Timeline of Earth Liberation Front actions

Last updated

The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) has taken a variety of criminal actions since 1992. Actions were rarely publicised prior to 1996 and are therefore difficult to find. [1]








We are writing to inform you that there is a Biotech Park being built in Fairfield, Maine. We went there some weeks ago and put a sand/quickcrete mix in the engines, gas, and hydraulics of an excavator and a roller. These were the only machines there, plowing up the land, building bridges over creeks. So we left no trace so when the operators came to work the machines would run and then seize, costing big bucks. Now, we are letting the people know.

The park is being pushed by Paul Tessier, a representative of Fairfield, and others. It is in cohoots with Jackson Labs, which is the largest breeder of mice. They grow mice with human ears there! How sick! These people want the park to be an incubator to bring more biotechnology into Maine.

We oppose this for the following reasons... Biotechnology is one more tool by the ruling class to control our lives and make more money. Only the rich can produce biotechnology and even if that wasn't so, we would want no part of it because it sees the wild as incomplete, or as lacking, needing manipulation. Our ancestors lived in harmony on this planet for a long time, now all of humanity's progress is making us sick. And we're gonna trust those that gave us cancer to create new technologies to cure it. No way!

We want to be left alone. No more development. We enjoy life here and are sick of business men coming in and trying to dupe us into trading the good life for their wage slavery. People!!! Take action!!!

The Biotech Park is on route 201 near Kennebec Valley Technical College in Fairfield. KVTC is in on it too. Solidarity to those fighting against the greedy! ELF...ALF...Together with all

Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States (or its territories) without foreign direction, committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives...During the past several years, special interest extremism, as characterized by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), has emerged as a serious terrorist threat. The FBI estimates that the ALF/ELF have committed more than 600 criminal acts in the United States since 1996, resulting in damages in excess of 43 million dollars. [27]

While innocent life will never be harmed in any action we undertake, where it is necessary, we will no longer hesitate to pick up the gun to implement justice, and provide the needed protection for our planet that decades of legal battles, pleading protest, and economic sabotage have failed so drastically to achieve.

and that

all other US Forest Services administration and research facilities, as well as all Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) buildings nationwide should now be considered likely targets. [29]


[t]here was an E-L-F-A-L-F hit at McDonald's across from the Space Needle. There will be more. ... As long as Mother Earth is pillaged, raped, destroyed. As long as McDonald's keeps hurting our furry brothers, there will be more.

He was sentenced to eight years in prison. [27]

We will no longer stand idly be while corporations profit at the expense of all others. To this end, we have taken action against one of the pumping stations that Perrier uses to steal water… Clean water is one of the most fundamental necessities and no one can be allowed to privatize it, commodify it, and try and sell it back to us.

Two months later a judge orders the company to halt pumping water from the wells. Nestle had been removing 200 gallons of water from the ground per minute and was lowering the water table. [44]



Credit for the arson is claimed via an e-mail originating from the e-mail address tree_beard1234@yahoo.com. Treebeard is the name of a giant shepherd, one of a race called the Ents, in J.R.R. Tolkien's cult fantasy novel "The Two Towers." The message reads:

Last night we, the Earth Liberation Front, put the torch to a development of Ryan Homes in Hagerstown, Maryland (off Route 40, behind the Wal-Mart). We did so to strike at the bottom line of this country's most notorious serial land rapist...We warn all developers that the people of the Earth are prepared to defend what remains of the wild and the green...We encourage all who watch with sadness while developers sell out the future of us and our children to join us in resisting them in any and every possible way...The Ents are going to war. [57]




See also

Related Research Articles

Radical environmentalism is a grass-roots branch of the larger environmental movement that emerged from an ecocentrism-based frustration with the co-option of mainstream environmentalism.

Eco-terrorism is an act of violence which is committed in support of environmental causes, against people or property.

Ecotage is sabotage carried out for environmental reasons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Environmental Life Force</span> Radical environmental group

Environmental Life Force (ELF), also known as the Original ELF, was the first radical environmental group in 1977 to use explosive and incendiary devices to advance their agenda.

