Guinea baboon

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Guinea baboon [1]
Male Guinea Baboon in Nuremberg Zoo.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Papio
Species:
P. papio
Binomial name
Papio papio
(Desmarest, 1820)
Guinea Baboon area.png
Guinea baboon range

The Guinea baboon (Papio papio) is a baboon from the Old World monkey family. Some (older) classifications list only two species in the genus Papio , this one and the hamadryas baboon. In those classifications, all other Papio species are considered subspecies of P. papio and the species is called the savanna baboon.

Contents

The Guinea baboon inhabits a small area in western Africa. Its range includes Guinea, Senegal, Gambia, southern Mauritania and western Mali. Its habitat includes dry forests, gallery forests, and adjoining bush savannas or steppes. It has reddish-brown hair, a hairless, dark-violet or black face with the typical dog-like muzzle, which is surrounded by a small mane, and a tail carried in a round arc. It also has limb modifications that allow it to walk long distances on the ground. The Guinea baboon is one of the smallest baboon species, weighing between 13 and 26 kg (28.6–57 lbs). Their life spans are generally between 20 to 30 years.

It is a diurnal and terrestrial animal, but sleeps in trees or high rocks at night, away from predators. The number of suitable sleeping trees limits the group size and the range. It lives in troops of up to 200 individuals, each with a set place in a hierarchy. Group living provides protection from predators such as the lion and various hyena species. Like all baboons, it is an omnivorous highly opportunistic feeder, eating fruits, buds, roots, bark, grasses, greens, seeds, tubers, leaves, nuts, cereals, insects, worms, birds and small mammals. Because it will eat practically anything available, the Guinea baboon is able to occupy areas with limited resources or harsh conditions. Its presence may help improve habitats because it digs for water and spreads seeds in its waste, encouraging plant growth.

The Guinea baboon is a highly communicative animal. It communicates by using a variety of vocalizations and physical interactions. In addition to vocalizations to each other, this animal has vocal communications apparently intended to be received and interpreted by predators.

Due to its small range and the loss of its habitat, the Guinea baboon is classified as "near threatened" by the IUCN.

Physical description

Baboon refers to the large-bodied primates with marked sexual dimorphism and having females and young that are dependent on males for protection. [3] Guinean baboons have a red tone to their fur, and are sometimes referred to as the red baboon. They lack hair on their hindquarters, and their faces are black with yellow-brown sideburns. Females' rumps are pink in color and males have a mane of fur around their heads and shoulders. A characteristic feature of baboons is their long molars and broad incisors. The long canines are evidence of sexual dimorphism in baboon species. Their forelimbs and hindlimbs are nearly equal in length and their digits on their hands and feet are relatively short and stout, making it difficult for them to climb. [4]

Baboons are one of the largest groups of monkeys and are sexually dimorphic in body size (meaning the males and females have differing body sizes). [4] They can range in weight from 13 and 26 kg (28–57 lbs), making them among the smallest of the baboon species.

Habitat and distribution

Generally found in woodland savannas, Guinea baboons seasonally congregate near permanent water sources, breaking off in the wet season into smaller groups. Baboon species are all allopatric, but some of their ranges do overlap, and some interbreeding does occur. [4] These baboons are found in a wide range across Africa in savannah habitats. Its range includes Guinea, Senegal, Gambia, southern Mauritania and western Mali. Most typically they are in the forests and savannah of sub-Saharan Africa. They can also be found in grasslands, rain forests, and other open areas. [4]

Ecology

Guinea baboons are diurnal, living on the ground instead of in trees, and typically sleep in trees at the terminal ends of branches. [5] Their group size is widely variable and ranges from 40 to 200. However, the most common troop size is 30–40 individuals. Often, a pronounced male hierarchy and fierce competition for females happens within the group. This competition leads to sexual dimorphism among the species. [4] When it comes to feeding, they are independent foragers, and females are always paired with males when foraging so they can be protected. Females may choose to follow the same males from year to year. [3]

