Thymic branches of internal thoracic artery

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Thymic branches of internal thoracic artery
Source internal thoracic artery
Vein thymic veins
Supplies thymus
Latin rami thymici arteriae thoracicae internae
TA A12.2.08.031
FMA 71514
Anatomical terminology

The Thymic branches of internal thoracic artery are arteries that supply the thymus.

Thymus organ of the immune system

The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cells mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. The thymus is composed of two identical lobes and is located anatomically in the anterior superior mediastinum, in front of the heart and behind the sternum. Histologically, each lobe of the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an outer capsule. The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin. Developing T cells are referred to as thymocytes and are of hematopoietic origin. Stromal cells include epithelial cells of the thymic cortex and medulla, and dendritic cells.

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Subclavian artery major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle. They receive blood from the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax. On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the aortic arch, while on the right side it arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery.

Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta.

Internal thoracic artery artery

In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA), previously known as the internal mammary artery, is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts. It is a paired artery, with one running along each side of the sternum, to continue after its bifurcation as the superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries.

Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

Lateral thoracic artery Large blood vessel

In human anatomy, the lateral thoracic artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lateral structures of the thorax and breast.

Thoracic inlet

The thoracic inlet, also known as the superior thoracic aperture, refers to the opening at the top of the thoracic cavity. It is also clinically referred to as the thoracic outlet, in the case of thoracic outlet syndrome; this refers to the superior thoracic aperture, and not to the lower, larger opening, the inferior thoracic aperture.

Descending thoracic aorta part of the aorta located in the thorax

The descending thoracic aorta is a part of the aorta located in the thorax. It is a continuation of the descending aorta and contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity. The descending thoracic aorta begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

Intercostal nerves

The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum and differ from the anterior rami of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation.

Subscapular artery Large blood vessel

The subscapular artery, the largest branch of the axillary artery, arises from the third part of the axillary artery at the lower border of the subscapularis muscle, which it follows to the inferior angle of the scapula, where it anastomoses with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries, and with the descending branch of the dorsal scapular artery, and ends in the neighboring muscles.

Inferior epigastric artery Blood vessel

In human anatomy, inferior epigastric artery refers to the artery that arises from the external iliac artery and anastomoses with the superior epigastric artery. Along its course, it is accompanied by a similarly named vein, the inferior epigastric vein. These epigastric vessels form the lateral border of Hesselbach's triangle, which outlines the area through which direct inguinal hernias protrude.

Superior epigastric artery Blood vessel

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Internal thoracic vein Large blood vessel draining breasts and the chest wall

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Pericardiacophrenic artery

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The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries.

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The intercostal arteries are a group of arteries that supply the area between the ribs ("costae"), called the intercostal space. The highest intercostal artery is an artery in the human body that usually gives rise to the first and second posterior intercostal arteries, which supply blood to their corresponding intercostal space. It usually arises from the costocervical trunk, which is a branch of the subclavian artery. Some anatomists may contend that there is no supreme intercostal artery, only a supreme intercostal vein.

Subclavian loop, also known as Vieussens' ansa after French anatomist Raymond Vieussens (1635-1715), is a nerve cord that is a connection between the middle and inferior cervical ganglion which is commonly fused with the first thoracic ganglion and is then called the stellate ganglion. The subclavian ansa forms a loop around the subclavian artery. This communicating branch downwards anteromedial to the vertebral artery makes a loop around the subclavian artery from anterior to posterior and then lies medially to the internal thoracic artery respectively. Sometimes there are two communicating branches encompassing the vertebral artery, one from anterior and the other from posterior.

Pericardiacophrenic veins

Pericardiacophrenic veins are the vena comitans of the pericardiacophrenic arteries. Pericardiacophrenic vessels accompany the phrenic nerve in the Middle Mediastinum of the Thorax. The artery is a branch of the internal thoracic artery. The vein drains into the internal thoracic(or brachiocephalic)vein.

The perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery pierce through the internal intercostal muscles of the superior six intercostal spaces. These small arteries run with the anterior cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves.