Celebes crested macaque

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Celebes crested macaque [1]
Kuifmakaak (8721744168).jpg
Celebes crested macaque at Diergaarde Blijdorp in Rotterdam, Netherlands
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Macaca
Species:
M. nigra
Binomial name
Macaca nigra
(Desmarest, 1822)
Celebes Crested Macaque area.png
Celebes crested macaque range
(blue—native, red—introduced)

The Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra), also known as the crested black macaque, Sulawesi crested macaque, or the black ape, is an Old World monkey that lives in the Tangkoko reserve in the northeastern tip of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes), as well as on smaller neighboring islands.

Contents

Description

Skull and a jaw bone at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center - ZMA.MAM.12434 lat - Macaca nigra Desmarest - skull.jpeg
Skull and a jaw bone at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, Netherlands
Skeleton in the Miguel Mendez, Malahide, Ireland Black ape (6915998147).jpg
Skeleton in the Miguel Mendez, Malahide, Ireland

Locally known as yaki or wolai, its skin and hairless face is, with the exception of some white hair in the shoulder range, entirely jet black. Unusual for a primate, it has striking reddish-brown eyes. The long muzzle with high cheeks and the long hair tuft, or crest, at the top of the head are remarkable features. It has an "apelike" appearance due to its almost non-existent, non-visible, vestigial tail stub of only approximately 2 cm (1 in). With a total body length of 44 cm (17 in) to 60 cm (24 in) and a weight of 3.6 kg (8 lb) to 10.4 kg (23 lb), it is one of the smaller macaque species. Its life expectancy is estimated at approximately 15-20 years in the wild.

Ecology

The Celebes crested macaque is a diurnal rain forest dweller. This macaque is primarily terrestrial, spending more than 60% of its day on the ground foraging for food and socializing, while sleeping and searching for food in the trees.

A celebes macaque eating leaf Celebes crested macaque (13968482373).jpg
A celebes macaque eating leaf
A celebes macaque trying to eat coconut at the Tangkoko National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia Crested Macaque Macaca nigra (7911419924).jpg
A celebes macaque trying to eat coconut at the Tangkoko National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia

The Celebes crested macaque is frugivorous, with 70% of its diet consisting of fruits. It also consumes leaves, buds, seeds, fungus, small birds and bird eggs, insects (such as beetles and caterpillars) worms, snails and the occasional small lizard or frog.

Group behavior

It lives typically in groups of five to twenty-five animals, and occasionally in groups of up to seventy-five animals. Smaller groups have only a single adult male, while larger groups have up to four adult males. However, adult females always outnumber adult males by about 4:1. Young adult males are forced to leave their birth group upon maturity, sometimes forming bachelor groups before seeking a connection to an existing adult mixed gender group. Communication consists of various sounds and gestures; such as the presentation of the long eyeteeth while grimacing, a clear threatening gesture.

Two celebes macaques grooming each other at the Diergaarde Blijdorp in the Rotterdam, Netherlands Crested Black Macaque (4043624542).jpg
Two celebes macaques grooming each other at the Diergaarde Blijdorp in the Rotterdam, Netherlands
Juvenile Celebes crested macaque at the Buffalo Zoo in Buffalo, New York Macaca nigra juvenile (Buffalo Zoo).jpg
Juvenile Celebes crested macaque at the Buffalo Zoo in Buffalo, New York

The Celebes crested macaque is promiscuous, with both males and females mating multiple times with multiple partners. The receptivity of the females is clearly indicated by an extreme tumescence (swelling) and redness of their buttocks which, in contrast to the black skin color, is particularly noticeable. The gestation time is 174 days, and the birth of the usually single offspring happens in the spring when food is more plentiful. Young animals are nursed for approximately one year, becoming fully mature in three to four years, females somewhat sooner than males.