Diet

Like other baboon species, Guinea baboons will eat any available foods, but their main sources are fruits, roots, tubers, grass, seeds and leaves. They also will eat insects, worms, spiders, small mammals, birds and invertebrates. [4]

Behavior

Female and juvenile at Port Lympne Wild Animal Park Papio papio and juvenile Port Lympne Wild Animal Park.jpg
Female and juvenile at Port Lympne Wild Animal Park

Socially, Guinea baboons have more in common with Hamadryas baboons than other baboon species, living in one male units , consisting of one dominant male, several females and juveniles, and often a follower male. These groups are usually small, but join with larger groups to form a troop; these groups sleep or forage together. The Guinean troops are large multiple-male, multiple-female troops with 50–300 baboons. The harems consist of two to five females which mate with the dominant male. [6] However, despite their similarities, Guinea baboon social behaviour has a few noticeable differences from that of Hamadryas baboons. Males frequently use reconciliation gestures to reduce male-male aggression and encourage cooperation, allowing troops to grow to large size and adapt to different circumstandes. [7] While male Hamadryas baboons forcibly acquire females for their harems by kidnapping them and utilising neck-bites to condition them to stay near, female guinea baboons select males at their own leisure, males typically using facial expressions and gestures to guide their movement and grooming them to win over their loyalty. In Guinea baboons, Harem masters are noticeably less strict with their female consorts than Hamadryas baboon harem masters. Female Guinea baboons often fraternize with other females from other harems and even other males without being reprimanded by their male consort. Females approach males to initiate mating behaviour as they please and even mate with more than one male (although they mate with the harem master the most), a far cry from the more "faithful" female Hamadryas baboons. As seen in chimpanzees, Olive baboons and various macaque species, this promiscuity most likely is practiced to hide the paternity of their infants as a counterstrategy against male infanticide, which occurs in Hamadryas baboons but hasn't yet been observed in Guinea baboons (although male guinea baboons have been observed temporarily kidnapping then returning infants). Male-on-male competition for females is noticeably reduced or absent. [8]

Unlike Hamadryas baboons and some other species, Guinea baboons are not very good climbers and favor trees, rather than high rocks or cliffs for sleeping. The more dominant males sleep on the heavier, thicker branches near the trunk of the tree and lower ranking members and juveniles sleep on the smaller and weaker branches further from the trunk. During daylight hours, they spend the majority of their time foraging on the ground, running along in quadrupedal patterns. [3] [4]

Communication

The Guinea baboons have a host of vocal, visual, and tactile communications. Their several vocal calls each convey several different messages, and consist of predator warnings, signaling friendly intentions, submissive calls, and anger or frustration vocalizations. Many of these calls can be used in combination with either each other or with some other form of visual or tactile communication. Visual communications serve many of the same purposes as the vocal calls, and are often accompanied by some sort of vocal call. Lower ranking animals appease more dominant ones with an "Ack ack" vocalization and "Wahoo" alarm calls are uttered if a threat presents itself. Tactile communication is usually tied to visual communication and can range from mouth-to-mouth touching to biting or slapping. [9] Male Guinea baboons are unlike other baboons species, as they form intimate friendships with other males, fondling each others genitals as a gesture of greeting, as well as mounting each other and huddling together. [10]

Reproduction

Female Guinea baboons exhibit sexual swelling that begins about 10 to 12 days before it peaks and remains consistent for about eight days afterwards. Females then participate in the social behavior of presenting, which is when she signals to the males in the group she is ready for copulation. [9]

The mean gestation period is about six months and nursing continues until about six to eight months. [9] Females rebuff a male's advances by shrieking at him and often climbing up a tree.

Related Research Articles

Mandrill Species of Old World monkey

The mandrill is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family. It is one of two species assigned to the genus Mandrillus, along with the drill. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in the genus Papio, but they now have their own genus, Mandrillus. Although they look superficially like baboons, they are more closely related to Cercocebus mangabeys. Mandrills are found in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforest and in very large groups. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting mostly of fruits and insects. Their mating season peaks in July to September, with a corresponding birth peak in December to April.

