, this lemur was listed as Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis, but it has since been reclassified as a separate species, Hapalemur alaotrensis. [4] [81]
  5. 1 2 In the 2000–2002 and 2004–2006 reports, this gorilla was listed as Gorilla beringei, but other reports instead used Gorilla b. beringei. [4] [3] [81] [82]
  6. In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, the mangabey was listed as Cercocebus galeritus sanjei, but it has since been classified as a separate species, Cercocebus sanjei. [4]
  7. 1 2 3 In the 2000–2002, 2002–2004, and 2006–2008 reports, this colobus monkey was listed as Procolobus badius waldroni, but the spelling of the name has since been corrected to waldronae. [81] [82] [83]
  8. 1 2 In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, this monkey was listed as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, but with other subspecies now recognized by the IUCN, it is now known as Trachypithecus p. poliocephalus. [4] [3] [81] [82]
  9. 1 2 In the 2000–2002 and 2002–2004 reports, this douc was listed as Pygathrix nemaeus cinerea, but has since been recognized as a separate species, Pygathrix cinerea. [4] [3]
  10. 1 2 In the 2000–2002 and 2004–2006 reports, this gibbon was listed as Hylobates concolor hainanus, but it has since been recognized as a separate species and placed in the genus Nomascus , so that it is known as Nomascus hainanus. [4] [81]
  11. In the 2000–2002 report, this species was listed as Lagothrix flavicauda, but it has since been renamed to Oreonax flavicauda. [4]
  12. In the 2002–2004 report, this monkey was listed as Trachypithecus leucocephalus, but it is now considered only a subspecies, Trachypithecus poliocephalus leucocephalus. [4] [82]
  13. 1 2 In the 2004–2006 and 2006–2008 reports, this species was listed as Eulemur albocollaris, but it has since been renamed to Eulemur cinereiceps. [4]
  14. In the 2006–2008 report, this tarsier was listed as "Tarsius sp.", but it has since been formally named as Tarsius tumpara. [4] [6]
  15. The species Ateles fusciceps was listed in the 2006–2008 report, but the common name and description match the later identified subspecies, Ateles fusciceps fusciceps. [6]

Related Research Articles

Pig-tailed langur Species of Old World monkey

The pig-tailed langur, monotypic in genus Simias, is a large Old World monkey, endemic to several small islands off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. Its face is black, its fur is blackish-brown and it has a relatively short tail. It is a diurnal species, feeding in small groups in the rainforest canopy on leaves, and to a lesser extent, fruit and berries. Little is known of its natural history, but it is heavily hunted, its populations have been declining rapidly and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being "critically endangered". It has been included on a list of the World's 25 Most Endangered Primates.

Eastern lesser bamboo lemur Species of lemur

The eastern lesser bamboo lemur, also known as the gray bamboo lemur, the gray gentle lemur, and the Mahajanga lemur is a small lemur endemic to Madagascar, with three known subspecies. As its name suggests, the eastern lesser bamboo lemur feeds mainly on bamboo. The lemurs of the genus Hapalemur have more manual dexterity and hand–eye coordination than most lemurs. They are vertical climbers and jump from stalk to stalk in thick bamboo forests.

Jollys mouse lemur Species of lemur

Jolly's mouse lemur is a species of mouse lemur from Mananjary and Kianjavato in Madagascar. The species is named in honor of primatologist Alison Jolly.

Mittermeiers mouse lemur Species of lemur

Mittermeier's mouse lemur is a species of mouse lemur known only from Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve in Madagascar. The species is named in honor of primatologist Russell Mittermeier, who is President of Conservation International.

Simmons mouse lemur Species of lemur

Simmons' mouse lemur is a species of mouse lemur known only from Betampona Special Reserve, Analalava Special Community Reserve near Foulpointe, and Zahamena National Park in Madagascar.

Claires mouse lemur Species of lemur

Claire's mouse lemur, or the Nosy Be mouse lemur, is a newly described species of lemur from the genus of the mouse lemurs (Microcebus). It lives on the island Nosy Bé in the Antsiranana province of Madagascar, and on the mainland near the village of Manehoka, including Lokobe Reserve. The scientific type name, mamiratra, comes from Malagasy and means "clear and bright"; this refers the Theodore F. and Claire M. Hubbard Family Foundation, which has contributed to genetic research on Madagascar. This species is closely related to another new species, "M. species nova # 5"; which is related to the Sambirano mouse lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis, and the northern rufous mouse lemur, Microcebus tavaratra.

