Timeline of Karnataka

Last updated

Nandi statue near Mysore Nandi file.jpg
Nandi statue near Mysore
The Bahubali is the tallest monolith statue in the world and is 57 feet in height Gomateswara.jpg
The Bahubali is the tallest monolith statue in the world and is 57 feet in height

The name Karnataka is derived from Karunadu, meaning "lofty land" or "high plateau," due to its location on the Deccan Plateau. The name can also mean "land of black soil" (Kari - Black; Nadu - Area or Region) in Kannada. See other possible roots of the name. [1] The recorded history of Karnataka goes back to the Ramayana and Mahabharata epics. The capital of "Baali" and "Sugriva" referenced in the Ramayana is said to be Hampi.[ citation needed ] Karnataka is mentioned in the Mahabharata as "Karnata Desha. [2] " Historically, the region was also called "Kuntala Rajya." [3]


Karnataka was also part of the Dakshinapatha (southern region) which is mentioned in many Indian epics. Vatapi, associated with the sage Agastya , is identified with Badami in Bagalkot district. [4]

Karnataka is situated on the western edge of the Deccan plateau. It neighbours Maharashtra and Goa to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Telangana to the northeast, and Tamil Nadu and Kerala to the south. On the west, it opens out on the Arabian sea.


A Stanza in Kannada of Kavirajamarga praising people for their literary skills Kavi file2.jpg
A Stanza in Kannada of Kavirajamarga praising people for their literary skills

During 4th and 3rd century BCE, Karnataka was part of Nanda and Maurya Empire. The Brahmagiri edicts in Chitradurga dated around c.230BCE belongs to emperor Ashoka and says of the nearby region as "Isila", which means "fortified region" in Sanskrit. In Kannada "Isila" can mean "To shoot an arrow" ("sila" or "sala" means to-shoot and "ise" or "ese" means to-throw in Kannada). After Maurya, Shatavahana came to power in the north and Ganga in the south which can roughly be taken as the starting point of Karnataka in modern times. Kavirajamarga by Amogavarsha states Karnataka as the region between the Kaveri River in the south and the Godavari River in the north. It also says "Kavya prayoga parinathamathigal" (See Image) which means people in the region are experts in poetry and literature. [5] [6] [7]

Starting period

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
Starting periodShatavahanaSemukha / GouthamiputhraDeccan comprising present Andhra, Karnataka, Maharashtra
The Vidyashankara temple in Shringeri built during Vijaynagar times. Vidyashankara Temple at Shringeri.jpg
The Vidyashankara temple in Shringeri built during Vijaynagar times.

Around 3 BCE the Shatavahana came to power. The Shatavahanas ruled parts of northern Karnataka. They used Prakrit as the administrative language and they might belong to Karnataka. Semukha and Gouthamiputhra Shatakarni were important rulers. [8] The empire lasted for almost 300 years. With the disintegration of Shatavahana Empire, the Kadambas came to the power in the north of Karnataka and the Gangas in the south.

Banavasi Kadamba

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
A.D.325 - A.D.540Banavasi KadambaMayura Varma / Kakustha VarmaCentral, Northern Karnataka, parts of Southern Maharashtra
The Halmidi is the oldest available inscription in Kannada dated to c.450 CE Halmidi file.jpg
The Halmidi is the oldest available inscription in Kannada dated to c.450 CE

The Kadambas are considered the earliest indigenous rulers of Karnataka. Its founder was Mayuravarma and its most powerful ruler was Kakusthavarma. The Kadamba name is attributed to the Kadamba tree that was grown near the place where the empire was founded. Kadambas ruled for almost 200 years before Chalukyas took over their empire, but some minor branches of Kadambas ruled Hanagal, Goa and other regions till the 14th century. The details about this old empire are available through inscriptions like Chandravalli, Chandragiri, Halmidi, Talagunda etc. [9]

Gangas of Talakad

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.325 - CE.999Gangas of TalakadAvanitha / Durvinitha / RatchamallaSouth Karnataka / parts of Andhra and Tamil Nadu
The Ganga Emblem - 10th century copper plate Ganga file.jpg
The Ganga Emblem - 10th century copper plate

The Gangas first ruled from Nandagiri and then from Talakad. They were patrons of Jain and Hindu religions. They were also instrumental in laying a strong foundation for the flourishing and development of Kannada literature. They ruled for almost 700 years. During their peak period, the empire included Kodaugu, Tumkur, Bangalore, Mysore districts, parts of Andhra and Tamil Nadu. Durvinitha, Shripurusha and Ratchamalla were famous rulers. The most famous example of Ganga architecture is the Gomateshwara in Shravanabelagola built in c. 983 CE by the Ganga minister "Chavundaraya". The statue is carved out of a single monolith rock and measures 57 feet high. This is the tallest monolith statue in the world, and is so perfect that the fingers of the hand are cut up slightly as a mark of induced imperfection (Drushti Nevarane in Kannada). The statue is naked, and shows the beauty of the human in that form. The statue is the first of its kind in Karnataka and comparable statues were not produced thereafter. [10]

Chalukyas of Badami

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.500 - CE.757Chalukyas of BadamiPulakeshin II / Vikramaditya IIMost of Karnataka and Maharashtra, large parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa
Cave 3 in the Badami cave temples is constructed by carving large rock structure and an example of Chalukya architecture. Vishnu image inside cave number 3 in Badami.jpg
Cave 3 in the Badami cave temples is constructed by carving large rock structure and an example of Chalukya architecture.

The Chalukya empire was established by Pulakeshin. His son Kirtivarma consolidated and strengthened the empire. Mangalesha who was a powerful ruler extended the empire. The name "Chalukya" has no definite meaning. According to legend, the brave man who was born out of god Brahma's Cheluka (a type of vessel) was named Chalukya. They were patrons of deity Vishnu. The most famous ruler was Pulakeshin II (c. 610 CE - c. 642 CE). He was having the title of "Satyasherya Parameshwara" and "Dakshina Patheshwarya" because he defeated most of the southern and northern rulers Harshavardhana of Kanouj. During his rule, the empire extended up to the south of Karnataka and included the whole of western India (i.e. Gujarat, Maharashtra). Later victories also brought the eastern portions (Orissa, Andhra) into his rule. Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited his court and called the empire "Maholocha" (Maharashtra). His description included Pulakeshin II's personal details and military techniques that were employed. An artistic picture in Ajanta depicts the arrival of the representative of Persian emperor Kusru 2nd to his kingdom. Pulakeshin II was finally defeated by Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman who occupied Badami and called himself "Vatapikonda", which literally means "The one who won Badami". The end of Pulakeshin II remains a mystery. But the empire could last up to 757 CE. Their contribution to architecture includes cave temples of Badami, Aihole, Pattadakal, Mahakoota, etc. [11] [12] [5]

Rastrakuta of Manyakheta

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.757 - CE.973Rastrakuta of Manyakheta (modern Malkhed)Druva Dharavarsha / Krishna I / Govinda III / Nrupatunga Amoghavarsha I / Indra IV / Krishna IIIAll of Karnataka and Maharashtra, large parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhyapradash, extended to Kannauj at their peak.
The Janapada Art of "Somana Kunitha". Janapada file.jpg
The Janapada Art of "Somana Kunitha".

The name Rastrakuta is a formal title like Patela, Gowda, Hegade, Reddy etc. Dantidurga and his son Krishna overtook the empire from Chalukyas and built a powerful empire on it. During the rule of Govinda, the empire became more powerful all over the south and the north. His son Nrupatunga Amogavarsha got immortalised as "Kavichakravarthi" due to the work of Kavirajamarga. In c. 914 CE Arab traveller Hassan-al-Masood visited the empire. The 10th century was a golden age for the literature of Kannada. The famous poet "Pampa" was in the court of Arikesari who was a feudatory to Rastrakutas. Adikavi Pampa popularised the "Champu" style through the epic "Vikramarjuna Vijaya". Other famous poets who lived in this period are Ponna, Ranna, etc. among others. During c. 973 CE Taila 2nd of Chalukya defeated the Rastrakutas after a prolonged battle taking advantage of Karka 2nd's (the last ruler of Rastrakutas) weakness. The world-famous Kailash Temple at Ellora is an excellent example of their architecture. [13]

Chalukyas of Kalyana

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.973 - CE.1198Chalukyas of KalyanaVikramadithya VIEntire Karnataka and Maharashtra, large areas in Andhra Pradesh, parts of Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh while at their peak
Hoysala stepped temple tank (Kalyani) at Hulikere, Karnataka Hoysala Stepped Well (Pushkarni) at Hulikere.jpg
Hoysala stepped temple tank (Kalyani) at Hulikere, Karnataka

After the Rastrakutha came to the Chalukya who ruled from Kalyana. The most famous among them was Vikramadihya 6th. He was responsible for the setting of a new era called "Vikrama shaka". An important event that took place during this period (c. 1150 CE) is the social and religious movement of Basaveshwara who was in the court of Bijjala. The literature that flourished under Basaveshwara, Allamaprabhu, Channabasavanna and Akkamahadevi during this period gave rise to "Vachanna" in Nadugannada (middle Kannada) which was simple to understand, elegant and effective in reaching the people. The Vachanna form of literature was instrumental in removing the Sanskrit influence to a large extent and thus popularised Kannada as an effective language for literature. The Kashmiri poet Bilhana came to his court and lived there. He wrote "vikramankadevacharita" praising Vikramaditya 6th. The Kalachurya took over their empire and ruled for about 20 years but were ineffective to see the integrity of the empire. Thus the empire got broke up which was shared by Sevunas in the north and Hoysalas in the south. [14]

Sevunas of Devagiri

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1198 - CE.1312Sevunas of DevagiriSingana IINorthern Karnataka, most of Maharashtra, and parts of Andhra Pradesh
The Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu Hoysaleshvara Temple at Halebidu.jpg
The Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu

The Sevunas were from Nasik and came to power during 835 CE. They ruled parts of Deccan and very small parts of Karnataka until the beginning of the 12th century, with Devagiri as the capital. Singana II was the main ruler and during his reign, most of the empire experienced stability that could not be maintained thereafter. They were constantly at war with Hoysalas and other rulers and fell to Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji and his general Malik Kafur.

Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1000 - CE.1346Hoysalas of DwarasamudraVishnuvardhana / Ballala IISouthern Karnataka including the coast, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
The Hoysala royal emblem at the Chennakesava Temple in Belur Hoysala emblem at Chennakeshava temple in Belur.jpg
The Hoysala royal emblem at the Chennakesava Temple in Belur

The Hoysalas were famous for their architecture. The empire was founded by the legendary person "Sala", who hailed from the village of Sosavur (present-day Angadi in Chikkamagalur). Once, he accompanied his teacher Sudatta to the temple of Vasantika, but, a tiger came in their way and tried to attack them. The master threw a "Khatari" (knife) and exclaimed "Hoy Sala (Hit, Sala)" and he obediently agreed and mauled the tiger, killing it. Sudatta blessed him and said that he would establish a mighty empire. The emblem of Hoysala depicts Sala fighting with the tiger. Some people interpret that the man represents Hoysala and tiger represents the Cholas (tiger being their emblem), while this represents the Hoysala's victory over Cholas in Talakkad. This legend is also depicted in their royal emblem and found in many inscriptions and in front of Belur temple. The Hoysalas were patrons of Jain religion but also respected all religions. During the 8th Century CE, the famous philosopher Adi Shankaracharya established Dakshinamnaya Sharada Peetha at Sringeri in Chikamagalur and gave impetus to the Vidheka (Hindu) religion. The famous philosopher Ramanujacharya established the Cheluvanarayana Temple in Yadugiri (now Melukote, near Mysore). The famous Hoysala king Bittideva (also called Bittiga) was influenced by Ramanujacharya and got converted to Hindu, changing his name to Vishnuvardhana. [15]

The world-famous Chennakeshava Temple, Belur, Hoysaleshwara Temple, Halebid and Chennakeshava Temple, Somanathpura are examples of their architecture. After Veera Ballala III's death in a battle at Madurai, the Hoysala Dynasty came to an end. The famous expert in epigraphy Mr. Furgusen described the architecture of "Hoysaleshwara" temple as exceeding the art of any Gothic architecture. Some European critics compare Hoysala architecture at Halebid with the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. [16]


Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1336 - CE.1565VijayanagaraDevaraya II / KrishnadevarayaThe whole of South India, encompassing present-day states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana, along with parts of Orissa and Maharashtra
The Stone Chariot near Vittala temple in Hampi Hampi Stone Chariot.jpg
The Stone Chariot near Vittala temple in Hampi

