Thrips simplex

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Thrips simplex
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Thysanoptera
Family: Thripidae
Subfamily: Thripinae
Genus: Thrips
Species:T. simplex
Binomial name
Thrips simplex
Morison, 1930

Thrips simplex is a species of insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is commonly known as the gladiolus thrips and infests gladiolus plants as well as various other monocotyledonous plants such as lilies, irises and freesias.

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

<i>Thrips</i> (genus) genus of insects

Thrips is a genus of thrips.

Contents

Description

Thrips simplex is a tiny insect, measuring 2 mm (0.08 in) long, with a long slender brownish-black body with a pale band at the base of the wings. The larvae are wingless and yellow or orange. These thrips live hidden inside the leaf and flower sheaths of their host plants where they suck sap, usually occurring in groups. [1] [2] Females may lay about one hundred eggs over the course of a few months and there may be two or three generations each year. The eggs are laid on or in the plant tissues and the larvae suck sap. After two larval stages they develop into non-feeding prepupae and may drop off onto the soil. After a brief pupal stage they become winged adults. [1]

Damage

The gladiolus thrips feeds on gladiolus, lily, freesia, crocus and iris, but damage is mostly limited to the gladiolus. [3] The thrips can remain inside the corms of gladiolus over winter, causing them to ooze sap from the wounds, turn brown and sticky. These corms are the main source of infestation in growing plants the following year; the emerging leaves are tunnelled and appear silvery at first, turning brown later. Heavy infestation can cause poor plant growth and the plant may fail to flower. When the thrips tunnel into the flowers, these can be scarred and distorted. [3] Other damage may be brown buds, discoloured or streaked blooms, and bleached or distorted flower spikes. [3]

<i>Gladiolus</i> genus of plants

Gladiolus is a genus of perennial cormous flowering plants in the iris family (Iridaceae).

<i>Lilium</i> genus of plants

Lilium is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their common name but are not related to true lilies.

<i>Freesia</i> genus of plants

{{taxobox |name =Freesia |image =Freesia.jpg |image_caption =Cultivated freesias |regnum =Plantae |unranked_divisio =Angiosperms |unranked_classis =Monocots |ordo =Asparagales |familia =Iridaceae |subfamilia =Ixioideae |genus =Freesia |genus_authority =Eckl. ex Klatt |type_species =Freesia refracta |type_species_authority =(Jacquin) Klatt |synonyms_ref= |synonyms=*AnomathecaKer Gawl.

Control

The gladiolus thrips cannot survive in the soil in winter in areas where there are frosts and will also be killed if gladiolus corms are lifted and stored between 35 and 40 °F (2 and 4 °C) for four months. [2]

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Scarlet lily beetle species of insect

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<i>Freesia laxa</i> species of plant

Freesia laxa, flowering grass, is a small species of cormous flowering plant in the family Iridaceae, from eastern and southern Africa, from Kenya to northeastern South Africa. It is grown in gardens as an ornamental plant.

<i>Hypoaspis miles</i> species of arachnid

Hypoaspis miles is a small (0.5 mm) light brown mite that lives in the top ½ in layer of soil. As a natural predator of fungus gnat pupae and of the snail parasite Riccardoella aspersa it is used by gardeners and snail breeders for biological pest control. Hypoaspis miles is also commonly used by reptile, amphibian and invertebrate keepers as a preventative or reactive measure against grain mites and reptile mites. Where most mite treatments are chemical based, Predatory mites are used as a natural method of preventing and curing mite infestations.

Birch leafminers are sawflies, which are closely related to bees and wasps. They are among the most common insect pests affecting Birch trees in North America. Areas inside the leaves are consumed by the larvae, affecting the leaves' ability to produce food. Yearly browning of birch leaves are noticed in mid July and August, but the leafminers have been feeding inside the leaf tissue since early spring.

<i>Macrodactylus subspinosus</i> species of beetle

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Western flower thrips species of insect

The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] is an invasive pest insect in agriculture. This species of thrips is native to the Southwestern United States but has spread to other continents, including Europe, Australia, and South America via transport of infested plant material. It has been documented to feed on over 500 different species of host plants, including a large number of fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops. The adult male is about 1 mm long; the female is slightly larger, about 1.4 mm in length. Most western flower thrips are female and reproduce by arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; i.e. females can produce males from unfertilized eggs, but females arise only from fertilized eggs. Males are rare, and are always pale yellow, while females vary in color, often by season, from red to yellow to dark brown. Each adult is elongated and thin, with two pairs of long wings. The eggs are oval or kidney-shaped, white, and about 0.2 mm long. The nymph is yellowish in color with red eyes.

<i>Psylla pyri</i>

Psylla pyri, commonly known as the pear psylla or pear psyllid, is a true bug in the family Psyllidae. Originating in Europe and Asia, it has spread to North America. It is a pest of pear trees, sucking the sap, damaging the foliage, flowers and fruit and diminishing the crop.

<i>Scirtothrips dorsalis</i> species of insect

The chilli thrips or yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is an extremely successful invasive species of pest-thrips which has expanded rapidly from Asia over the last twenty years, and is gradually achieving a global distribution. It has most recently been reported in St. Vincent (2004) Florida (2005), Texas (2006), and Puerto Rico (2007). It is a pest of economic significance with a broad host range, with prominent pest reports on crops including pepper, mango, citrus, strawberry, grapes, cotton, tea, peanuts, blueberry, and roses. Chilli thrips appear to feed preferentially on new growth, and infested plants usually develop characteristic wrinkled leaves, with distinctive brown scarring along the veins of leaves, the buds of flowers, and the calyx of fruit. Feeding damage can reduce the sale value of crops produced, and in sufficient numbers, kill plants already aggravated by environmental stress. This thrips has also been implicated in the transmission of three tospoviruses, but there is some controversy over its efficiency as a vector.

Black bean aphid species of insect

The black bean aphid is a small black insect in the genus Aphis, with a broad, soft body, a member of the order Hemiptera. Other common names include blackfly, bean aphid, and beet leaf aphid. In the warmer months of the year, it is found in large numbers on the undersides of leaves and on the growing tips of host plants, including various agricultural crops and many wild and ornamental plants. Both winged and wingless forms exist, and at this time of year, they are all females. They suck sap from stems and leaves and cause distortion of the shoots, stunted plants, reduced yield, and spoiled crops. This aphid also acts as a vector for viruses that cause plant disease, and the honeydew it secretes may encourage the growth of sooty mould. It breeds profusely by live birth, but its numbers are kept in check, especially in the later part of the summer, by various predatory and parasitic insects. Ants feed on the honeydew it produces, and take active steps to remove the aphid's enemies. It is a widely distributed pest of agricultural crops and can be controlled by chemical or biological means. In the autumn, winged forms move to different host plants, where both males and females are produced. These mate and the females lay eggs which overwinter.

<i>Aonidiella orientalis</i> species of insect

Aonidiella orientalis is a species of insect in the family Diaspididae, the armored scale insects. It is known commonly as the Oriental yellow scale. It is an agricultural pest on a wide variety of crop plants.

<i>Thrips tabaci</i> species of insect

Thrips tabaci is a species of very small insect in the genus Thrips in the order Thysanoptera. It is commonly known as the onion thrips, the potato thrips, the tobacco thrips or the cotton seedling thrips. It is an agricultural pest that can damage crops of onions and other plants, and it can additionally act as a vector for plant viruses.

Liriomyza huidobrensis, commonly known as the pea leaf miner, is a species of insect, a fly in the family Agromyzidae. The larvae of this fly mine the leaves and stems of peas and a range of other vegetables. It is also known as the serpentine leaf miner, but this name is also used for a closely related species, Liriomyza brassicae.

References

  1. 1 2 "Gladiolus thrips". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  2. 1 2 Dreistadt, Steve H. (2001). Integrated Pest Management for Floriculture and Nurseries. UCANR Publications. p. 328. ISBN   978-1-879906-46-4.
  3. 1 2 3 Cranshaw, Whitney (2015). Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs. Princeton University Press. p. 388. ISBN   978-1-4008-6678-6.