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Tiruvallam Bhaskaran Nair (born G. Bhaskaran Nair) is a 20th-century Malayalam poet known for his Malayalam translation of the ancient Indian philosophical text of Tirukkural, among other Tamil, Sanskrit and English works. Nair translated only the first of the three books of the Kural text, and the translation was made in prose. The Sankaracharya of Kanchi has felicitated him as 'Kavyavallabhan'.
Bhaskaran Nair translated the first book (the book of Aram) of the Tirukkural into Malayalam and published it in 1962 at Trivandrum under the title Bhasha Tirukkural (Dharmakandam). It included the original Tamil verses and a Malayalam commentary on the couplets.
According to Bhaskaran Nair, "Thirukkural begins where Bhagawat Gita exited," and "Tirukkural is not a matter for discussion or discourses as it remains to dismiss discussion and discourses."
In his letter to K. Kamaraj, the then chief minister of the Madras State, dated 30 August 1959, Nair further stated,
When I started making a deep and detailed study of Tirukkural I was really startled to herald a new World in it—a world that I have never had seen. As unable to bear or withstand its powerful light that struck against me I closed the book as one closes his eyes against the powerful Sun. I pondered over this, days and nights, with mixed feelings. Opening the book again I, from a distance, examined a few further lines. Spiritualism involved in the extremity of science is found anywhere in the book as the sun found reflected anywhere in the ocean or a clear body of water.
Chattampi Swamikal was a Hindu sage and social reformer. His thoughts and work influenced the launching of many social, religious, literary and political organisations and movements in Kerala and for the first time gave voice to those who were marginalised.
Sooranad P. N. Kunjan Pillai was an Indian historian, researcher, lexicographer, poet, essayist, literary critic, orator, grammarian, educationist, and scholar of the Malayalam language, best remembered for his contributions in compiling Malayala Maha Nighantu, a lexicon. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of the Padmashri in 1984 for his contribution to Malayalam literature and education. He was also a recipient of the Vallathol Award in 1992 and when the Government of Kerala instituted the Ezhuthachan Puraskaram, their highest literary honour in 1993, he received the inaugural award.
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup (1902–1980) was an Indian poet, playwright, translator, lexicographer and story writer of Malayalam. He was the author of a number of poetry anthologies, besides other works, and he translated Abhijnana Shakuntalam, Tulsi Ramayana, Tirukkuṛaḷ, the poems of Subramania Bharati and two cantos of The Light of Asia of Edwin Arnold into Malayalam. He also contributed in the preparation of a dictionary, Kairali Kosham. A recipient of the Odakkuzhal Award and Thirukural Award, Kurup received the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award for Poetry in 1966. Sahitya Akademi honoured him with their annual award in 1974.
The Tirukkural, or shortly theKural, is a classic Tamil language text consisting of 1,330 short couplets of seven words each, or kurals. The text is divided into three books with aphoristic teachings on virtue, wealth and love, respectively. Considered one of the greatest works on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and secular nature. Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE and that it was composed after the Sangam period.
The Tirukkural, shortly known as the Kural, is a classic Tamil sangam treatise on the art of living. Consisting of 133 chapters with 1330 couplets or kurals, it deals with the everyday virtues of an individual. Authored by Valluvar between the third and first centuries BCE, it is considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality and is praised for its universality and non-denominational nature.
Yu Hsi is a Taiwanese Tamil poet and scholar, who has translated the Tirukkural and the poems of Subramaniya Bharathi and poet Bharathidasan in Mandarin. He is the founder president of the Tamil Sangam in Taiwan. He has received various awards, including awards from Seoul World Academy of Arts and Culture (2004), Thiruvalluvar award (2014), and a felicitation from former President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.
Tirukkural, also known as the Kural, an ancient Indian treatise on the ethics and morality of the commoner, is one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. Authored by the ancient Tamil poet-philosopher Thiruvalluvar, it has been translated into at least 42 world languages, with about 57 different renderings in the English language alone.
Tirukkural remains one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. As of 2014, there were at least 57 versions available in the English language alone. English, thus, continues to remain the language with most number of translations available of the Kural text.
Hindi perhaps has the second most translations of the Tirukkural among all the languages in India, next only to Malayalam. There are at least 19 translations of the Kural text available in Hindi. Many of these translations are in verse form.
Kannada has at least eight translations of the Tirukkural available as of 2014. Both prose and verse translations have been made in Kannada.
As of 2020, there were at least four translations of the Tirukkural available in Arabic. The Kural text is the first, and so far the only, Tamil work to be translated directly into Arabic. It is also the first Tamil work to be released in the Arabian soil.
Malayalam has seen the most number of Tirukkural translations than that of any other language in India. As of 2007, there are at least 21 translations of the Kural text available in Malayalam. Malayalam also has the distinction of producing the first ever translation of the Kural text among the languages in India and the world at large. The Annual Report of the Cochin Archeological Department for the year 1933–34 reported an unpublished manuscript of a Malayalam translation of the Tirukkural made in 1595.
As of 2015, Konkani has two translations available of the Tirukkural.
As of 2015, Malay has at least three translations available of the Tirukkural.
Kaalingar, also known as Kalingarayar, was a Tamil poet and commentator known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. He was among the canon of Ten Medieval Commentators of the Kural text highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Manakkudavar, Pari Perumal, Paridhi, and Parimelalhagar.
The Ten Medieval Commentators were a canonical group of Tamil scholars whose commentaries on the ancient Indian didactic work of the Kural are esteemed by later scholars as worthy of critical analysis. These poets lived in the Medieval era between the 10th and 13th centuries CE. Among these medieval commentaries, the commentaries of Manakkudavar, Kaalingar, and Parimelalhagar are considered pioneer by modern scholars.
E. S. Ariel, also referred to as Monsieur Ariel by his contemporaries, was a 19th-century French translator known for his French translation of the ancient Indian philosophical text of the Tirukkural. He translated select couplets of the Tirukkural into French in 1848 and published it in Paris under the title Kural de Thiruvalluvar . Although the first French translation of the Kural text was made by an unknown author in 1767, which Ariel had mentioned in his work, it was Ariel's translation that brought the ancient work to the French world.
Sankhu Ram, also known as S. S. Ram, was an Indian poet of Sourashtra language. He is best known for translating the Tirukkural into Sourashtra.
R. Narayana Panickar was an Indian essayist, playwright, translator, lexicographer, novelist and historian of Malayalam. He was credited with over 100 books but the best known among them are the six-volume work, Kerala Bhasha Sahithya Charthram, a comprehensive history of Malayalam literature up to 1954 and Navayuga Bhasha Nighantu, a lexicon. He also wrote a number of novels and translated several classics of Tamil literature including Purananuru, Akanaṉūṟu and Silappatikaram. Sahitya Akademi honoured him with their annual award in 1955.
Yurij Yakovlevitch Glazov (1929-2000), sometimes cited as J. J. Glazov, was a Russian Indologist known for his studies in Tamil and Malayalam languages and classical literature. He received his doctorate degree in 1962 for his studies on the classical Tamil language with a focus on Tirukkural. He worked at Moscow State University, and published many articles on Tamil and Malayalam literature. He collaborated with other Indologists such as M. Andronov, S. Rudin, Kamil Zvelebil, Chandra Shekhar and A Krishnamurti. He is credited with the first translations of the Tamil texts Tirukkural and the Cilappatikaram into the Russian language.