<i>Mandrillus</i> Genus of Old World monkeys

Mandrillus is a genus of large Old World monkeys distributed throughout central and southern Africa, consisting of two species: M. sphinx and M. leucophaeus, the mandrill and drill, respectively. Mandrillus, originally placed under the genus Papio as a type of baboon, is closely related to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterised by their large builds, elongated snouts with furrows on each side, and stub tails. Both species occupy the west central region of Africa and live primarily on the ground. They are frugivores, consuming both meat and plants, with a preference for plants. M. sphinx is classified as vulnerable and M. leucophaeus as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Gelada Species of Old World monkey

The gelada, sometimes called the bleeding-heart monkey or the gelada "baboon", is a species of Old World monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands, with large populations in the Simien Mountains. Geladas are actually not baboons but the only living members of the genus Theropithecus. Theropithecus is derived from the Greek root words for "beast-ape". Like its close relatives the baboons, it is largely terrestrial, spending much of its time foraging in grasslands.

Olive baboon Also called the Anubis baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)

The olive baboon, also called the Anubis baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae. The species is the most wide-ranging of all baboons, being found in 25 countries throughout Africa, extending from Mali eastward to Ethiopia and Tanzania. Isolated populations are also present in some mountainous regions of the Sahara. It inhabits savannahs, steppes, and forests. The common name is derived from its coat colour, which is a shade of green-grey at a distance. A variety of communications, vocal and non-vocal, facilitate a complex social structure.

Yellow baboon Species of baboon

The yellow baboon is a baboon in the family of Old World monkeys. The species epithet means "dog-head" in Greek, due to the dog-like shape of the muzzle and head. Yellow baboons have slim bodies with long arms and legs, and yellowish-brown hair. They resemble the Chacma baboon, but are somewhat smaller and with a less elongated muzzle. Their hairless faces are black, framed with white sideburns. Males can grow to about 84 cm, females to about 60 cm. They have long tails which grow to be nearly as long as their bodies. The average life span of the yellow baboon in the wild is roughly 15–20 years; some may live up to 30 years.

Hamadryas baboon Species of baboon

The hamadryas baboon is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family. It is the northernmost of all the baboons, being native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside. The hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians and appears in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative name of 'sacred baboon'.

Chacma baboon Species of baboon from the Old World monkey family

The chacma baboon, also known as the Cape baboon, is, like all other baboons, from the Old World monkey family. It is one of the largest of all monkeys. Located primarily in southern Africa, the chacma baboon has a wide variety of social behaviors, including a dominance hierarchy, collective foraging, adoption of young by females, and friendship pairings. These behaviors form parts of a complex evolutionary ecology. In general, the species is not threatened, but human population pressure has increased contact between humans and baboons. Hunting, trapping, and accidents kill or remove many baboons from the wild, thereby reducing baboon numbers and disrupting their social structure.

Harem (zoology)

A harem is an animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females, and their offspring. The dominant male drives off other males and maintains the unity of the group. If present, the second male is subservient to the dominant male. As juvenile males grow, they leave the group and roam as solitary individuals or join bachelor herds. Females in the group may be inter-related. The dominant male mates with the females as they become sexually active and drives off competitors, until he is displaced by another male. In some species, incoming males that achieve dominant status may commit infanticide.

Sooty mangabey Species of mammal

The sooty mangabey is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to the Ivory Coast.

