Tirukkural translations

Last updated

Tirukkural, also known as the Kural, an ancient Indian treatise on the ethics and morality of the commoner, is one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. Authored by the ancient Tamil poet-philosopher Thiruvalluvar, it has been translated into at least 42 world languages, with about 57 different renderings in the English language alone.


Beginning of translations

Beschi, the earliest known translator of the Kural text Beschi Tamil literature.jpg
Beschi, the earliest known translator of the Kural text
Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873 Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873.jpg
Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873

The Kural text, considered to have been written in the 1st century BCE, [2] remained unknown to the outside world for close to one and a half millennia. The first translation of the Kural text appeared in Malayalam in 1595 CE under the title Tirukkural Bhasha by an unknown author. It was a prose rendering of the entire Kural, written closely to the spoken Malayalam of that time. [2] However, again, this unpublished manuscript remained obscure until it was first reported by the Annual Report of the Cochin Archeological Department for the year 1933–34. [3] It took another three centuries before the next Malayalam translation was made in 1863 by Perunazhi Krishna Vaidhyan.

The Kural text has enjoyed a universal appeal right from antiquity owing to its secular and non-denominational nature that it suited the sensibilities of all. [4] The universality is such that, despite its having been written in the pre-Christian era, almost every religious group in India and across the world, including Christianity, has claimed the work for itself. [5] Owing to its ethical content, the Kural remained one of the most admired ancient Indian works among the Christian missionaries of the 16th and 17th centuries, [6] who arrived in India during the colonial era and found the Kural text containing many more ideals in addition to those that are similar to their own Christian ideals. This marked the beginning of wider translations of the Kural text. [7]

In 1730, Constantius Joseph Beschi rendered the Kural text into Latin, introducing the work to the Europeans for the first time. However, only the first two books of the Kural text, namely, virtue and wealth, were translated by Beschi, who considered translating the book on love inappropriate for a Christian missionary. Around 1767, an unknown author made the first French translation, which went unnoticed. [7] The Danish Missionary August Friedrich Caemmerer translated it into German in 1803. [6] [8] The first available French version, however, was the one made in 1848 by E. S. Ariel. Here again, only parts of the work was translated. [7] In 1856, Karl Graul translated the Kural into German, claiming that the Kural is closer to the Christian preaching and offers a model of Tamil worldview. [6] The German version was published both at London and Leipzig. In 1865, his Latin translation of the Kural text, along with commentaries in Simple Tamil, was posthumously published. [9]

The first English translation ever was attempted by N. E. Kindersley in 1794 when he translated select couplets of the Kural. This was followed by another incomplete attempt by Francis Whyte Ellis in 1812, who translated only 120 couplets—69 in verse and 51 in prose. [10] [11] [12] [13] William Henry Drew translated the first two parts in prose in 1840 and 1852, respectively. Along with Drew's English prose translation, it contained the original Tamil text, the Tamil commentary by Parimelalhagar and Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary. Drew, however, translated only 630 couplets. The remaining portions were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary, thus providing the first complete English translation. In 1886, George Uglow Pope published the first complete English translation in verse by a single author, which brought the Kural text to a wide audience of the western world. [14]

By the turn of the twenty-first century, the Kural had already been translated to more than 37 world languages, [15] with at least 24 complete translations in English language alone, by both native and non-native scholars. By 2014, the Kural had been translated to more than 42 languages, with 57 versions available in English. Along with the Bible and the Quran, the Kural remains one of the most translated works in the world. [16] In October 2021, the Central Institute of Classical Tamil announced its translating the Kural text into 102 world languages. [17]

Criticisms on translations

The couplets of the Kural are inherently complex by virtue of their dense meaning within their terse structure. Thus, no translation can perfectly reflect the true nature of any given couplet of the Kural unless read and understood in its original Tamil form. [18] Added to this inherent difficulty is the attempt by some scholars to either read their own ideas into the Kural couplets or deliberately misinterpret the message to make it conform to their preconceived notions. The Latin translation by Father Beshi, for instance, contains several such mistranslations noticed by modern scholars. According to V. Ramasamy, "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as 'the sea of miserable life' and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as 'sea of this birth' which has been translated by others as 'the sea of many births'. Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. The concept of rebirth or many births for the same soul is contrary to Christian principle and belief". [7] In August 2022, the governor of Tamil Nadu, R. N. Ravi, criticized Anglican Christian missionary G. U. Pope for "translating with the colonial objective to 'trivialise' the spiritual wisdom of India," resulting in a "de-spiritualised version" of the Kural text. [19]

