Collared mangabey

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Collared mangabey [1]
CercocebusTorquatus.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Cercocebus
Species:
C. torquatus
Binomial name
Cercocebus torquatus
(Kerr, 1792)
Cercocebus torquatus distribution.svg
Geographic range

The collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus), also known as the red-capped mangabey, or the white-collared mangabey [3] (leading to easy confusion with Cercocebus atys lunulatus), is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae of Old World monkeys. It formerly included the sooty mangabey as a subspecies. As presently defined, the collared mangabey is monotypic. [1]

Contents

Description

The collared mangabey has grey fur covering its body, but its common names refer to the colours on its head and neck. [4] Its prominent chestnut-red cap gives it the name red-capped, and its white collar gives it the names collared and white-collared. [4] Its ears are black and it has striking white eyelids, which is why some refer to it as the "four-eyed monkey". [4] It has a dark grey tail that exceeds the length of the body and is often held with the white tip over its head. [4] It has long molars and very large incisors. [5] The average body mass for captive individuals ranges from 9 to 10 kg (20 to 22 lb) for males and 7.5 to 8.6 kg (17 to 19 lb) for females. [5] Head-body length is 47–67 cm (19–26 in) in males and 45–60 cm (18–24 in) in females. [4]

Habitat and distribution

The collared mangabey is found in coastal, swamp, mangrove, and valley forests, from western Nigeria, east and south into Cameroon, and throughout Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon, and on the Gabon-Congo border by the Atlantic shore. [2] [4]

Behavior

The collared mangabey lives in large groups of 10 to 35 individuals including several males. [4] [6] Vocal communication in the form of cackles and barks are used to keep the group in contact and signal their position to other groups. [4] It has a diet of fruits and seeds, but also eats leaves, foliage, flowers, invertebrates, mushrooms, dung, and gum. [5] [6] The collared mangabey has no defined breeding season, it reaches sexual maturity at five to seven years, and has an average gestation period of 170 days. [6]

Threats

In 2006, it was estimated that annually about 3,000 collared mangabeys are hunted in the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests for the bushmeat trade. [7]

Conservation

The collared mangabey is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List due to habitat loss and hunting for bushmeat. [2] It is also listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. [2]

Chipse, an adult female, produces requesting gestures by extending an arm through the cage mesh toward an experimenter who holds a raisin in her hands. The experimenter displays five experimental conditions in succession in which her attentional state differs on the basis of gaze (Eyes Open, Eyes Distracted, and Eyes Closed) head (Head Away) and body (Body Away) orientation.

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Bushmeat Meat hunted in tropical forests

Bushmeat is meat from wildlife species that are hunted for human consumption. Bushmeat represents a primary source of animal protein and a cash-earning commodity for inhabitants of humid tropical forest regions in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Bushmeat is an important food resource for poor people, particularly in rural areas.

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons, macaques, and mabahlls. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.

Mandrill Species of Old World monkey

The mandrill is a primate of the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family. It is one of two species assigned to the genus Mandrillus, along with the drill. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in the genus Papio, but they now have their own genus, Mandrillus. Although they look superficially like baboons, they are more closely related to Cercocebus mangabeys. Mandrills are found in southern Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Congo. Mandrills mostly live in tropical rainforest and in very large groups. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting mostly of fruits and insects. Their mating season peaks in July to September, with a corresponding birth peak in December to April.

<i>Mandrillus</i> Genus of Old World monkeys

Mandrillus is a genus of large Old World monkeys distributed throughout central and southern Africa, consisting of two species: M. sphinx and M. leucophaeus, the mandrill and drill, respectively. Mandrillus, originally placed under the genus Papio as a type of baboon, is closely related to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterised by their large builds, elongated snouts with furrows on each side, and stub tails. Both species occupy the west central region of Africa and live primarily on the ground. They are frugivores, consuming both meat and plants, with a preference for plants. M. sphinx is classified as vulnerable and M. leucophaeus as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Grey-cheeked mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The grey-cheeked mangabey, also known as the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of Central Africa. It ranges from Cameroon down to Gabon. The grey-cheeked mangabey is a dark monkey, looking in shape overall like a small, hairy baboon. Its thick brown fur is almost black in its forest home, with a slightly rufus/golden mane around the neck. The sexes are similar, with the males slightly larger than the females.