Northern rufous mouse lemur Species of lemur

The northern rufous mouse lemur, northern brown mouse lemur, or Tavaratra mouse lemur is found in Northern Madagascar from the Ankarana National Park in the West to the river Manambato in Northeast and up to the Irodo river in the North of the Analamerana Special Reserve. The complete distribution range of M. tavaratra is still to be defined as some areas surrounding the described distribution have not been visited yet. For example, M.tavaratra has been reported to possibly occur from the Irodo up to the Montagne des Francais by Louis and collaborators in. Its known distribution cover four protected areas the Ankarana National Park, and the Analamerana Special Reserve both managed by Madagascar National Parks, the Loky-Manambato Region (Daraina) and the Andavakoeira-Andrafiamena protected area, both Managed by the NGO Fanamby

Danfosss mouse lemur Species of lemur

Danfoss' mouse lemur, or the Ambarijeby mouse lemur, is a species of mouse lemur endemic to Madagascar. It lives in western deciduous forest within a limited range between the Sofia River and the Maevarano River. It is a relatively large reddish mouse lemur with a total length of 25 to 29 centimeters, including 15 to 17 centimeters of tail. The Danfoss' mouse lemur has short, dense fur, and a white stripe runs between the eyes. This species has been found in substantial populations in the Ambarijevy, Anjajavy, and Beanamaolo forests in Madagascar.

Ramanantsoavanas woolly lemur Species of lemur

Ramanantsoavana's woolly lemur, also known as Ramanantsoavana's avahi or the Manombo woolly lemur, is a species of woolly lemur native to southeastern Madagascar. It weighs about 1 kg. It was originally considered a subspecies of the southern woolly lemur, A. m. ramanantsoavana, but was elevated to a separate species in 2006 based on molecular, phenotypic and morphological data.

MacArthurs mouse lemur Species of lemur

MacArthur's mouse lemur, or the Anjiahely mouse lemur, is a species of mouse lemur known only from Makira Natural Park in northeastern Madagascar.

Gray-headed lemur Species of lemur

The gray-headed lemur, or gray-headed brown lemur, is a medium-sized primate, a cathemeral species of lemur in the family Lemuridae. Until a taxonomic revision in 2008, it was known as the white-collared brown lemur or white-collared lemur. It lives in south-eastern Madagascar. In 2005, satellite imagery estimates showed approximately 700 km2 (270 sq mi) of total remaining habitat within its geographic range. It is highly threatened by hunting and habitat loss, and was considered to be among the 25 most endangered primates in 2006–2008. It is currently listed as Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) due to a highly restricted range, and has been named one of "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates."

Red lemur Species of lemur

The red lemur, also known as the rufous brown lemur or northern red-fronted lemur, is a species of lemur from Madagascar. Until 2001, the species E. rufus was considered a subspecies of the common brown lemur, E. fulvus, after which it was classified as its own species. In December 2008, the species was split into two separate species, the red lemur, E. rufus, distributed in dry lowland forests in northwestern Madagascar, and the red-fronted lemur, E. rufifrons, distributed in southwest and eastern Madagascar. The species split was based on genetic and morphological evidence. Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that E. rufifrons may be more closely related to the Common Brown Lemur, white-headed lemur and Sanford's brown lemur than it is to E. rufus.

Mittermeiers sportive lemur Species of lemur

Mittermeier's sportive lemur is a sportive lemur endemic to the Ampasindava Peninsula in Madagascar.

Niger Delta red colobus Species of Old World monkey

The Niger Delta red colobus is a critically endangered species of colobus monkey endemic to the western part of the Niger Delta. It is threatened by hunting and habitat loss.

Bongolava mouse lemur Species of lemur

The Bongolava mouse lemur is a species of mouse lemur endemic to Madagascar. It lives in western deciduous forest within a limited range, including Bongolava Forest and Ambodimahabibo Forest between the Sofia River and the Mahajamba River. It is a relatively large mouse lemur with a total length of 26 to 29 centimetres, including 15 to 17 centimeters of tail.

Lemurs Park Bonatical garden and reserve in Madagascar

Lemurs' Park is a small botanical garden and lemur reserve covering 5 ha, and is located 22 km (14 mi) southwest of Antananarivo, Madagascar. It was founded around 2000 by Laurent Amouric and Maxime Allorge. Most of its nine lemur species are free-ranging within the park, which also contains more than 70 of Madagascar's endemic plant species. The park is open to the public, offering guided tours as well as standard amenities, a gift shop, and a restaurant. Visitors can arrange transportation between downtown Antananarivo and Lemurs' Park on a private park shuttle.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Schwitzer, C.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Rylands, A.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Chiozza, F.; Williamson, E.A.; Wallis, J.; Clarke, F.E., eds. (2014). "Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2012–2014" (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. Arlington, VA: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), Conservation International (CI), and Bristol Zoological Society (BZS): 1–91.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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