List of translations

Below is a list of translations of the Kural: [20] [21]

S.No.LanguageTranslator(s)Title of the TranslationPlace of PublicationYearCoverage and FormNotesTranslation for comparison:
Kural (verse) 251 (Chapter 26:1)
1 Arabic Muhammad Yousuf KokanSacred Verses(Hanifa House Printers and Publishers)1976–1980CompleteTranslated from an English translation. [22] كيف يكون احد رؤوفا ورحيما إن يأكل الحيوانات
لا زدياد شحمه ودسمه فى جثـتـه وجسمه
Basheer Ahmed Jamali Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil)2014Complete [23]
Amar HasanThirukkural Beirut, Lebanon (Al Farabi Publications)2015Complete [24] [25]
K. M. A. Ahamed Zubair(Lambert Academic Publishing)2017PartialTranslated only about 50 couplets from the Kural chapters 2 (Glory of Rain), 10 (Speaking Pleasantly), 40 (Learning), 53 (Embracing the Kin), and 113 (Praise of Love), which were published in his book on translating Tamil poetry into Arabic with special reference to the Kural text. [26] Not translated
A. Jahir HussainThirukkural Chennai (International Institute of Tamil Studies)2020Complete–VerseTranslated from Tamil original. [27] [28]
2 Bengali Nalini Mohan SanyalThirukkural Calcutta 1939Prose
E. C. SastriThirukkural Calcutta 1974Prose
N. Ramanuja DasThirukkural1993Prose
S. KrishnamoorthyTirukkural (Ancient Tamil Poetry) Calcutta 2001Complete—VerseReprinted in 2014 by Sahitya Akademi; 148 pages. ISBN   978-81-260-4719-2 [29]
3 Burmese U. Myo ThantThirukkural Rangoon (Kanbe Nattukottai Chettiyar Ed Trust) [23] 1964Complete—Prose
4 Chinese Ch'eng XiGula Zhenyan (古臘箴言)Hong Kong (Xianggang Daxue Chubanshe)1967如何真正实践慈悲谁吃动物肉养肥自己的血肉?
Yu Hsi Thirukkural Taipei, Taiwan (Department of Tamil Development and Culture)2014CompleteBook released by former President of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam [30] 以他者的脂肪養胖自己的人,
5 Creole Rama Valayden Port Louis, Mauritius (Calson Printing Ltd)2007 ISBN   978-99903-66-21-1
6 Czech Kamil V. Zvelebil Thirukural (Selections) Prague 1952–1954SelectionsTranslated select couplets that appeared in Novy Orient, a Czech journal, during 1952–54. [31]
7 Danish Marianne Steen IsakThirukural(Tamil Danish Socio-Literary Federation)2021Complete
8 Dutch D. KatThirukural (Selections)Netherlands1964Selections
9 English Nathaniel Edward Kindersley Specimens of Hindoo LiteratureLondon (W. Bulmer and Co.)1794Selections—VerseMade the first ever translation of the Kural text into English in a chapter titled 'Extracts from the Teroo-Vaulaver Kuddul, or, The Ocean of Wisdom' in his book Specimens of Hindoo Literature [32] Not translated.
Francis Whyte Ellis Thirukural on Virtue (in verse) with CommentaryMadras1812 (reprint 1955)Selections—MixedIncomplete translation—only 120 couplets translated, 69 in verse and 51 in proseNot translated
William Henry Drew The Cural of Thiruvalluvar with Commentary of Parimelazhakar Madurai (American Mission Press)1840Partial—ProseTranslated only the first 630 coupletsHow can he be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other (creatures)?
Charles E. Gover Odes from the Kural (Folksongs of South India) Madras (Higginbothams)1872Selections–VerseReprinted in 1981 by Gian Publications, Delhi
Edward Jewitt Robinson Tamil WisdomLondon (Paternoster Row)1873Partial—VerseTranslated only Books I and II (1080 couplets)What graciousness by those is shown
Who feed with others' flesh their own?
William Henry Drew, and John Lazarus Thirukural (in verses)Madras1885Partial—ProseLazarus revised Drew's work and translated the remaining portion (couplets 631 to 1330) in prose as done by Drew, thus making the incomplete work of Drew a complete one.How can he be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other (creatures)?