The Vijayanagara empire was founded by the duo Harihara and Bukka. The empire was established during tough times when Kakatiyas of Warangal and King Kampili of Kummatadurga were killed and their dynasties uprooted by the Delhi Sultanate. The feeble Hoysala emperor Veera Ballala III desperately fought from Tiruvannamalai and finally succumbed in a battle at Madurai. At such a time, Hakka and Bukka, under the spiritual guidance of Vidyaranya, found a rabbit trying to shoo off hunting dogs. Hence, in 1336 CE, they built a city and named it Vidyanagara at first (in memory of Vidyaranya), but changed it into Vijayanagara. Hakka assumed the name of Harihara Raya I and due to his work, the empire got firmly established in 1346 CE. He subdued the Madurai Sultanate and helped in bringing back the idol of Sri Ranganatha of Srirangam, that had been shifted to Tirupati during an attack by Delhi Sultanate. His brother Bukka succeeded him, assuming the name of Bukka Raya I. His successors were able administrators and were successful in blocking Muslim invasion in South India for about 300 years. Italian, Portuguese and Persian visitors (Parsee, Kantae, Abdul Razak) described the Vijayanagar capital Hampi as equivalent to Rome in those days. Krishnadevaraya was the most famous ruler of the empire . After his death in 1530, internal feuds arose in the royal family. There was no one to hold the empire stably and crush the rebellions of the vassals. Seeking advantage of this, the Berar Sultanate, and Sultans of Bijapur, Bidar, Golconda and Ahmadnagar defeated the forces of Aliya Rama Raya in the battle of Talikota in c. 1565 CE. These Sultans also sacked Hampi. The Stone Chariot of Vijaya Vitthala Temple (in Hampi) is an excellent example of Vijayanagar architecture. [5] [17]


Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1347 - CE.1527Bahumani SultanateMuhammadshah I / IIDeccan area comprising northern Karnataka and Andhra
The Jog Falls measures 857 feet in height and an important source of electricity in the region. Jogmonsoon.jpg
The Jog Falls measures 857 feet in height and an important source of electricity in the region.

The Bahumani empire was established due to the conquest of the Muslim rulers in south India. The Muslim raids were so intense that in almost two attacks, four empires of the south were destroyed (Devagiri in c. 1318 CE, Varangal of Andhra in c. 1323 CE, Pandya of Tamil Nadu in c. 1330 CE, and partially Hoysala). But Hoysala Ballala shifted his capital to Tiruvannamalai and continued his fight. Amir Hassan from Persia called himself as Bahamani and established the Bahamani kingdom. Muhammad Shah was an able ruler and strengthened the empire. The empire occupied large chunks of Maharashtra and also parts of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka (Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga area) Muhammad Gawan was the most famous minister under the Bahumans. They ruled from Bidar. Russian traveller Nikiten visited the empire in c. 1470 CE and described Bidar as a beautiful city. [18]

Sultans of Bijapur

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1490 - CE.1686Sultans of BijapurYusaf Addil Khan / Ibrahim Addil Shah IIBijapur and adjoining areas
The Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur GolGumbaz2.jpg
The Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur

Around c. 1490 CE the empire broke into five parts, of which Bidar and Bijapur belong to Karnataka. The other kingdoms are Berar, Ahmadnagar and Golconda. Muhammad Ibrahim Adil Shah built the famous Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur. Muslim architecture flourished under their reign but many remained uncompleted. Farista who was in the court of Ibrahim II compiled an encyclopedia called "Najumal-Ullum" (star of scientists) which contained much arts of southern style. The Mughals, under Aurangzeb finally defeated Sikandar Adil Shah in 1686, while the erstwhile Sultan was imprisoned in Daulatabad Fort, where he died in 1686, ending the Adil Shahi Dynasty.

Nayakas of Keladi

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1500 - CE.1763Nayakas of KeladiShivappa Nayaka / Rani ChannamaCoastal and Central Karnataka

The Nayakas of Keladi ruled the Malnad and Karavali (west coast) regions during the Vijayanagar reign. They successfully repelled the Portuguese and Bijapur sultans. They carried forward the principles and traditions of Hindu religion after the demise of the Vijayanagar empire. During its peak, the kingdom stretched from Banavasi (in Uttara Kannada) to Kannur (in Kerala) and the West Coast to Sakkarepattana (in Kodagu), and included present-day districts of Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada, Shimoga, Chikkamagalur, Hassan and parts of Kodagu. The most famous among them was Shivappa Nayaka, who had excellent military and administrative skills. He sheltered Tirumala Nayaka of Vijayanagara from the Bijapur Sultans. He was famous for his taxation and agricultural systems. His land taxation system is famous as "Shivappanayakana Shisthu" (Discipline of Shivappanayaka). An important queen was Keladi Chennamma. She was one of the first Indian rulers to defy and defeat the Mughal hordes of Aurangzeb. While sheltering Shivaji's son Rajaram, she employed guerilla warfare and fought with Aurangzeb's forces. The Mughal emperor himself had to sue for peace with her. She is immortalised in Kannada traditional (janapada) songs. Later, during the reign of Rani Veerammaji, Hyder Ali of Mysore occupied their kingdom and imprisoned her in Madhugiri.

