Tidarren

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Tidarren
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Theridiidae
Genus:Tidarren
Chamberlin & Ivie, 1934 [1]
Type species
T. sisyphoides (Walckenaer, 1841)
Species

24, see text

Tidarren is a genus of tangle-web spiders first described by Ralph Vary Chamberlin & Wilton Ivie in 1934. [2]

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Theridiidae Family of spiders

Theridiidae, also known as the tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders and comb-footed spiders, is a large family of araneomorph spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. This diverse, globally distributed family includes over 3,000 species in 124 genera, and is the most common arthropods found in human dwellings throughout the world.

Ralph Vary Chamberlin American biologist

Ralph Vary Chamberlin was an American biologist, ethnographer, and historian from Salt Lake City, Utah. He was a faculty member of the University of Utah for over 25 years, where he helped establish the School of Medicine and served as its first dean, and later became head of the zoology department. He also taught at Brigham Young University and the University of Pennsylvania, and worked for over a decade at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, where he described species from around the world.

Contents

Males are much smaller than females, and they amputate one of their palps before maturation, entering their adult life with only one palp. [3] Though it is uncertain why they do this, it may be done to increase mobility, as the palps are disproportionately large compared to the size of the body. It may also be done because only one palp is needed.

Females of the Yemeni species T. argo tear off the single remaining palp before feeding on males. The palp remains attached to the female's epigynum for about four hours, continuing to function despite being separated from the male's body. [4]

Yemen Republic in Western Asia

Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including Socotra, one of the largest islands in the Middle East. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Tidarren argo is a spider from Yemen. The species is remarkable by its male amputating one of its palps before maturation and entering his adult life with one palp only. It adopts exceptional copulatory behaviour: when the male achieves genitalia coupling with his palp, the latter is torn off by the female. The separated gonopod remains attached to the female's epigynum for approximately 4 hours and continues to function independently, serving as a mating plug. While this happens, the female feeds on the male. Emasculation thus synchronizes sexual cannibalism and sperm transfer, lengthening the interval between copulations. This mating behaviour might allow for the continuation of insemination by the dismembered palp.

Species

As of April 2019 it contains twenty-four species: [1]

Tidarren haemorrhoidale is a species of cobweb spider in the family Theridiidae. It is found in a range from the United States to Argentina.

Tidarren sisyphoides is a spider of the family Theridiidae.

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References

  1. 1 2 "Gen. Tidarren Chamberlin & Ivie, 1934". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  2. Chamberlin, R. V.; Ivie, W. (1934). "A new genus of theridiid spiders in which the male develops only one palpus". Bulletin of the University of Utah. 24 (4): 1–18.
  3. Vollrath, F.; Parker, G.A. (1992). "Sexual dimorphism and distorted sex ratios in spiders". Nature. 360 (6400): 156–159. doi:10.1038/360156a0.
  4. Knoflach, Barbara; van Harten, Antonius (2001). "Tidarren argo sp. nov. (Araneae: Theridiidae) and its exceptional copulatory behaviour: emasculation, male palpal organ as a mating plug and sexual cannibalism". Journal of Zoology. Cambridge University Press. 254 (4): 449–459. doi:10.1017/S0952836901000954.

"Tidarren" at the Encyclopedia of Life