Sun-tailed monkey

Last updated

Sun-tailed monkey [1]
Solatus.JPG
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Allochrocebus
Species:
A. solatus
Binomial name
Allochrocebus solatus
Cercopithecus solatus distribution.svg
Geographic range
Synonyms [2]

The sun-tailed monkey (Allochrocebus solatus) from Gabon is one of the least studied primates in its habitat. [3] It was discovered as a new species in 1988, and is classified as a guenon, which is a member of the genus Cercopithecus, but was subsequently moved to the genus Allochrocebus. [1] [4] [5] It is closely related to A. preussi and A. Ihoesti, which has been determined by chromosomal analysis. [6] Sun-tailed monkeys prefer shady areas with dense vegetation. However, even after small amounts of logging activity, populations can be unaffected. Much of their diet remains unknown and is still being studied, but they are known to prefer fruit. Their social groups are made up of one male and multiple females. [2] Generally, the sun-tailed monkey is less aggressive towards related individuals, which is noteworthy because it has been found that, in other primate species, aggression rates towards related individuals are generally as high or higher than aggression rates towards non-related individuals. Within their social groups, individual monkeys show preference for their mothers over their fathers, and are overall less aggressive to other monkeys that they are associated with spatially. [7]

Contents

Conservation status

The Sun-tailed monkey is a Class B protected species under the African Convention and Appendix II of CITES. The Gabonese government gave it protected status in 1994 and some animals are kept there in captivity. Around 10% of the monkey's habitat is in the Lopé National Park, but the highest density is at the Foret des Abeilles, which is still unprotected. It is recommended that there should be more monitoring of hunting and logging activity in its habitat, as well as more research into the distribution and biology of the species in general. Occasionally, there have been reports of monkeys raiding crops in local villages. [2] However, there is not much study into how these interactions with humans affect the populations as a whole.

Biochemistry

As one of the most poorly known nonhuman primate species with only one semi-captive population in the world, not much is known about its genome or biochemistry. However, there has been some research conducted into the blood biochemistry of the animal. Blood analysis of the sun-tailed monkey reveals that males show higher levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit than females. Females, however, showed higher levels of cholesterol and had higher neutrophil counts. In general, as the monkey ages, levels of blood urea increase and albumin protein levels decrease, which suggest declining liver, kidney and muscle function through life. [3]

Related Research Articles

Patas monkey Species of Old World monkey

The patas monkey, also known as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa. It was formerly considered the only member of the genus Erythrocebus, but the Blue Nile patas monkey, previously synonymized with this species, was resurrected in 2018.

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons, macaques, and mabahlls. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.

<i>Mandrillus</i> Genus of Old World monkeys

Mandrillus is a genus of large Old World monkeys distributed throughout central and southern Africa, consisting of two species: M. sphinx and M. leucophaeus, the mandrill and drill, respectively. Mandrillus, originally placed under the genus Papio as a type of baboon, is closely related to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterised by their large builds, elongated snouts with furrows on each side, and stub tails. Both species occupy the west central region of Africa and live primarily on the ground. They are frugivores, consuming both meat and plants, with a preference for plants. M. sphinx is classified as vulnerable and M. leucophaeus as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Guenon Genus of Old World monkeys

The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys. Not all members of this genus have the word "guenon" in their common names; also, because of changes in scientific classification, some monkeys in other genera may have common names that include the word "guenon". Nonetheless, the use of the term guenon for monkeys of this genus is widely accepted.

Sclaters guenon Species of Old World monkey

Sclater's guenon, also known as Sclater's monkey and the Nigerian monkey, is an Old World monkey that was first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1904 and named after Philip Sclater. It is an arboreal and diurnal primate that lives in the forests of southern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the closely related species, the white-throated guenon, which occurs in Nigeria and Benin. Sclater's guenon was formerly classified as a subspecies of the red-eared guenon.

Preusss monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Preuss's monkey, also known as Preuss's guenon, is a diurnal primate that lives terrestrially in mountainous forests of eastern Nigeria, western Cameroon and Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of the L'Hoest's monkey.

Birougou National Park

Birougou National Park, also known as the Monts Birougou Wetlands, is a national park in central Gabon. It contains extremely dense rain forest in the Chaillu Mountains and is one of the two parks where the endemic sun-tailed guenon, a monkey first described in 1988, can be found. It is named after Mount Birougou,1.83816°S 12.31702°E, 975 metres in altitude, one of the highest peaks in the country.