Kipunji Species of Old World monkey

The kipunji, also known as the highland mangabey, is a species of Old World monkey that lives in the highland forests of Tanzania. The kipunji has a unique call, described as a 'honk-bark', which distinguishes it from its relatives, the grey-cheeked mangabey and the black crested mangabey, whose calls are described as 'whoop-gobbles'.

Sooty mangabey Species of mammal

The sooty mangabey is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to the Ivory Coast.

White-eyelid mangabey Genus of Old World monkeys

The white-eyelid mangabeys are African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Cercocebus. They are characterized by their bare upper eyelids, which are lighter than their facial skin colouring, and the uniformly coloured hairs of the fur. The other two genera of mangabeys, Lophocebus and Rungwecebus, were once thought to be very closely related to Cercocebus, so much so that all the species were placed in one genus. However, it is now understood that Lophocebus and Rungwecebus species are more closely related to the baboons in genus Papio, while the Cercocebus species are more closely related to the mandrill.

De Brazzas monkey Species of Old World monkey

De Brazza's monkey is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Cross–Sanaga–Bioko coastal forests

The Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of west-central Africa. This is lush forest rich in flora and birdlife.

Black colobus Species of Old World monkey

The black colobus, or satanic black colobus, is a species of Old World monkey belonging to the genus Colobus. The species is found in a small area of western central Africa. Black colobuses are large, completely covered with black fur, and like all other Colobus monkeys, do not have a thumb. The species has faced large declines in population due to habitat destruction and hunting by humans, and was consequently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 1994.

Tana River mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Tana River mangabey is a highly endangered species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. Some authorities have included the taxa agilis and sanjei as subspecies of this species, while others award these full species status.

Red-eared guenon Species of Old World monkey

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Agile mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The agile mangabey is an Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group found in swampy forests of Central Africa in Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, and DR Congo. Until 1978, it was considered a subspecies of the Tana River mangabey. More recently, the golden-bellied mangabey has been considered a separate species instead of a subspecies of the agile mangabey.

Sanje mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Sanje mangabey is a highly endangered Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group from the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. They are about 50–65 centimetres (20–26 in) in length, excluding the tail, and their body colour is greyish. Fruit makes up about 70% of their diet. They live in valley forests and on mountain slopes, but are mostly ground-dwelling, which makes them susceptible to hunting and poaching. Their habitat is being degraded, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed their conservation status as being "endangered".

Central chimpanzee Subspecies of ape

The central chimpanzee or tschego is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee. It occurs mainly in Gabon, Cameroon, and the Republic of the Congo, but also, to a lesser extent, in other regions.

Douala Edéa National Park

Douala-Edéa National Park, formerly known as Douala-Edéa Wildlife Reserve, is a national park in the Littoral Region of Cameroon.

Niger Delta red colobus Species of Old World monkey

The Niger Delta red colobus is a critically endangered species of colobus monkey endemic to the western part of the Niger Delta. It is threatened by hunting and habitat loss.

Drill (animal) Species of primate

The drill is a primate of the family Cercopithecidae, related to baboons and even more closely to mandrills.

References

  1. 1 2 Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 154. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Maisels, F.; Oates, J.F.; Linder, J.; Ikemeh, R.; Imong, I.; Etiendem, D. (2019). "Cercocebus torquatus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T4201A17955626. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T4201A17955626.en.
  3. Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates . Pogonia Press, Charlestown, Rhode Island. ISBN   0-9648825-0-7.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Matthew Richardson (26 March 2009). "Red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus)". ARKive. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  5. 1 2 3 The Primata (17 June 2007). "White-collared Mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus)". The Primata. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 Nguyen, Khoa Huu (1999). "Cercocebus torquatus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  7. Fa, J.E., Seymour, S., Dupain, J.E.F., Amin, R., Albrechtsen, L. and Macdonald, D. (2006). "Getting to grips with the magnitude of exploitation: bushmeat in the Cross–Sanaga rivers region, Nigeria and Cameroon". Biological Conservation. 129 (4): 497–510. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.11.031.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)