Leaderless resistance, or phantom cell structure, is a social resistance strategy in which small, independent groups, or individuals, challenge an established institution such as a law, economic system, social order, or government. Leaderless resistance can encompass anything from non-violent protest and civil disobedience to vandalism, terrorism, and other violent activity.

The Animal Rights Militia (ARM) is a banner used by animal rights activists who engage in direct action utilizing a diversity of tactics that ignores the Animal Liberation Front's policy of taking all necessary precautions to avoid harm to human life.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Animal Liberation Press Office</span> Press office for several animal rights clandestine cells

Animal Liberation Press Offices relay anonymous communiques, photos, and videos to the media about direct action undertaken by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), Animal Rights Militia (ARM), Revolutionary Cells – Animal Liberation Brigade, Justice Department, and other leaderless resistance within the animal liberation movement. It states that it will "explain and seek to justify any action, whatever it may be", so long as it appears to have been carried out "with the sincere intention of furthering animal liberation." The North American press office also includes a newsletter, prisoner list and merchandise page.

William Jensen Cottrell is a former Ph.D. candidate at the California Institute of Technology who was convicted in April 2005 of conspiracy associated with the destruction of eight sport utility vehicles and a Hummer dealership in the name of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). He was sentenced to eight years in federal prison on conspiracy charges and ordered to pay $3.5 million in restitution. He was released August 16, 2011.

Operation Backfire is a multi-agency criminal investigation, led by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), into destructive acts in the name of animal rights and environmental causes in the United States described as eco-terrorism by the FBI. The operation resulted in convictions and imprisonment of a number of people, many of whom were members of the Animal Liberation Front and Earth Liberation Front.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Green Scare</span> US government action against the radical environmental movement

The Green Scare is legal action by the US government against the radical environmental movement, that occurred mostly in the 2000s. It alludes to the Red Scares, periods of fear over communist infiltration of US society.

Darren Todd Thurston is a Canadian former animal rights activist.

This timeline of Animal Liberation Front (ALF) actions describes the history, consequences and theory of direct action on behalf of animals by animal liberation activists using, or associated with the ALF.

Oxford Arson Squad is a militant animal rights organization, which emerged in the United Kingdom in 2005 after claiming the firebombing of the Corpus Christi College Sports Pavilion at Oxford University. The University denounced these acts of direct action stating that "the intimidating nature of this message is totally unacceptable".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Street of Dreams arson fires</span> 2008 arson attacks in Echo Lake, Washington

On March 3, 2008, four multimillion-dollar homes were set on fire in Echo Lake, Washington, on Echo Lake Road, off State Highway 522. Slogans spray-painted on one of the burned houses' fences attributed the arson to the Earth Liberation Front, with words such as "Built Green? Nope black! McMansions in RCDs r not green. ELF." ELF is a collective name for anonymous and autonomous individuals or groups that, use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the natural environment".

The Earth Liberation Army (ELA), similar to the Earth Liberation Front (ELF), is the collective name for anonymous and autonomous individuals or groups that use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the natural environment", commonly known as ecotage or monkeywrenching. The name was first used in Canada, in 1995, which was the first Earth liberation direct action in North America, three years after the ELF had been founded in England. The ELA is also a radical, anarchist, leaderless movement, although in contrast to the ELF, the first group did not publish any guidelines. The ELA are considered to be "eco-terrorists" by governments, and are also known to also be active in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Animal Liberation Front</span> Animal rights direct action organization

The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) is an international, leaderless, decentralized political and social resistance movement that advocates and engages in what it calls non-violent direct action in protest against incidents of animal cruelty. It originated in the 1970s from the Bands of Mercy. Participants state it is a modern-day Underground Railroad, removing animals from laboratories and farms, destroying facilities, arranging safe houses, veterinary care and operating sanctuaries where the animals subsequently live. Critics have labelled them as eco-terrorists.

The Earth Liberation Front (ELF), also known as "Elves" or "The Elves", is the collective name for autonomous individuals or covert cells who, according to the ELF Press Office, use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the environment".