Human interactions

Self-portrait photograph (the "monkey selfie") Macaca nigra self-portrait large.jpg
Self-portrait photograph (the "monkey selfie")

Because it devastates crops and fields, the Celebes crested macaque is hunted as a pest. It is also hunted to provide bushmeat. Clearing the rain forests further threatens its survival. Its situation on the small neighbouring islands of Sulawesi (such as Bacan) is somewhat better, since these have a low human population. The total population of the macaque on Sulawesi is estimated at 4,000–6,000, while a booming population of up to 100,000 monkeys is found on Bacan.

A series of survey trips to Sulawesi and the Minehasa forest area were made in 2004–2009 by Vicki Melfi, who is EEP studbook holder for these macaques, based at Paignton Zoo / the Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust. She has been monitoring population density, which has declined from over 300 individuals per square kilometre in 1980 to 20 to 60 individuals today. A conservation programme called Selamatkan Yaki—or "Save the Yaki", as this macaque is known in the local language—was launched with local partners and other conservation groups from Thailand, Germany and the Wildlife Conservation Society (based in the United States). Both Newquay Zoo and Paignton Zoo are among a number of mostly European zoos which hold ex-situ breeding populations of this animal. [3]

Since 2006, the Macaca Nigra Project has been studying the biology and promoting the conservation of this species. The project, a collaboration between the German Primate Center and the Bogor Agricultural Institute, is run by Antje Engelhardt and located in the Tangkoko reserve, home of the biggest crested macaque population remaining in the species' original distribution range.

Nevertheless, despite being critically endangered, crested black macaque are still unprotected outside of Tangkoko reserve and they are regularly hunted and slaughtered. They are easily caught and killed as they have no fear of humans. Crested black macaque is considered a delicacy by local residents. [4]

In 2013, wildlife cameraman Colin Stafford-Johnson spent time on Sulawesi, filming the monkeys at close quarters for a BBC documentary entitled "Meet the monkeys". [5]

In 2014, considerable discussion of copyright issues was generated by a "selfie" photograph taken by a Celebes crested macaque. [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Macaque Genus of Old World monkeys

The macaques constitute a genus (Macaca) of gregarious Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The 23 species of macaques inhabit ranges throughout Asia, North Africa, and Gibraltar. Macaques are principally frugivorous, although their diet also includes seeds, leaves, flowers, and tree bark. Some species, such as the crab-eating macaque, subsist on a diet of invertebrates and occasionally small vertebrates. On average, southern pig-tailed macaques in Malaysia eat about 70 large rats each per year. All macaque social groups are matriarchal, arranged around dominant females.

Jersey Zoo

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Crab-eating macaque Species of mammal

The crab-eating macaque, also known as the long-tailed macaque and referred to as the cynomolgus monkey in laboratories, is a cercopithecine primate native to Southeast Asia. A species of macaque, the crab-eating macaque has a long history alongside humans; it has been alternately seen as an agricultural pest, sacred animal in some temples, and more recently, the subject of medical experiments.

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons, macaques, and mabahlls. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.

Rhesus macaque Species of Old World monkey

The rhesus macaque, colloquially rhesus monkey, is a species of Old World monkey. It is listed as least concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and its tolerance of a broad range of habitats. It is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia and has the widest geographic range of all non-human primates, occupying a great diversity of altitudes and a great variety of habitats, from grasslands to arid and forested areas, but also close to human settlements.

Barbary macaque Species of Old World monkey

The Barbary macaque, also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a macaque species native to the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco along with a small population of uncertain origin in Gibraltar. It is one of the best-known Old World monkey species.

Japanese macaque The only nonhuman primate in Japan

The Japanese macaque, also known as the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species that is native to Japan. They get their name "snow monkey" because some live in areas where snow covers the ground for months each year – no other non-human primate is more northern-living, nor lives in a colder climate. Individuals have brownish grey fur, pinkish-red faces, and short tails. Two subspecies are known.

