Thymops

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Thymops birsteini
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Family: Nephropidae
Genus: Thymops
Holthuis, 1974 [2]
Species:
T. birsteini
Binomial name
Thymops birsteini
(Zarenkov & Semenov, 1972) [3]
Synonyms [4]

Nephropides birsteiniZarenkov & Semenov, 1972

Thymops birsteini, the Patagonian lobsterette, is a species of lobster found around the coasts of South America, particularly the South Atlantic. It belongs to the monotypic genus Thymops.

Contents

Distribution

T. birsteini is found on the continental shelf around South America, particularly in the Argentine Sea. In the Atlantic Ocean, it is found south of 37° south, with Uruguay representing the northern extremity of its distribution; [5] on the Chilean (Pacific) side, it is found south of 51° south. [4] Its range includes the areas around the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and areas near South Georgia, extending as far south as 57°, close to the Antarctic Peninsula. [6] It lives at depths of 120–1,500 metres (390–4,920 ft). [7]

Description

T. birsteini resembles a typical lobster, with two large claws, four other pairs of pereiopods, and a long pleon (tail). The carapace is granular, especially in the front half, and it bears a rostrum which divides into two points at its tip. [7] The total length may range from 8 to 25 centimetres (3.1 to 9.8 in), with the carapace being 2–10 cm (0.79–3.94 in) long. [4] Smaller individuals are found in shallower waters, and larger individuals are found at greater depths (up to 1,400 m or 4,600 ft). [8] There is also latitudinal variation in colour, with northern individuals being pale yellow, while those from further south are maroon. [7]

Ecology

Little is known about the biological interactions of T. birsteini. It is occasionally eaten by the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides. [9] It seems to prefer muddy bottoms, and has been observed entering and exiting burrows. [10]

Life cycle

As in other pleocyemates, T. birsteini broods its eggs on the female's pleopods. One female may carry up to 380 eggs, each 1.5–1.9 millimetres (0.059–0.075 in) in diameter. The eggs grow as they develop to a size of 2.9–3.3 mm (0.11–0.13 in). Newly hatched larvae have a carapace length of 1.7–2.2 mm (0.067–0.087 in), and are present in smaller numbers than the eggs, with a maximum of 43 observed on a single female. This extended larval release has previously been found in other sub-Antarctic decapods, and is an adaptation to the low temperature, the long time taken for brooding, and the low overall fecundity. [8]

Edibility

The meat of T. birsteini is reported to be excellent, [7] and it is thought that the species could be commercially exploited if sufficient concentrations could be discovered. [4] The average weight of a caught individual is about 150 grams (5.3 oz), of which 30% (45 g or 1.6 oz) is the meaty tail. Daily yields of 19 kilograms (42 lb) are typical. [5]

Related Research Articles

Patagonian toothfish species of fish

The Patagonian toothfish is a species of notothen found in cold waters between depths of 45 and 3,850 m in the southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and Southern Ocean on seamounts and continental shelves around most Subantarctic islands.

Cape lobster Species of crustacean

The Cape lobster, Homarinus capensis, is a species of small lobster that lives off the coast of South Africa, from Dassen Island to Haga Haga. Only a few dozen specimens are known, mostly regurgitated by reef-dwelling fish. It lives in rocky reefs, and is thought to lay large eggs that have a short larval phase, or that hatch directly as a juvenile. The species grows to a total length of 10 cm (3.9 in), and resembles a small European or American lobster; it was previously included in the same genus, Homarus, although it is not very closely related to those species, and is now considered to form a separate, monotypic genus – Homarinus. Its closest relatives are the genera Thymops and Thymopides.

<i>Metanephrops challengeri</i> species of crustacean

Metanephrops challengeri is a species of slim, pink lobster that lives around the coast of New Zealand. It is typically 13–18 cm (5–7 in) long and weighs around 100 g (3.5 oz). The carapace and abdomen are smooth, and adults are white with pink and brown markings and a conspicuous pair of long, slim claws. M. challengeri lives in burrows at depths of 140–640 m (460–2,100 ft) in a variety of sediments. Although individuals can live for up to 15 years, the species shows low fecundity, where small numbers of larvae hatch at an advanced stage.

Grey-headed albatross large seabird from the albatross family

The grey-headed albatross also known as the grey-headed mollymawk, is a large seabird from the albatross family. It has a circumpolar distribution, nesting on isolated islands in the Southern Ocean and feeding at high latitudes, further south than any of the other mollymawks. Its name derives from its ashy-grey head, throat and upper neck.

<i>Ibacus peronii</i> species of crustacean

Ibacus peronii, the Balmain bug or butterfly fan lobster, is a species of slipper lobster. It lives in shallow waters around Australia and is the subject of small-scale fishery. It is a flattened, reddish brown animal, up to 23 cm (9 in) long and 14 cm (6 in) wide, with flattened antennae and no claws.

<i>Jasus lalandii</i> Species of spiny lobster of the family Palinuridae from South Africa

Jasus lalandii is a species of spiny lobster found off the coast of Southern Africa. It is not known whom the specific epithet lalandii commemorates, although it may be the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande.

Colossal squid Species of squid

The colossal squid, sometimes called the Antarctic squid or giant cranch squid, is believed to be the largest squid species in terms of mass. It is the only recognised member of the genus Mesonychoteuthis and is known from only a small number of specimens. The species is confirmed to reach a mass of at least 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), though the largest specimens—known only from beaks found in sperm whale stomachs—may perhaps weigh as much as 600–700 kilograms (1,300–1,500 lb), making it the largest-known invertebrate. Maximum total length has been estimated at 9–10 metres (30–33 ft).