Display (zoology)

Display behaviour is a set of ritualized behaviours that enable an animal to communicate to other animals about specific stimuli. These ritualized behaviours can be visual however many animals depend on a mixture of visual, audio, tactical and/or chemical signals as well. Evolution has tailored these stereotyped behaviours to allow animals to communicate both conspecifically and interspecifically which allows for a broader connection in different niches in an ecosystem. It is connected to sexual selection and survival of the species in various ways. Typically, display behaviour is used for courtship between two animals and to signal to the female that a viable male is ready to mate. In other instances, species may exhibit territorial display behaviour, in order to preserve a foraging or hunting territory for its family or group. A third form is exhibited by tournament species in which males will fight in order to gain the 'right' to breed. Animals from a broad range of evolutionary hierarchies avail of display behaviours - from invertebrates such as the simple jumping spider to the more complex vertebrates like the harbour seal.

Hammer-headed bat A megabat widely distributed in West and Central Africa

The hammer-headed bat, also known as hammer-headed fruit bat and big-lipped bat, is a megabat widely distributed in West and Central Africa. It is the only member of the genus Hypsignathus, which is part of the tribe Epomophorini along with four other genera. It is the largest bat in continental Africa, with wingspans approaching 1 m, or about 3 ft, and males almost twice as heavy as females. Males and females also greatly differ in appearance, making it the most sexually dimorphic bat species in the world. These differences include several adaptations that help males produce and amplify vocalizations: the males' larynges are about three times as large as those of females, and they have large resonating chambers on their faces. Females appear more like a typical megabat, with foxlike faces.

Golden snub-nosed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The golden snub-nosed monkey is an Old World monkey in the subfamily Colobinae. It is endemic to a small area in temperate, mountainous forests of central and Southwest China. They inhabit these mountainous forests of Southwestern China at elevations of 1,500–3,400 m (4,900–11,200 ft) above sea level. The Chinese name is Sichuan golden hair monkey (四川金丝猴). It is also widely referred to as the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey. Of the three species of snub-nosed monkeys in China, the golden snub-nosed monkey is the most widely distributed throughout China.

Sexual dimorphism in non-human primates

Sexual dimorphism describes the morphological, physiological, and behavioral differences between males and females of the same species. Most primates are sexually dimorphic for different biological characteristics, such as body size, canine tooth size, craniofacial structure, skeletal dimensions, pelage color and markings, and vocalization. However, such sex differences are primarily limited to the anthropoid primates; most of the strepsirrhine primates and tarsiers are monomorphic.

Baboon Genus of mammals

Baboons are primates comprising the genus Papio, one of the 23 genera of Old World monkeys. There are five species of baboons, commonly known as hamadryas baboon, Guinea baboon, olive baboon, yellow baboon and chacma baboon. Each species is native to one of five areas of Africa and the hamadryas baboon is also native to part of the Arabian Peninsula. Baboons are among the largest non-hominoid primates and have existed for at least two million years.

Female copulatory vocalizations, also called female copulation calls or coital vocalizations, are produced by female primates, including human females, and female non-primates. Copulatory vocalizations usually occur during copulation and are hence related to sexual activity. Vocalizations that occur before intercourse, for the purpose of attracting mates, are known as mating calls.

Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male. Systems where several females mate with several males are defined either as promiscuity or polygynandry. Lek mating is frequently regarded as a form of polygyny, because one male mates with many females, but lek-based mating systems differ in that the male has no attachment to the females with whom he mates, and that mating females lack attachment to one another.

Sexual selection in mammals

Sexual selection in mammals started with Charles Darwin's observations concerning sexual selection, including sexual selection in humans, and in other mammals, consisting of male-male competition and mate choice that mold the development of future phenotypes in a population for a given species.

Sexual coercion among animals is the use of violence, threats, harassment, and other tactics to help them forcefully copulate. Such behavior has been compared to sexual assault, including rape, among humans.

Drill (animal) Species of primate

The drill is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae, related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills.

Primate sociality

Primate sociality is an area of primatology that aims to study the interactions between three main elements of a primate social network: the social organisation, the social structure and the mating system. The intersection of these three structures describe the socially complex behaviours and relationships occurring among adult males and females of a particular species. Cohesion and stability of groups are maintained through a confluence of factors, including: kinship, willingness to cooperate, frequency of agonistic behaviours, or varying intensities of dominance structures.

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