Uganda mangabey

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Uganda mangabey
GreycheekedmangabeyJPG.jpg
Juvenile
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Lophocebus
Species:
L. ugandae
Binomial name
Lophocebus ugandae
(Matschie, 1912)

The Uganda mangabey (Lophocebus ugandae) [1] is a species of Old World monkey found only in Uganda and in the Minziro Forest Reserve, just over the border in Tanzania. This crested mangabey was previously thought to just be a population of the grey-cheeked mangabey (L. albigena). Colin Groves upgraded the Ugandan population to the new species L. ugandae on 16 February 2007. This species is significantly smaller than the grey-cheeked mangabey, with a shorter skull and smaller face. 2008 was the most recent year in which the International Union for Conservation of Nature assessed the conservation status of L. albigena, describing it as being of least concern, and the status of L. ugandae has not been assessed separately. [2]

Contents

Taxonomy

In 1978, Colin Groves recognized three subspecies of Lophocebus albigena, namely L. a. albigena; L. a. johnstoni; and L. a. osmani. Three decades later, in 2007, he raised these subspecies to full species rank on phylogenetic grounds, at the same time recognising that the mangabeys present in Uganda were sufficiently different from the remainder of L. albigena as to constitute a separate species, which he named L. ugandae. [2]

Description

The Uganda mangabey comes to the ground to cross roads, forage and socialise. Grey cheeked mangabeys.JPG
The Uganda mangabey comes to the ground to cross roads, forage and socialise.

The Uganda mangabey is rather smaller than the grey-cheeked mangabey (L. albigena). It is less sexually dimorphic and has a smaller skull. Individuals from the east of Uganda have a yellowish-brown colour while those from the west are a slightly darker greyish-brown. The mane and breast are pale chocolate-brown and contrast more with the body colour than do the equivalent parts of the Johnston's mangabey (Lophocebus johnstoni). [1]

Distribution and habitat

The Uganda mangabey is known from the forests on the north and northwestern sides of Lake Victoria, including the Mabira Forest, from which it was first described, the Bujuko Forest, the Bukasa Forest, and the vicinity of Sango Bay. It also occurs near Kibaale, to the east of the Albertine Rift Valley. [1] It occurs in both primary and secondary forests, and is an arboreal species, spending most of its time in the upper canopy, where it forages for fruits and seeds; favoured food items include the fruits of the false nutmeg and of the breadfruit, the fruits and seeds of Erythrophleum spp., the fruits of the date palm and the fruits of the oil palm. [2]

Conservation

One of the largest populations of Uganda mangabey is in the Mabira Central Forest Reserve. This protected area is being illegally logged and parts are being converted to agricultural use. Attempts are being made to habituate several groups of mangabey to the presence of humans with a view to increasing wildlife tourism in the area as a means to discourage habitat destruction and provide an extra source of income for the local community. [3]

Related Research Articles

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons and macaques. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.

Cercopithecinae Subfamily of Old World monkeys

The Cercopithecinae are a subfamily of the Old World monkeys, which comprises roughly 71 species, including the baboons, the macaques, and the vervet monkeys. Most cercopithecine monkeys are limited to sub-Saharan Africa, although the macaques range from the far eastern parts of Asia through northern Africa, as well as on Gibraltar.

Grey-cheeked mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The grey-cheeked mangabey, also known as the white-cheeked mangabey, is an Old World monkey found in the forests of Central Africa. It ranges from Cameroon down to Gabon. The grey-cheeked mangabey is a dark monkey, looking in shape overall like a small, hairy baboon. Its thick brown fur is almost black in its forest home, with a slightly rufus/golden mane around the neck. The sexes are similar, with the males slightly larger than the females.

Blue duiker

The blue duiker is a small antelope found in western, southern and eastern Africa. It is the smallest duiker. The species was first described by Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg in 1789. 12 subspecies are identified. The blue duiker reaches 32–41 centimetres (13–16 in) at the shoulder and weighs 3.5–9 kilograms (7.7–19.8 lb). Sexually dimorphic, the females are slightly larger than the males. The dark tail measures slightly above 10 centimetres (3.9 in). It has short, spiky horns, around 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long and hidden in hair tufts. The subspecies show a great degree of variation in their colouration. The blue duiker bears a significant resemblance to Maxwell's duiker.

Kipunji Species of Old World monkey

The kipunji, also known as the highland mangabey, is a species of Old World monkey that lives in the highland forests of Tanzania. The kipunji has a unique call, described as a 'honk-bark', which distinguishes it from its relatives, the grey-cheeked mangabey and the black crested mangabey, whose calls are described as 'whoop-gobbles'.