Wodeyars of Mysore

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1399 - CE.1761Wodeyars of MysoreRanadhira Kantirava / ChikkadevarajaSouthern Karnataka, parts of northern Tamil Nadu
Statue of Mahishasura Mahisha.jpg
Statue of Mahishasura

The Yeduraya and Krishnadeva of Yadava clan who came from Dwaraka to Mysore were approached for help to contain Marappanayaka. They defeated and killed him. His heir was married to Yeduraya and he came to crown in c.1399 CE. Mysore was previously called "MahishaMandala" which means the region of demon Mahisha. The demon was killed by a goddess in this region and hence got the name Mysore. The small kingdom was made into a mighty empire by RajaWodeyar. They shifted their capital from Mysore to Srirangapattana. Chikkadevaraja. Wodeyar is the most famous ruler among them and got the title "Karnataka Chakravarthy" by defeating Nayakas (Ikkeri), Sultans (Madurai) and Shivaji. By 1686 CE the kingdom included almost all of south India. In 1687 CE they bought the city of Bangalore from Mughal by paying three lakh Rupees. By 1761 CE Hyder Ali who was a normal soldier took over their empire.

Sultanate of Srirangapattana

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1761 - CE.1799Sultanate of SrirangapattanaHyderAli / Tippu SultanMost of Karnataka, parts Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu and Kerala
Temple architecture of Halebid Halebid file.jpg
Temple architecture of Halebid

Hyder Ali, who overtook the Mysore from the Wodeyars ruled from Srirangapattana. He soon displaced Nanjaraj, the prime minister, and made the Raja a prisoner in his own palace. Tipu Sultan succeeded Hyder Ali. He fought bloody wars against the British and their allies but was resoundingly defeated by a confederation of the British, the Marathas and the Hyderabad Nijamas in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and died on the battlefield in 1799 CE.

Mysore Wodeyars

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1800 - CE.1831Mysore WodeyarsKrishna Raja Wodeyar IIIOld Mysore area
The worshipped Tulasi plant. Tulasi file.jpg
The worshipped Tulasi plant.

After the defeat of Tipu, according to the treaty in 1800 CE, the British divided the state in which Bellary, Kadapa, Kurnool areas went to Nijamas; Marathas got the northern parts; the coastal parts were retained by the British, but they divided it among Bombay and Madras presidencies. The then governor-general of British India Markvis of Wellesley reinstated the Wodeyar in Mysore and administration was given to Dewan Purnaiya because the throne prince was still young. Purnaiya was an able administrator, and under his guidance, the empire functioned like any modern government. The other ministers in line were Sir Sheshadri Aiyar, Dr. M. Visveswaraya and Sir Mirza Ismail. Around 1824 CE "Rani Channamma" and her general "Sangoli Rayanna" of Kittur started to fight against British and declared independence. Due to this, in 1831 CE the British took over the empire.

British takeover

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1831 - CE.1881British Takeover.Commissioners of BritishOld Mysore and other areas
Painting of Mysore style Oldpaint file.jpg
Painting of Mysore style

In 1831 CE the British overtook the empire and appointed the commissioners, who were given the power to rule on behalf of the British empire. Among them, Mark Cubbon was the most important. They systematically changed the way the empire functioned and brought in major changes but they continued some of the older traditions. During this period the state got divided between Bombay and Madras provinces, Hyderabad Nijamas and Mysore.

Mysore Wodeyars

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1881 - CE.1950Mysore WodeyarsKrishna Raja Wodeyar 4/Jayachamaraja Wodeyarold Mysore area
Hanuman is popular in Karnataka Hanuman file new.jpg
Hanuman is popular in Karnataka

After a period of British Commissioners' rule, Mysore was given back to the Wodeyars under Jayachamaraja Wodeyar. During this period the urge to independence gained momentum with the result that many leaders were imprisoned. The struggle finally led to the grant of independence to India by the British. The rule of the Wodeyars continued until the Indian independence and finally they merged Mysore with the Indian union which got incorporated into India as a state.

Karnataka State

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
CE.1956Karnataka StateGovernmentWhole of Karnataka

After the Indian independence and partition of the country, the states were reorganised based on the linguistic and other criteria and thus the divided areas of Kannada speaking population came together to form the present day Karnataka under the name of Mysore. On 1973 November 1, the name Mysore was changed to Karnataka. The state choose the city of Bangalore as its capital and gave Kannada the status of an administrative language. The Vidhana Soudha build by Kengal Hanumanthya became the state parliament house. The Attara Kachery was made the state high court.

Vidhana Soudha Vidhana Soudha 2012.jpg
Vidhana Soudha

Bengaluru City

The Rangoli is a traditional art of Karnataka women. Rangoli file.jpg
The Rangoli is a traditional art of Karnataka women.
The Rangoli is also popular throughout India. Rangoli file2.jpg
The Rangoli is also popular throughout India.

In around c.1537 CE an important event occurred that of establishment of Bengaluru city by Kempegowda who was a chieftain of Yalahanka kingdom. According to popular belief, when Kempegowda went to hunting he saw a mola (rabbit) chasing a naayi (dog). He thought this as a good sign and in that place he built a fort which led to the foundation of the city of Bengaluru. Pleased by this, the Vijayanagar emperor Achutaraya awarded the place around the fort to Kempegowda. Kempegowda used the money of the empire to improve the city and to make the foreign traders and local workers settle down there. He built viewing (watching) towers and his emblems in all the four directions of the city at places like Alasuru, Hebbala, Lalbag, and Kempambudi lake. Even today they can be seen and it remains as his memories. These towers are used as emblems of Bangalore city corporation. Although the extent of the towers was large in those days, today the city has outgrown them.


The table shows the summary [19]

Time Period / EraEmpire / DynastyMain RulersEmpire Extent
Starting periodShatavahanaSemukha, GouthamiputhraDeccan comprising present Andhra, Karnataka, Maharashtra
CE.325 - CE.540Banavasi KadambaMayura Sharma, Kakusta VarmaCentral, Western, Northwestern Karnataka
CE.325 - CE.999Gangas of TalakadAvanitha, Durvinitha, RatchamallaSouth Karnataka, parts of Andhra and Tamil Nadu
CE.500 - CE.757Chalukyas of BadamiMangalesha, Pulakeshin IIParts of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarath, Orrisa, Andhra
CE.757 - CE.973Rastrakutha of MalakeadaKrishna I, Govinda III, Nrupatunga Amoghavarsha IParts of Karnataka, Andra, Tamil Nadu, Madhyapradash, Maharashtra
CE.973 - CE.1198Chalukyas of KalyanaVikramadithya VIParts of Karnataka, Andra, Tamil Nadu, Madhyapradash, Maharashtra
CE.1198 - CE.1312Sevunas of DevagiriSingana IIParts of Karnataka, Andra, Maharashtra
CE.1000 - CE.1346Hoysalas of DwarasamudraVishnuvardhana, Ballala IIParts of south and coastal Karnataka, Andra, Tamil Nadu
CE.1336 - CE.1565VijayanagaraDevaraya II, KrishnadevarayaMost of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra
CE.1347 - CE.1527BahumaniMuhammad Shah I, Muhammad Shah IIDeccan area
CE.1490 - CE.1686Sultans of BijapurYusaf Addil Khan, Ibrahim Addil Shah IIBijapur and adjoining areas
CE.1500 - CE.1763Nayakas of KelaediShivappa Nayaka, Rani ChannamaParts of Coastal Karnataka
CE.1399 - CE.1761Wodeyars of MysoreRajaWodeyar, Ranadhira Kantirava, ChikadevarajaOld Mysore region
CE.1588 - CE.1779Nayakas of ChitradurgaThimmanna Nayaka, Madakari NayakaParts of Central Karnataka,Andra
CE.1761 - CE.1799Sultanate of SrirangapatanaHyderAli, Tippu SultanParts of Karnataka, Andhra
CE.1800 - CE.1831Mysore WodeyarsKrishna Raja Wodeyar IIIOld Mysore area
CE.1831 - CE.1881British Takeover.Commissioners of BritishOld Mysore and other areas
CE.1881 - CE.1950Mysore WodeyarsKrishna Raja Wodeyar IV, Jayachamaraja Wodeyarold Mysore area
CE.1956Karnataka StateGovernmentWhole of Karnataka

Graphical timeline

KarnatakaWodeyar dynastyKalyani ChalukyasBritish RajNayakas of KeladiBahmaniWestern GangasKingdom of MysoreVijaynagarSeuna Yadavas of DevagiriRastrakutasKadamba DynastyWodeyar dynastyWodeyar dynastyAdil Shahi dynastyHoysalasChalukyasSatavahana dynastyKannadaKannadaHalegannadaKannadaKannadaTimeline of Karnataka

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middle kingdoms of India</span> Political entities in the Indian subcontinent from 3rd century BCE - 13th century CE

The middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in the Indian subcontinent from 200 BCE to 1200 CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Simuka, from 230 BCE. The "middle" period lasted for almost 1,500 or 1436 years and ended in 1206 CE, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of South India</span> Article on history of southern India

The history of southern India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Bangalore</span> Account of past events in Bengaluru, India

Bangalore is the capital city of the state of Karnataka. Bangalore, as a city, was founded by Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud fort at the site in 1537. But the earliest evidence for the existence of a place called Bangalore dates back to c. 890.

Pulakeshin II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi. During his reign, the Chalukya kingdom expanded to cover most of the Deccan region in peninsular India.

Kirttivarman I was a ruler of the Chalukya dynasty of Vatapi in India. He ruled parts of present-day Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Karnataka</span> Region in Karnataka, India

North Karnataka is a geographical region in Deccan plateau from 300 to 730 metres elevation that constitutes the region of the Karnataka state in India and the region consists of 13 districts. It is drained by the Krishna River and its tributaries the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra. North Karnataka lies within the Deccan thorn scrub forests ecoregion, which extends north into eastern Maharashtra.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Davanagere district</span> District in Karnataka, India

Davanagere district is an administrative district of Karnataka state in India. It is the centre of Karnataka. The city of Davanagere is the district headquarters. It had a population of 1,643,494 of which 32.31% was urban as of 2011. This district was separated from Chitradurga district in 1997 by the then Chief minister of Karnataka J. H. Patel including Chennagiri and Honali Taluks Shimoga district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Chalukya Empire</span> 10th–12th century empire in western Deccan, South India

The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.

Bankapura is a panchayat town in Haveri district in the state of Karnataka, India. It is in Shiggaon taluk, is just 2.5 km from the Pune-Bangalore national highway NH-4, 22 km from Haveri town. Bankapura is about 45 km from Hubli-Dharwad. An historical site, Bankapura is famous for the Nagareshwara temple, Bankapura fort, The Bankapura Peacock Sanctuary. Baada, the birthplace of Kanakadasa is near to Bankapura.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alupa dynasty</span>

The Alupa dynasty was an ancient ruling dynasty of India. The kingdom they ruled was known as Alvakheda Arusasira and its territory spanned the coastal districts of the modern Indian state known as Karnataka. The Alupas in their prime were an independent dynasty, centuries after reigning due to the dominance of Kadambas from Banavasi, they became feudatory to them. Later they became the vassals of the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas with the change in political scenario of Southern India. Their influence over coastal Karnataka lasted for about 1200 years. There is evidence that the Alupas followed the law of matrilineal inheritance (Appekatt/Aliyasantana) since the Alupa king Soyideva was succeeded by his nephew Kulasekhara Bankideva. The legendary king who is credited with introducing matrilineality in Alva Kheda|Tulu Vishaya Kheda is named Bhuta Alupa Pandya The descendants of this dynasty still survive to this date and have spread in the karavali region and they are widely called as Bunt The Buntfollows Matrilineality, unlike any other warrior community, they can be identified with their surnames such as Shetty, Rai, Hegde, Alva, Chowta etc., even though most Bunt are hindus by faith now, The sizeable section of the community still follows Jainism and they are called Jain Bunt The last Alupa king to have ruled is Kulasekharadeva Alupendradeva whose inscription dated 1444 CE have been found in Mudabidri Jain Basadi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Karnataka</span> Overview of tourism in Karnataka, India

Karnataka is the sixth largest state in India and has been ranked as the third most popular state in the country for tourism in 2014. It is home to 507 of the 3600 centrally protected monuments in India, second only to Uttar Pradesh. The State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums protects an additional 752 monuments and another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Karnataka</span> Introduction of History of Karnataka

The History of Karnataka goes back several millennia. Several great empires and dynasties have ruled over Karnataka and have contributed greatly to the history, culture and development of Karnataka as well as the entire Indian subcontinent. The Chindaka Nagas of central India Gangas, Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Vengi, Yadava Dynasty of Devagiri were all of Kannada origin who later took to encouraging local languages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jainism in Karnataka</span> Religion of Jainism in the Indian state of Karnataka

Karnataka, a state in South India has a long association with Jainism, a religion which enjoyed patronage of major historic kingdoms in the state such as the Rastrakuta Dynasty, Western Ganga, Kadamba and Chalukya dynasties and the Hoysala Empire. Today the state is home to a number of Jain monuments, such as temples, Gommata statues and stambhas.

Religion in Karnataka has played a very important role in shaping modern Indian religions and philosophy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Political history of medieval Karnataka</span> History of Karnataka region of India

The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka region of India made a lasting impact on the subcontinent. Before this, alien empires held sway over the region, and the nucleus of power was outside modern Karnataka. The medieval era can be broadly divided into several periods: The earliest native kingdoms and imperialism; the successful domination of the Gangetic plains in northern India and rivalry with the empires of Tamilakam over the Vengi region; and the domination of the southern Deccan and consolidation against Muslim invasion. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent power date back to the fourth-century birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the earliest of the native rulers to conduct administration in the native language of Kannada in addition to the official Sanskrit. This is the historical starting point in studying the development of the region as an enduring geopolitical entity and of Kannada as an important regional language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of Karnataka</span>

The antiquity of architecture of Karnataka can be traced to its southern Neolithic and early Iron Age, Having witnessed the architectural ideological and utilitarian transformation from shelter- ritual- religion. Here the nomenclature 'Architecture' is as old as c.2000 B.C.E. The upper or late Neolithic people in order to make their shelters, they constructed huts made of wattle and doab, that were buttressed by stone boulders, presumably having conical roof resting on the bamboo or wooden posts into red murram or paved granite chips as revealed in archaeological excavations in sites like Brhamagiri, Sanganakallu, Tekkalakota, Piklihal. Megaliths are the dominant archaeological evidence of the early Iron Age. There are more than 2000 early Iron Age burial sites on record, who laid the foundation for a high non-perishable architecture in the form of various distinct architectural styles of stone built burials, which are ritualistic in its character. The active religious architecture is evident 345 with that of the Kadamba Dynasty. Karnataka is a state in the southern part of India originally known as the State of Mysore. Over the centuries, architectural monuments within the region displayed a diversity of influences, often relaying much about the artistic trends of the rulers of twelve different dynasties. Its architecture ranges dramatically from majestic monolith, such as the Gomateshwara, to Hindu and Jain places of worship, ruins of ancient cities, mausoleums and palaces of different architectural hue. Mysore Kingdom (Wodeyar) rule has also given an architectural master structure in the St. Philomena's Church at Mysore which was completed in 1956, in addition to many Dravidian style architectural temples. Two of the monuments are listed under the UNESCO World Heritage List of 22 cultural monuments in India. Styles of Indo-Saracenic, Renaissance, Corinthian, Hindu, Indo-Greek and Indo-British style palaces were built in Mysore, the city of palaces. Sikh architecture at Bidar (1512) and also in Bangalore in 1956 can also be cited as having an impact on the architectural composition of the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chalukya dynasty</span> Classical Indian dynasty (543–753)

The Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani until the end of the 12th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Karnataka</span> Overview of and topical guide to Karnataka

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Karnataka:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kannada inscriptions</span>

About 25,000 inscriptions found in Karnataka and states near by belongs to Kannada rulers like Kadambas, Western Ganga Dynasty, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, Hoysala and Vijayanagara Empire. Many inscriptions related to Jainism are unearthed. The inscriptions generally found are on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). The Kannada inscriptions found on historical Hero Stone, coin and temple wall, piller, tablet and rock edict. These Inscription have contributed towards Kannada literature and helped to classify as Proto Kannada, Pre Old Kannada, Old Kannada, Middle Kannada and New Kannada. Inscriptions depicts culture, tradition and prosperity of those era. The world wide recognized literature Ramayana and Mahabharata are transferred through generation by these Inscription Hazara Rama Temple and Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple are the best example.


  1. "Karnataka: a 50-year-old name, centuries of legacy". The Hindu. The Hindu. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  2. Khajane, Muralidhara (10 November 2018). "The word Karnataka has existed since 1336, say historians". The Hindu. ISSN   0971-751X . Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  3. "The Kuntala and its extent in Karnataka".
  4. "Manorama yearbook 2002". Malayalam Manorama.{{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  5. 1 2 3 "Timeline".
  6. "Isila and Brahmigiri Excavation Sites". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
  7. "Kavirajamarga and Amoghavarsha".
  8. "Satavahana and Prakrit".
  9. "Kadamba Reference". 16 October 2009.
  10. "Sharavanabelogala and Ganga contribution".
  11. "Pulikeshi and his adventures".
  12. "Huen-Tsang visit to India".
  13. "Rastrakutas and their empire".
  14. "Vikrama Shaka and Vikramadithya".
  15. "Bettydeva and VishnuVardhana".
  16. "Hoysaleshwara and furgusen comments".
  17. "Vijayanagar empire and foreign Visitors".
  18. "Russian Traveller to India - Nikitin".
  19. "Timeline of Karnataka".