Roloway monkey

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Roloway monkey [1]
Cercopithecus roloway.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Cercopithecus
Species:
C. roloway
Binomial name
Cercopithecus roloway
(Schreber, 1774)
Cercopithecus diana roloway distribution.png
Synonyms
  • Cercopithecus diana ssp. roloway (Schreber, 1774)
  • Simia roloway Schreber, 1774

The roloway monkey (Cercopithecus roloway) is an endangered species of Old World monkey endemic to tropical West Africa. It was previously considered a subspecies of the Diana monkey (C. diana). It is classified as Critically Endangered due to habitat loss and continued hunting for the bushmeat trade. The roloway monkeys are mainly arboreal species, for the most part inhabiting forests in Ghana and some reserves in South-Eastern Côte-D'Ivoire. More specifically studies have shown that the C. diana roloway is mostly concentrated in Tanoé forest because of their heavy threats to extinction. [3]

Contents

Taxonomy

C. roloway and C. diana were previously considered related subspecies (C. diana roloway and C. diana diana), but were classified into separate species in 2005. [1]

Description

The roloway monkey is similar to other species of guenons. Like its closest relative, C. diana, its face and much of its fur are black, but is distinguished by its lengthy beard and broader diadem-like browband. [4] It has a white beard, chest, and throat; white stripe runs along each thigh and a deep reddish or orange patch is on its back. On the inside of the thighs, the fur is whitish, yellowish, or reddish. The body length ranges from 40 to 55 cm, with a tail of 50 to 75 cm. Its weight is between 4 and 7 kg. [5]

Distribution and habitat

The species occurs in a small area of eastern Ivory Coast and the forests of Ghana, between the Sassandra and Pra Rivers. It may possibly occur in Burkina Faso and Togo. It inhabits the canopy of old-growth forests, including gallery forests, in moist-low-lying regions, and avoids but can make use of forests that have been lightly logged. [2]

Ecology

Diet

Roloway monkeys consume a diverse array of varying insects, fruit, seeds, and flowers. They can feed on the plant parts of roughly 130 species of trees, climbers, and epiphytes. Like many omnivores, roloway monkeys also consume mature fruit pulp, arthropods, oil-rich seeds, and young leaves. [6]

Social habits

Roloway monkeys typically are diurnally active only, and spend the night sleeping high in the canopy. The species forms social groups of 15-30 individuals, typically with a single male, around 10 females and their offspring. Males may change between groups, while females generally stay with the same group into which they were born, a habit that may impose restrictions on the recovery of the species in areas where populations have been reduced. Females give birth typically to one young at a time, after a gestation period around 5 months. The lifespan of a roloway monkey is about 20 years in the wild, while individuals in captivity live for more than 30 years. [5]

Conservation

The roloway monkey has been classified as an endangered species by the IUCN due to rapid population declines over the last few decades (50-80%), mostly driven by habitat loss and hunting. This species is among the most threatened primates on the African continent, although exact figures for the species are not available. Recent surveys could not find evidence of it in Ghana's Bia National Park, where it was probably eliminated between the mid-1970s and 1990. [2]

The old-growth forest habitat required by the species continues to be reduced by large-scale deforestation through logging and agricultural conversion. In addition to predation by natural enemies such as crowned eagles, leopards, and chimpanzees, roloway monkeys are also frequent targets of human hunting for the bushmeat trade. Over 800 tons of bushmeat are sold in Ghana's markets every year. The roloway monkeys’ conspicuous colours and loud calls make them very susceptible to hunting. Their habitat is also becoming increasingly fragmented due to a decline in forest habitats and deforestation as human settlements expand and farming increases. In the past 100 years, Ghana has lost 80% of its forested lands. The species is listed as one of "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates". [7]

Related Research Articles

Bushmeat Meat hunted in tropical forests

Bushmeat is meat from wildlife species that are hunted for human consumption. Bushmeat represents a primary source of animal protein and a cash-earning commodity for inhabitants of humid tropical forest regions in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Bushmeat is an important food resource for poor people, particularly in rural areas.

Diana monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Diana monkey is an Old World monkey. The term “old-world monkey” refers to the family of monkeys known as Cercopithecoidea and the Diana monkey is only 1 species out of the 148 that are a part of this family.

Guenon Genus of Old World monkeys

The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys. Not all members of this genus have the word "guenon" in their common names; also, because of changes in scientific classification, some monkeys in other genera may have common names that include the word "guenon". Nonetheless, the use of the term guenon for monkeys of this genus is widely accepted.

Sclaters guenon Species of Old World monkey

Sclater's guenon, also known as Sclater's monkey and the Nigerian monkey, is an Old World monkey that was first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1904 and named after Philip Sclater. It is an arboreal and diurnal primate that lives in the forests of southern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the closely related species, the white-throated guenon, which occurs in Nigeria and Benin. Sclater's guenon was formerly classified as a subspecies of the red-eared guenon.

Preusss monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Preuss's monkey, also known as Preuss's guenon, is a diurnal primate that lives terrestrially in mountainous forests of eastern Nigeria, western Cameroon and Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of the L'Hoest's monkey.

Sooty mangabey Species of mammal

The sooty mangabey is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to the Ivory Coast.

Yellow-tailed woolly monkey Species of New World monkey

The yellow-tailed woolly monkey is a New World monkey endemic to Peru. It is a rare primate species found only in the Peruvian Andes, in the departments of Amazonas and San Martin, as well as bordering areas of La Libertad, Huánuco, and Loreto. The yellow-tailed woolly monkey was at first classified in the genus Lagothrix along with other woolly monkeys, but due to debatable primary sources, they have been placed in Oreonax. Oreonax has been proposed to be a subgenus of Lagothrix, but others have regarded it as a full genus. A recent extensive study suggests that the yellow-tailed woolly monkey may indeed be in Lagothrix.