Kibale National Park

Kibale National Park is a national park in Western Uganda, protecting moist evergreen rain forest. It is 766 square kilometres (296 sq mi) in size and is located between 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) to 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) in elevation. Despite encompassing primarily moist evergreen forest, it contains a diverse array of landscapes. Kibale is one of the last remaining expanses to contain both lowland and montane forests. In eastern Africa, it sustains the last significant expanse of pre-montane forest.

Crested mangabey Genus of Old World monkeys

The crested mangabeys are West African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Lophocebus. They tend to have dark skin, eyelids that match their facial skin, and crests of hair on their heads. Another genus of mangabeys, Cercocebus, was once thought to be very closely related, so much so that all the species were placed in one genus. However, Lophocebus species are now understood to be more closely related to the baboons in genus Papio, while the Cercocebus species are more closely related to the mandrill. In 2006, the highland mangabey was moved from Lophocebus to a new genus, Rungwecebus.

Nyungwe Forest

The Nyungwe Forest is located in southwestern Rwanda, on the border with Burundi, where it is contiguous with the Kibira National Park to the south, and Lake Kivu and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The Nyungwe rainforest is probably the best preserved montane rainforest in Central Africa. It is located in the watershed between the basin of the river Congo to the west and the basin of the river Nile to the east. From the east side of the Nyungwe forest comes also one of the branches of the Nile sources.

Golden palm civet Species of carnivore

The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining.

Brown palm civet Species of carnivore

The brown palm civet also called the Jerdon's palm civet is a palm civet endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

Wolfs mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Wolf's mona monkey, also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in central Africa, primarily between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It lives in primary and secondary lowland rainforest and swamp forest.

Mabira Forest

The Mabira Forest is a rainforest area covering about 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi) in Uganda, located in Buikwe District, between Lugazi and Jinja. It has been protected as Mabira Forest Reserve since 1932. It is home for many endangered species like the primate Lophocebus ugandae.

Tana River mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Tana River mangabey is a highly endangered species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. Some authorities have included the taxa agilis and sanjei as subspecies of this species, while others award these full species status.

White-fronted surili Species of Old World monkey

The white-fronted surili is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae, the Old World monkeys. It is endemic to the large international island of Borneo, in Indonesia, Malaysia, and possibly Brunei.

Ugandan red colobus Species of Old World monkey

The Ugandan red colobus or ashy red colobus is an endangered species of red colobus monkey, recognised as a distinct species since 2001. There is disagreement however over taxonomy with many considering the Ugandan red colobus to be a subspecies. The Ugandan red colobus is an Old World monkey which is found in 5 different locations across Uganda and Tanzania.

Agile mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The agile mangabey is an Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group found in swampy forests of Central Africa in Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, and DR Congo. Until 1978, it was considered a subspecies of the Tana River mangabey. More recently, the golden-bellied mangabey has been considered a separate species instead of a subspecies of the agile mangabey.

Sanje mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Sanje mangabey is a highly endangered Old World monkey of the white-eyelid mangabey group from the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. They are about 50–65 centimetres (20–26 in) in length, excluding the tail, and their body colour is greyish. Fruit makes up about 70% of their diet. They live in valley forests and on mountain slopes, but are mostly ground-dwelling, which makes them susceptible to hunting and poaching. Their habitat is being degraded, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed their conservation status as being "endangered".

Johnston's mangabey is a species of crested mangabey in the family Cercopithecidae. It had been considered a subspecies of the gray-cheeked mangabey, but in 2007 was given the status of species by Colin Groves, with Osman Hill's mangabey and the Uganda mangabey.

Osman Hills mangabey Species of Old World monkey

The Osman Hill's mangabey, also known as the rusty-mantled mangabey, is a species of crested mangabey in the family Cercopithecidae with a restricted distribution in West Africa.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Groves, Colin (2007). "The Endemic Uganda Mangabey, Lophocebus ugandae, and Other Members of the albigena-Group (Lophocebus)" (PDF). Primate Conservation. 22: 123–128. doi:10.1896/052.022.0112. S2CID   85061476. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2008.
  2. 1 2 3 Oates, J.F.; Groves, C.P.; Ehardt, C. (2008). "Lophocebus albigena". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  3. "Uganda Mangabey (Lophocebus ugandae)". Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund. 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2019.