Lion-tailed macaque Species of Old World monkey

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Toque macaque Species of Old World monkey

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Assam macaque Species of Old World monkey

The Assam macaque or Assamese macaque is a macaque of the Old World monkey family native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, the species has been listed as "near threatened" by the IUCN, as it is experiencing significant declines due to hunting, habitat degradation, and fragmentation.

Stump-tailed macaque Species of Old World monkey

The stump-tailed macaque, also called the bear macaque, is a species of macaque found in South Asia. In India, it is found in south of the Brahmaputra River, in the northeastern part of the country. Its range in India extends from Assam and Meghalaya to eastern Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

Nicobar long-tailed macaque Subspecies of Old World monkey

The Nicobar long-tailed macaque is a subspecies of the crab-eating macaque, endemic to the Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. This primate is found on three of the Nicobar Islands—Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal—in biome regions consisting of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests.

Paignton Zoo

Paignton Zoo is a zoo in Paignton, Devon, England. The zoo is part of South West Environmental Parks Ltd which is owned by Wild Planet Trust, formerly known as the Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust (WWCT). Wild Planet Trust also ran the now closed Living Coasts in Torquay, Devon. They also run Newquay Zoo in Newquay, Cornwall. All three are registered charities.

Indira Gandhi Zoological Park Zoo in Visakhapatnam, India

Indira Gandhi Zoological Park is located amidst Kambalakonda Reserve Forest in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the third largest zoo in the country.

The Primate Rescue Center is a primate rescue organization founded by Clay Miller and April Truitt in the late 1980s. The PRC is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization located in Wilmore, Kentucky, approximately 17 miles south of Lexington, Kentucky. The PRC provides lifetime sanctuary for rescued primates from all over the United States, and is home to over 50 primates, including a troop of 11 common chimpanzees.

Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve

Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve also known as Tangkoko-Batuangus Dua Saudara is a nature reserve in the northern part of Sulawesi island of Indonesia, two hours drive from Manado. The reserve covers an area of 8,700 hectares and includes three mountains: Mount Tangkoko, Mount Dua Saudara and Mount Batuangus.

Monkey selfie copyright dispute Selfies by Celebes crested macaques

The monkey selfie copyright dispute is a series of disputes about the copyright status of selfies taken by Celebes crested macaques using equipment belonging to the British nature photographer David Slater. The disputes involve Wikimedia Commons and the blog Techdirt, which have hosted the images following their publication in newspapers in July 2011 over Slater's objections that he holds the copyright, and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), who have argued that the macaque should be assigned the copyright.

White-cheeked macaque Species of Old World monkey

The white-cheeked macaque is a species of macaque found only in Mêdog County in southeastern Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. The white-cheeked macaque lives in forest habitats, from tropical forests to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forests and mixed broadleaf-conifer forests. The species was first described by its discoverers, Chinese primatologists Cheng Li, Chao Zhao, and Peng-Fei Fan, in the American Journal of Primatology in 2015. It is one of twenty-three extant species in the genus Macaca, and the most recent to be formally described to science. While the species' exact conservation status has not yet been determined, it is likely threatened by poaching, deforestation, and increased human development of its habitat, much like the other primates which inhabit the area.

Sulawesi lowland rain forests

The Sulawesi lowland rain forests is a tropical moist forest ecoregion in Indonesia. The ecoregion includes the lowlands of Sulawesi and neighboring islands.

References

  1. Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  2. Supriatna, J. & Andayana, N. (2008). "Macaca nigra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008: e.T12556A3357272. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T12556A3357272.en .
  3. Selamatkan Yaki! article in Zoo News (Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust newsletter), Issue 69, Autumn 2009, p. 16.
  4. "Jelang Natal, Permintaan Kuliner Ekstrim Khas Tomohon Meningkat [Demands for Macaca Nigra increases during Christmas - considered a delicacy]". Rima News. 25 December 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-12-25. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  5. "Meet the Monkeys". BBC Two Natural World. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  6. "Photographer 'lost £10,000' in Wikipedia monkey 'selfie' row". BBC News. August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.