De Brazzas monkey Species of Old World monkey

De Brazza's monkey is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

The mona monkey is an Old World monkey that lives in western Africa between Ghana and Cameroon. The mona monkey can also be found on the island of Grenada as it was transported to the island aboard slave ships headed to the New World during the 18th century. This guenon lives in groups of up to thirty-five in forests. It mainly feeds on fruit, but sometimes eats insects and leaves. The mona monkey has brown agouti fur with a white rump. Its tail and legs are black and the face is blue-grey with a dark stripe across the face. The mona monkey carries food in cheek pouches.

Hamlyns monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Hamlyn's monkey, also known as the owl-faced monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that inhabits the bamboo and primary rainforests of the Congo. This species is exceedingly rare and known only from a few specimens; little is known about it. However these specimens tend to be widely dispersed throughout the eastern part of Congo, from the Epulu River to the Lukuga River and from the Congo River to the Kabale Forest, with one example in northwestern Rwanda. Geographically it corresponds quite closely to another species of monkey, L'Hoest's monkey C. lhoesti. It travels on the ground, and researchers think that it may be awake primarily by night.

LHoests monkey Species of mammal

L'Hoest's monkey or mountain monkey, is a guenon found in the upper eastern Congo basin. They mostly live in mountainous forest areas in small, female-dominated groups. They have a dark coat and can be distinguished by a characteristic white beard.

Wolfs mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Wolf's mona monkey, also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in central Africa, primarily between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It lives in primary and secondary lowland rainforest and swamp forest.

Black colobus Species of Old World monkey

The black colobus, or satanic black colobus, is a species of Old World monkey belonging to the genus Colobus. The species is found in a small area of western central Africa. Black colobuses are large, completely covered with black fur, and like all other Colobus monkeys, do not have a thumb. The species has faced large declines in population due to habitat destruction and hunting by humans, and was consequently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 1994.

Red-eared guenon Species of Old World monkey

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Lesser spot-nosed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Senegal.

Crested mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

The crested mona monkey, also known as the crowned guenon, crowned monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or golden-bellied monkey,, is a species of African primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in west central Africa.

Roloway monkey Species of Old World monkey

The roloway monkey is an endangered species of Old World monkey endemic to tropical West Africa. It was previously considered a subspecies of the Diana monkey. It is classified as Critically Endangered due to habitat loss and continued hunting for the bushmeat trade. The roloway monkeys are mainly arboreal species, for the most part inhabiting forests in Ghana and some reserves in South-Eastern Côte-D'Ivoire. More specifically studies have shown that the C. diana roloway is mostly concentrated in Tanoé forest because of their heavy threats to extinction.

<i>Allochrocebus</i> Genus of Old World monkeys

Allochrocebus is a primate genus including the terrestrial guenons: the L'Hoest's monkey, the Preuss's monkey, and the sun-tailed monkey.

Red-tailed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

References

  1. 1 2 Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 158. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Abernethy, K.; Maisels, F.; Coad, L. (2019). "Allochrocebus solatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T4230A92346555. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T4230A92346555.en.
  3. 1 2 Motch, Peggy; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Verrier, Delphine (23 January 2012). "Clinical Biochemistry and Hematology of the Elusive Sun-Tailed Monkey(Cercopithecus solatus) in Gabon: Inaugural Data From the Only SemifreeRanging Colony in the World". American Journal of Primatology. 74 (3): 236–246. doi:10.1002/ajp.21993. PMID   24006542.
  4. "Allochrocebus". ITIS. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  5. "Allochrocebus". Mammal Diversity Database. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  6. Harrison, Michael J. S. (1988-07-01). "A new species of guenon (genusCercopithecus) from Gabon". Journal of Zoology. 215 (3): 561–575. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1988.tb02860.x. ISSN   1469-7998.
  7. Charpentier, Marie J. E.; Deubel, Delphine; Peignot, Patricia (2008-04-01). "Relatedness and Social Behaviors in Cercopithecus solatus". International Journal of Primatology. 29 (2): 487–495. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9246-9. ISSN   0164-0291.

Further reading