Assam macaque

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Assam macaque
Macaca assamensis male.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Macaca
Species:
M. assamensis [2]
Binomial name
Macaca assamensis [2]
McClelland, 1840
Assam Macaque area.png
Assam macaque range
M. a. pelops
Nagarjun Forest, Kathmandu, Nepal Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis pelops) male head Nagarjun.jpg
M. a. pelops
Nagarjun Forest, Kathmandu, Nepal

The Assam macaque or Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) is a macaque of the Old World monkey family native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, the species has been listed as "near threatened" by the IUCN, as it is experiencing significant declines due to hunting, habitat degradation, and fragmentation. [1]

Contents

Characteristics

The Assam macaque has a yellowish-grey to dark brown pelage. The facial skin is dark brownish to purplish. The head has a dark fringe of hair on the cheeks directed backwards to the ears. The hair on the crown is parted in the middle. The shoulders, head and arms tend to be paler than the hindquarters, which are greyish. The tail is well-haired and short. Head-to-body-length measures 51 to 73.5 cm (20.1 to 28.9 in), and the tail is 15 to 30 cm (5.9 to 11.8 in) long. Adult weight is 5 to 10 kg (11 to 22 lb). [3]

Distribution and habitat

Assam macaques in Shanghai Zoo Assam-Makak 1670-2.jpg
Assam macaques in Shanghai Zoo

The Macaca assamensis "Nepal population" is endemic to Nepal and likely in some way distinct from the two recognized subspecies, which occupy adjacent areas to the southeast and east of the range of M. assamensis. There is a gap in northeastern India between the two main population pockets, specifically between central Bhutan and the south side of the Brahmaputra River; the east bank of its upper course marks the division between the two recognized subspecies: [4]

During surveys carried out in 1976, 1978, and 1984 in Nepal, Assam macaques were found to be patchily distributed along rivers in tropical and subtropical forests at altitudes from 200 to 1,800 metres (660 to 5,910 ft). They are apparently absent from areas west of the Kaligandaki River. [5] In India, they live in tropical and subtropical semievergreen forests, dry deciduous and montane forests, from the sea level to altitudes of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). [6] They usually inhabit hill areas above 1,000 m (3,300 ft), but in the wetter east they may occur even in the lowlands, and frequent areas that only marginally reach this altitude. In Laos and Vietnam, they prefer high altitudes, usually above 500 m (1,600 ft). In forests on limestone karst, they occur in much lower elevations. [1]

Ecology and behaviour

Assam macaques are diurnal, and at times both arboreal and terrestrial. They are omnivorous and feed on fruits, leaves, invertebrates and cereals. [1] In Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, 15 groups were recorded in 2002 comprising 209 individuals. The population had a group density of 1.11 individuals per 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi), and an average group size of 13.93 individuals. [7] During a survey in Nepal's Langtang National Park in 2007, a total of 213 Assamese macaques were encountered in 9 groups in the study area of 113 km2 (44 sq mi). Troop sizes varied between 13 and 35 individuals, with a mean troop size of 23.66 individuals, and comprised 31% adult females, 16% adult males, and their young of various ages. They preferred maize kernals, followed by potato tubers, but also raided fields with wheat, buckwheat, and millet. [8]

Threats

The threats to this species' habitat include selective logging and various forms of anthropogenic development and activities, alien invasives, hunting and trapping for sport, medicine, food, and the pet trade. Additionally, hybridization with adjacent species poses a threat to some populations. [9]

Conservation

Macaca assamensis is listed in CITES Appendix II. It is legally protected in all countries of occurrence. For the populations in India, the species is listed under Schedule II, part I of the Indian Wildlife Act. [7]

Related Research Articles

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Arunachal macaque Species of Old World monkey

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Stump-tailed macaque Species of Old World monkey

The stump-tailed macaque, also called the bear macaque, is a species of macaque found in South Asia. In India, it is found in south of the Brahmaputra River, in the northeastern part of the country. Its range in India extends from Assam and Meghalaya to eastern Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

Rufous-necked hornbill

The rufous-necked hornbill is a species of hornbill in Bhutan, northeastern India, especially in Arunachal Pradesh, Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is locally extinct in Nepal due to hunting and significant loss of habitat. There are < 10,000 adults left in the wild. With a length of about 117 centimetres (46 in), it is among the largest Bucerotine hornbills. The underparts, neck and head are rich rufous in the male, but black in the female.

Nicobar long-tailed macaque Subspecies of Old World monkey

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Chestnut-breasted partridge Species of bird

The chestnut-breasted partridge is a species of partridge endemic to the eastern Himalayas north of the Brahmaputra, and is known from Bhutan, West Bengal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India, Nepal Himalaya and south-east Tibet.

Namdapha National Park

Namdapha National Park is a 1,985 km2 (766 sq mi) large protected area in Arunachal Pradesh of Northeast India. With more than 1,000 floral and about 1,400 faunal species, it is a biodiversity hotspot in the Eastern Himalayas. The national park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude. It also harbours extensive dipterocarp forests, comprising the northwestern parts of the Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests ecoregion.

Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Boonratana, R.; Chalise, M.; Htun, S. & Timmins, R. J. (2020). "Macaca assamensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2020: e.T12549A17950189.
  2. 1 2 Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 161. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  3. Françis, C. M. (2008) A field guide to the mammals of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers. ISBN   1-84537-735-4
  4. Groves, C. P. (2001) Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  5. Wada, K. (2005) The distribution pattern of rhesus and Assamese monkeys in Nepal. Primates (2005) 46:115–119.
  6. Srivastava, A. and Mohnot, S. M. (2001) Distribution, conservation status and priorities for primates in Northeast India Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas 1(1): 102–108.
  7. 1 2 Chetry, D., Medhi, R., Biswas, J., Das, D. and Bhattacharjee, P. C. (2003). Nonhuman primates in the Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 383–388.
  8. Regmi, G. R., Kandel, K. (2008). Population Status, Threats and Conservation Measures of Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) in Langtang National Park, Nepal. A final report submitted to Primate Society of Great Britain, UK.
  9. Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. (2003). Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Report Archived 2016-12-21 at the Wayback Machine . Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.