Miss Waldrons red colobus Species of Old World monkey

Miss Waldron's red colobus is a species of the red colobus native to West Africa. It had previously been described as a subspecies of the western red colobus, P. badius. It has not been officially sighted since 1978 and was considered extinct in 2000. However, new evidence suggests that a very small number of these monkeys may be living in the southeast corner of Côte d'Ivoire. The IUCN Red List notes Miss Waldron's red colobus as critically endangered.

De Brazzas monkey Species of Old World monkey

De Brazza's monkey is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Black colobus Species of Old World monkey

The black colobus, or satanic black colobus, is a species of Old World monkey belonging to the genus Colobus. The species is found in a small area of western central Africa. Black colobuses are large, completely covered with black fur, and like all other Colobus monkeys, do not have a thumb. The species has faced large declines in population due to habitat destruction and hunting by humans, and was consequently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 1994.

Campbells mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Campbell's mona monkey, also known as Campbell's guenon and Campbell's monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in the Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. It was named for Henry Dundas Campbell, in 1838. Lowe's mona monkey was previously considered a subspecies of Campbell's mona monkey. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated this species as being a near-threatened species because it has a wide range and is able to adapt to degraded habitats.

Red-eared guenon Species of Old World monkey

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Lesser spot-nosed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Senegal.

Ursine colobus Species of Old World monkey

The ursine colobus is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

Pennants colobus Species of Old World monkey

Pennant's colobus or Pennant's red colobus is a species of tree-dwelling primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is endemic to tropical Central Africa. Three subspecies have traditionally been recognised but its distribution is peculiarly disjunct and has been considered a biogeographical puzzle. with one population on the island of Bioko, a second in the Niger River Delta in southern Nigeria, and a third in east-central Republic of Congo. It is found in rainforests and marshy forests. It is threatened by habitat loss and hunting for bushmeat. One subspecies, bouvieri, is rated as critically endangered; although it was last photographically documented in 2015, it may be on the brink of extinction.

Olive colobus Species of Old World monkey

The olive colobus monkey, also known as the green colobus or Van Beneden's colobus, is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. Its English name refers to its dull olive upperparts. It is the smallest example of all colobine monkeys and is rarely observed in its natural habitat because of its cryptic coloration and secretive nature. It is found in the rain forests of West Africa, ranging from southern Sierra Leone to Nigeria. As of 2019, the IUCN Red List classifies the olive colobus as vulnerable, with the cause of its decline attributed to habitat loss and hunting. Though much of the land within the range of the olive colobus has been affected by human activities, it retains its ability to thrive in small degraded forest fragments.

Bale Mountains vervet Species of Old World monkey

The Bale Mountains vervet is a terrestrial Old World monkey endemic to Ethiopia, found in the bamboo forests of the Bale Mountains. All species in Chlorocebus were formerly in the genus Cercopithecus. The Bale Mountains vervet is one of the least-known primates in Africa. They avoid tree-dominated and bushland areas as their habitat. These monkeys mainly reside in the bamboo forest of the Bale Mountains due their dietary specialization on bamboo, but other factors, such as climate, forest history, soil quality, and disease, are likely to play a role in their choice to inhabit this area. The Bale Mountains vervet have a very quiet behavior and tend to flee when encountering a human being. It is also known as the Bale monkey.

Lowes mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Lowe's mona monkey is an Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae found from the Ivory Coast to Ghana. It was previously classified as a subspecies of Campbell's mona monkey C. campbelli.

Niger Delta red colobus Species of Old World monkey

The Niger Delta red colobus is a critically endangered species of colobus monkey endemic to the western part of the Niger Delta. It is threatened by hunting and habitat loss.

Red-tailed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

References

  1. 1 2 Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 158. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  2. 1 2 3 Koné, I.; Oates, J.F.; Dempsey, A.; Gonedelé Bi, S.; McGraw, S.; Wiafe, E. (2019). "Cercopithecus roloway". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T4232A92384429. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T4232A92384429.en.
  3. Bi, Sery Gonedelé; Koné, Inza; Béné, J-C K; Bitty, Anderson E.; Akpatou, Bertin K.; Bi, Zoro Goné; Ouattara, Karim; Koffi, Djaha André (September 2008). "Tanoé Forest, South-Eastern Côte-d'Ivoire Identified as a High Priority Site for the Conservation of Critically Endangered Primates in West Africa". Tropical Conservation Science. 1 (3): 265–278. doi: 10.1177/194008290800100307 .
  4. "Diana monkey". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004.
  5. 1 2 "Cecopithecus diana". Animal Diversity Web.
  6. Curtin, Sheila H. (2004). Diet of the Roloway Monkey, Cercopithecus diana roloway, in Bia National Park, Ghana. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. pp. 351–371. doi:10.1007/0-306-48417-X_23. ISBN   978-0-306-47346-3.
  7. Mittermeier, R.A.; Wallis, J.; Rylands, A.B.; Ganzhorn, J.U.; Oates, J.F.; Williamson, E.A.; Palacios, E.; Heymann, E.W.; Kierulff, M.C.M.; Long Yongcheng; Supriatna, J.; Roos, C.; Walker, S.; Cortés-Ortiz, L.; Schwitzer, C., eds. (2009). Primates in Peril: The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates 2008–2010 (PDF). Illustrated by S.D. Nash. Arlington, VA.: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI). pp. 1–92. ISBN   978-1-934151-34-1.