Dissostichus genus of fishes

Dissostichus, the toothfish, is a genus of notothen found in the Southern Hemisphere. Toothfishes are marketed in the United States as Chilean sea bass or less frequently as white cod. "Chilean sea bass" is a marketing name, coined in 1977 by Lee Lantz, a fish wholesaler who wanted a more attractive name for selling the Patagonian toothfish to Americans. In 1994, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted "Chilean sea bass" as an "alternative market name" for Patagonian toothfish. The toothfish was remarkably successful in the United States, Europe and Asia, and earned the nickname “white gold” within the market. Toothfishes are vital to the ecological structure of Southern Ocean ecosystems. For this reason, on 4 September a national day is dedicated to the toothfish in South Georgia.

<i>Nephropsis rosea</i> species of crustacean

Nephropsis rosea, sometimes called the rosy lobsterette or two-toned lobsterette, is a species of lobster.

<i>Scyllarides latus</i> species of crustacean

Scyllarides latus, the Mediterranean slipper lobster, is a species of slipper lobster found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. It is edible and highly regarded as food, but is now rare over much of its range due to overfishing. Adults may grow to 1 foot (30 cm) long, are camouflaged, and have no claws. They are nocturnal, emerging from caves and other shelters during the night to feed on molluscs. As well as being eaten by humans, S. latus is also preyed upon by a variety of bony fish. Its closest relative is S. herklotsii, which occurs off the Atlantic coast of West Africa; other species of Scyllarides occur in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Indo-Pacific. The larvae and young animals are largely unknown.

<i>Palinurus mauritanicus</i> species of crustacean

Palinurus mauritanicus is a species of spiny lobster. It is found in deep waters in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the western Mediterranean Sea.

<i>Pisidia longicornis</i> species of crustacean

Pisidia longicornis, the long-clawed porcelain crab, is a species of porcelain crab that lives in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean. It varies from reddish to white, and grows to a carapace width of 1 cm (0.4 in). It was first named by Carl Linnaeus in 1767, although the etymology remains unclear.

Eunephrops cadenasi, sometimes called the sculptured lobster, is a species of lobster found in the Caribbean.

Stauroteuthis gilchristi is a species of small pelagic octopus found at great depths in the south Atlantic Ocean. It is believed to be one of a very small number of octopuses to exhibit bioluminescence, like its sister taxon Stauroteuthis syrtensis.

Thymopsis nilenta is a species of lobster, and the only species in the genus Thymopsis. It is found around the Falkland Islands and South Georgia at depths of 1,976–3,040 metres (6,483–9,974 ft). It reaches a total length of 15 centimetres (5.9 in), of which the carapace is about 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in). It is known from a total of four specimens collected from two localities.

Palinurus charlestoni is a species of spiny lobster which is endemic to the waters of Cape Verde. It grows to a total length of 50 cm (20 in) and can be distinguished from other Atlantic species in the genus by the pattern of horizontal bands on its legs. It was discovered by French fishermen in 1963, and has been the subject of small-scale fishery since. It is thought to be overexploited, and is listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.

Graytail skate species of fish

The graytail skate, or gray tail skate, is a large species of skate in the family Arhynchobatidae, native to the south-western Atlantic Ocean and south-eastern Pacific Ocean. It is listed as endangered by the IUCN. It was caught as part of a commercial fishery around the Falkland Islands and is a bycatch in several other fisheries.

Nephropides caribaeus is a species of lobster, the only species in the genus Nephropides. It is found in western parts of the Caribbean Sea, from Belize to Colombia. It grows to a total length of around 170 mm (6.7 in), and is covered in conspicuous tubercles.

<i>Geryon trispinosus</i> species of crustacean

Geryon trispinosus is a species of crab that lives in deep water in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean.

<i>Ibacus alticrenatus</i> species of crustacean

Ibacus alticrenatus is a species of slipper lobster that lives in the waters of Australia and New Zealand.

References

  1. R. Wahle (2011). "Thymops birsteini". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . IUCN. 2011: e.T170038A6717105. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T170038A6717105.en.
  2. "Thymops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  3. "Thymops birsteini". Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Lipke Holthuis (1990). "Thymops birsteini". Marine Lobsters of the World. FAO.
  5. 1 2 Arianna Masello. "Langosta oceánica" (in Spanish). Dirección Nacional de Recurcos Acuaticos.
  6. "Discover Life map of Thymops". GBIF Data Portal . Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Enrique E. Boschi. "Thymops birsteini" (PDF). Atlas de Sensibilidad Ambiental de la Costa y el Mar Argentino. Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable.
  8. 1 2 Vladimir Laptikhovsky & Pablo Reyes (2009). "Distribution and reproductive biology of a subantarctic deep-sea lobster, the Patagonian lobsterette Thymops birsteini (Zarenkov and Semenov, 1972) (Decapoda, Astacidea, Nephropidae)". Journal of Natural History . 43 (1–2): 35–46. doi:10.1080/00222930802567099.
  9. G. M. Pilling; M. G. Purves; T. M. Daw; D. A. Agnew & J. C. Xavier (2001). "The stomach contents of Patagonian toothfish around South Georgia (South Atlantic)". Journal of Fish Biology . 59 (5): 1370–1384. doi:10.1006/jfbi.2001.1748. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05.
  10. Cynthia Yau; Martin A. Collins; Phil M. Bagley; Inigo Everson & Imants G. Priede (2002). "Scavenging by megabenthos and demersal fish on the South Georgia slope". Antarctic Science . 14 (1): 16–24. doi:10.1017/S0954102002000536.