Thynnoidea

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Thynnoidea
Chyphotes f.jpg
Chyphotes
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Infraorder: Aculeata
Superfamily: Thynnoidea

Thynnoidea is a superfamily of hymenopterans in the order Hymenoptera. There are at least 2 families and about 10 described species in Thynnoidea. [1]

Contents

Myzinum quinquecinctum Myzinum quinquecinctum P1240895a.jpg
Myzinum quinquecinctum

Families

These two families belong to the superfamily Thynnoidea:

Related Research Articles

Chalcid wasp

Chalcid wasps are insects within the superfamily Chalcidoidea, part of the order Hymenoptera. The superfamily contains some 22,500 known species, and an estimated total diversity of more than 500,000 species, meaning the vast majority have yet to be discovered and described. The name "chalcid" is often confused with the name "chalcidid", though the latter refers strictly to one constituent family, the Chalcididae, rather than the superfamily as a whole; accordingly, most recent publications (e.g.,) use the name "chalcidoid" when referring to members of the superfamily.

Sawfly Suborder of insects

Sawflies are the insects of the suborder Symphyta within the order Hymenoptera alongside ants, bees and wasps. The common name comes from the saw-like appearance of the ovipositor, which the females use to cut into the plants where they lay their eggs. The name is associated especially with the Tenthredinoidea, by far the largest superfamily in the suborder, with about 7,000 known species; in the entire suborder, there are 8,000 described species in more than 800 genera. Symphyta is paraphyletic, consisting of several basal groups within the order Hymenoptera, each one rooted inside the previous group, ending with the Apocrita which are not sawflies.

Apocrita Suborder of insects containing wasps, bees, and ants

The Apocrita are a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. It includes wasps, bees, and ants, and consists of many families. It contains the most advanced hymenopterans and is distinguished from Symphyta by the narrow "waist" (petiole) formed between the first two segments of the actual abdomen; the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, and is called the propodeum. Therefore, it is general practice, when discussing the body of an apocritan in a technical sense, to refer to the mesosoma and metasoma rather than the "thorax" and "abdomen", respectively. The evolution of a constricted waist was an important adaption for the parasitoid lifestyle of the ancestral apocritan, allowing more maneuverability of the female's ovipositor. The ovipositor either extends freely or is retracted, and may be developed into a stinger for both defense and paralyzing prey. Larvae are legless and blind, and either feed inside a host or in a nest cell provisioned by their mothers.

Ichneumonoidea

The superfamily Ichneumonoidea contains one extinct and three extant families, including the two largest families within Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The group is thought to contain as many as 100,000 species, many of which have not yet been described. Like other parasitoid wasps, they were long placed in the "Parasitica", variously considered as an infraorder or an unranked clade, now known to be paraphyletic.

Vespoidea Superfamily of insects

Vespoidea is a superfamily of wasps in the order Hymenoptera, although older taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization, particularly in whether to recognize the superfamilies Scolioidea or Formicoidea. Vespoidea includes wasps with a large variety of lifestyles: eusocial, social, and solitary habits, predators, scavengers, parasitoids, and some herbivores.

Platygastroidea

The Hymenopteran superfamily of parasitoid wasps, Platygastroidea, has often been treated as a lineage within the superfamily Proctotrupoidea, but most classifications since 1977 have recognized it as an independent group. It is presently composed of one extinct and three extant families, with some 4000 described species. They are exclusively parasitic in nature.

Siricoidea

The superfamily Siricoidea is an archaic group of the order Hymenoptera, consisting of six families of xylophagous sawflies. The group is well represented in early Tertiary and Mesozoic times, but a number of living taxa remain, including the family Anaxyelidae, which has recently been linked to this group. The female ovipositor is typically long and projects posteriorly, and is used to drill into wood.

Anaxyelidae

Anaxyelidae is a family of incense cedar wood wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There are about 13 genera in Anaxyelidae, all extinct except Syntexis, which has only a single species.

Pamphilioidea

The Pamphilioidea are a small superfamily within the Symphyta, containing some 250 living species restricted to the temperate regions of Eurasia and North America. These hymenopterans share the distinctive feature of a very large, almost prognathous head, which is widest ventrally. The superfamily consists of two extant families.

Tenthredinoidea Superfamily of insects

The Tenthredinoidea are the dominant superfamily of sawflies within the Symphyta, containing some 8,400 species worldwide, primarily in the family Tenthredinidae. All known larvae are phytophagous, and a number are considered pests.

Cimbicidae

Cimbicidae is a family of sawflies in the order Hymenoptera. There are more than 20 genera and 200 described species in Cimbicidae. Larvae are solitary herbivores.

Trigonalidae

The Trigonalidae are one of the more unusual families of hymenopteran insects, of indeterminate affinity within the suborder Apocrita, and presently placed in its own superfamily, Trigonaloidea. The Trigonalidae are divided into two subfamilies, Orthogonalinae and Trigonalinae. These wasps are extremely rare, but surprisingly diverse, with some 90 species in over 15 genera, and are known from all parts of the world.

Megalyridae

Megalyroidea is a small hymenopteran superfamily that includes a single family, Megalyridae, with eight extant genera and 49 described species. Modern megalyrids are found primarily in the southern hemisphere, though fossils have only been found in the northern hemisphere. The most abundant and species-rich megalyrid fauna is in Australia. Another peak of diversity appears to be in the relict forests of Madagascar, but most of these species are still undescribed.

Cephidae

Cephidae is a family of stem sawflies in the order Hymenoptera. There are about 27 genera and more than 160 described species in Cephidae.

Pompiloidea

Pompiloidea is a superfamily that includes spider wasps and velvet ants, among others. in the order Hymenoptera. There are 4 families in Pompiloidea.

Tiphioidea

Tiphioidea is a suggested superfamily of stinging wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There are two families in Tiphioidea, Tiphiidae and Sierolomorphidae.

Oraseminae is a subfamily of chalcid wasps in the family Eucharitidae. There are at least 10 genera in Oraseminae.

Karatavitidae is an extinct family of wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There are about 7 genera in Karatavitidae.

Megastigmidae

Megastigmidae is a family of chalcid wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There are about 12 genera and more than 170 described species in Megastigmidae. Megastigmidae was formerly considered a subfamily of the family Torymidae.

Eriaporidae is a family of chalcid wasps in the order Hymenoptera. There are about 5 genera and more than 20 described species in Eriaporidae.

References

  1. "Thynnoidea Superfamily Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-04-05.

Further reading