The University of Washington firebombing incident was an arson which took place in the early morning hours of May 21, 2001 when a firebomb was set off at Merrill Hall, a part of the University of Washington's Center for Urban Horticulture, causing an estimated $1.5 to $4.1 million in damages. By 2012 four of five accused conspirators behind the attack admitted their guilt in plea bargains. A fifth committed suicide in federal detention while awaiting trial.

The campaign against Highgate Rabbit Farm, also known as the Close Highgate Farm campaign, is a series of direct actions by anti-vivisection activists. Highgate Rabbit Farm in Market Rasen, Lincolnshire in England is licensed by the Home Office to breed rabbits and ferrets for animal-testing facilities, including Huntingdon Life Sciences. Actions have included a raid by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) and an arson claimed by the Militant Forces Against HLS. The ALF raid in 2008 saw 129 rabbits removed and £100,000-worth of damage to property. The campaign has been linked to activists involved in Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC).


  1. "MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base". 4 December 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Eco-Violence: The Record". SPLCenter. 2002. Archived from the original on 28 December 2005.
  3. Lowe, Justin (31 January 2011). "Documentary focuses on environmental "terrorists"". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  4. "Incident Summary for GTDID: 199707210013". www.start.umd.edu. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  5. Oregonian/OregonLive, The (18 August 2018). "Eco-terrorism in the West: A who's who of the convicted, the arrested, the missing". oregonlive. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  6. "Earth Liberation Front members plead guilty in 2001 firebombing". 5 October 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  7. 1 2 "Where did EarthLiberationFront.com go?". Portland Independent Media Center. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017.
  8. Lipsher |, Steve (14 December 2006). "Guilty pleas unveil the tale of eco-arson on Vail summit". The Denver Post. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  9. "Fire". greenfield.fortunecity.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012.
  10. "Animal Extremist / Ecoterror Crimes". Fur Commission USA. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  11. "Greenpeace, Earth First! and The Earth Liberation Front: The Progression of the Radical Environmental Movement in America" . Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  12. "Environmental Group Takes Credit for an Arson (Published 2000)". The New York Times. Reuters. 1 January 2000. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  13. "Ag Hall | Special Reports | Michigan State University". Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  14. "Officials: Earth Liberation Front members indicted in fire - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  15. Covill, Christopher (1 May 2008). "Greenpeace, Earth First! and The Earth Liberation Front: The Progression of the Radical Environmental Movement in America". Senior Honors Projects.
  16. "E.L.F. Crop Destruction At University of Minnesota – Conflict Minnesota" . Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  17. "E.L.F. Claim Responsibility For Sabotage on Highway 55 Construction Equipment – Conflict Minnesota" . Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  18. "New Information in Earth Liberation Front Prosecution". www.greenisthenewred.com. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  19. Liddick, Donald R. (2006). Eco-Terrorism: Radical Environmental and Animal Liberation Movements (PDF). S2CID   152919320. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  20. 1 2 "Fanning the flames - Do Or Die". www.doordie.org.uk. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  21. "ANIMAL & EARTH LIBERATION in INDIANA 2000-2003" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  22. 1 2 Baker, Al (3 January 2001). "Police Say an Anti-Sprawl Group Burned New Long Island Homes (Published 2001)". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  23. Barry, Dan; Baker, Al (8 January 2001). "For 'Eco-Terrorism' Group, a Hidden Structure and Public Messages (Published 2001)". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  24. "Earth Liberation Front members plead guilty in 2001 firebombing | The Seattle Times". archive.seattletimes.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  25. ""Ecoterrorist" Briana Waters gets six years". CounterVortex. 22 June 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  26. "Eco-Terrorism: Cracking Down on The ELF - 2002-05-29 | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Strand, Patti (5 September 2017). "The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions - So is AB 485". National Animal Interest Alliance.
  28. 1 2 "UNDERGROUND DIRECT ACTION TOTALS FOR 2002". Direct Action. Archived from the original on 26 June 2006.
  29. "Why "We're fighting them over there...." is the Biggest Lie of the Bush Administration". Daily Kos. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  30. Bacon, Lisa (18 November 2002). "Rash of Vandalism in Richmond May Be Tied to Environment Group (Published 2002)". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  31. "Crime in the Name of Animal Rights—Archive: 2002". www.naiaonline.org. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  32. http://www.northeasttimes.com/2003/0115/earth.html Archived 2006-03-08 at the Wayback Machine Northeast Times
  33. "Anti-War vandals hit Montgomery". WSFA. Archived from the original on 5 July 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2006.
  34. "E.L.F. Burns Another Year". tao.ca. Archived from the original on 22 September 2005.
  35. "Animal rights and environmental extremists use intimidation and violence to achieve their ends". Peta sucks. Archived from the original on 5 January 2006.
  36. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. "Radicals Target SUVs in Series of Southland Attacks". Los Angeles Times . 23 August 2003. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  38. 1 2 "UNDERGROUND DIRECT ACTION TOTALS FOR 2003". cala-online.org. 13 January 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  39. "Environmentalists Turn To Violence". CBS News . Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  40. Lewis, Judith (18 September 2003). "In the Land of the SUV". LA Weekly.
  41. [ dead link ]
  42. "The Wrong Man - Los Angeles CityBeat". Archived from the original on 16 May 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2006.
  43. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. "Judge orders a halt to water bottling operation". Great Lakes Directory. 26 November 2003. Archived from the original on 12 November 2005.
  45. "cvilleindymedia.org". 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  46. Bach, Ashley. "Officials investigate attempted arson in Sammamish". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012.
  47. "ELF Claims Responsibility for Hummer Fire". Green Anarchy. 2004. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009.
  48. "Incendiary Bombs Found At Construction Site". Green Anarchy. 2005. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009.
  49. "ELF Attacks Construction Site in A Series of Actions". Green Anarchy. 2005. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009.
  50. "Federal investigators have made an arrest in one of the three recent ecoterror arsons east of Sacramento, California". Eskimo. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
  51. "EARTH LIBERATION FRONT (ELF) ATTACKED PRIVATE CITIZENS & PROPERTY TARGET". Terrorism Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  52. "Bounty Placed on Ecoterrorism in Washington State". ABC News. 21 September 2005.
  53. Thadeaus (12 September 2005). "Bombs & Shields". bombsandshields.com.
  54. Sullivan, Ted (4 October 2005). "Vandals linked to domestic terrorist group target lumber company". Bozeman Daily Chronicle.
  55. "$2 million homes burn in 'act of terror,' developer says - CNN.com". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  56. Nagtzaam, Gerald (27 January 2017). Elves running through the forest: the Earth Liberation Front. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN   978-1-78536-735-9.
  57. Thadeaus (21 November 2005). "Bombs & Shields". bombsandshields.com.
  58. 1 2 3 [ dead link ]
  59. Sabbagh, Sabrina (15 December 2005). "Vandals Sought In Valley Springs". My Mother Lode. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  60. Thadeaus (19 January 2006). "Bombs & Shields". bombsandshields.com.
  61. "Anti-Sprawl ELF Action in Memory of William Rodgers". Mostly Water. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.
  62. Brenneman, Kristina (12 March 2006). "Homes in new Salem neighborhood vandalized". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  63. "Ontario: E-mail lays claim to blaze at house". Infoshop News. 29 June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  64. "Luxury Homes Burn in Apparent Eco-Attack". Associated Press. 3 March 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2008.
  65. Debera Harrell, Paul Shukovsky and Aubrey Cohen. Street of Dreams homes burned, eco-terrorists suspected, Seattlepi.com, 2008.
  66. of Dreams homes burned, eco-terrorists suspected [ permanent dead link ], Seattle Pie, March 3rd 2008.
  67. "BITE BACK Magazine". www.directaction.info. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  68. "BITE BACK Magazine". www.directaction.info. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  69. "BITE BACK Magazine". www.directaction.info. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  70. "BITE BACK Magazine". www.directaction.info. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  71. "MyWay". apnews.myway.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.