George Uglow Pope A Collection of the English Translation of ThirukuralMadras1886Complete—VerseFirst complete translation in English by a single authorHow can the wont of 'kindly grace' to him be known,
Who other creatures' flesh consumes to feed his own?
T. ThirunavukarasuKural—A Selection of 366 Verses (A Gem for Each Day) Madras (SPCK Press)1915Selections—Prose
V. V. S. Aiyar Kural: Maxims of Thiruvalluvar Madras (Amudha Nilayam) [33] 1916Complete–ProseHow can he feel pity, who eateth other flesh to fatten his own?
S. Sabaratna MudaliyarKuralMadras1920
A. MathavaiyahKural in English with Commentary in TamilMadras1926Selections—Verse
T. V. Parameswaran Aiyar108 Gems from the Sacred Kural Kottayam 1928
H. A. Popley The Sacred Kural (Selections in verses)Calcutta1931Selections—VerseHow can kindliness rule that man,
Who eateth other flesh to increase his own?
A. Ranganatha MuthaliarThirukural Moolamum Uraiyum with English TranslationMadras1933
C. Rajagopalachari Kural, the Great Book of ThiruvalluvarMadras1935Partial—Prose
M. S. Purnalingam Pillai The Kural in English Tirunelveli (Sri Kanthimathi Vilasam Press)1942Complete–ProseHow can a man grace who eats the meat of other animal to fatten himself?
S. M. Michael The Sacred Aphorisms of Thiruvalluvar (in verse) Nagarcoil 1946Complete—VerseWho eats flesh other his own to expand,
How can he grace command?
V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar Thirukural in English with Roman TranslationMadras1949Complete—ProseHe who fattens on the flesh of animals, can he ever understand the rule of love?
M. R. Rajagopala AiyangarTirukkural Kumbakonam 1950Complete–Prose
P. RajaThirukural (in verses) Kumbakonam 1950
A. Chakravarti Thirukural in English with CommentaryMadras1953Complete—ProseHow can a person cultivate the habit of universal benevolence if he for the purpose of fattening his own flesh (body) eats flesh of other animals?
I. D. ThangaswamiThirukural (Selections in Verse)Madras1954Selections—Verse
K. M. Balasubramaniam Thirukural of ThiruvalluvarMadras1962Complete—VerseHow can the one who eats a flesh to have his own flesh swell
Possess a melting heart in which compassion could e'er dwell?
T. MuthuswamyThirukural in EnglishMadurai1965Partial—Prose
V. ChinnarajanThe Kural Gems Udumalpet 1967Selections–Verse
C. R. Soundararajan1968Complete–Prose
Emmons E. White The Wisdom of IndiaNew York City (The Pater Pauper)1968Selections–VersePublished as The Wisdom of the Tamil People in 1976
Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi Thirukural with English CoupletsMadras1968Complete—VerseWhat graciousness can one command
Who feeds his flesh by flesh gourmand?
G. Vanmikanathan The Thirukural—A Unique Guide to Moral, Material and Spiritual ProsperityTrichy1969Complete—ProseHow will he exercise charity, who eats the flesh of another (creature) to fatten his own flesh?
Kasturi Srinivasan Thirukural: An Ancient Tamil Classic (in couplets)Bombay1969Complete—VerseTo feed his flesh, who flesh consumes
What kindly grace, such man presumes?
A. Gajapathy NayagarThe Rosary of Gems of ThirukkuralMadras1969
Yogi Suddanantha BharathiThirukural Couplets with Clear Prose RenderingMadras1970Complete—Prose
T. N. S. RagavachariTeachings of Tiruvalluvar's KuralMadras (Health, June 1966 – October 1971)1971Complete–ProseReprinted in 1982
E. V. SinganTirukkuralSingapore (EVS Enterprises)1975Complete–ProseReprinted in 1982
S. N. Sriramadesikan Tirukkural Madras (Gangai Puthaka Nilayam)1978Complete–ProseReprinted in 1991, 1994, and 2006How can a person be held to be compassionate when he slays animals and eat their flesh, for fattening his own body?
S. MaharajanTiruvalluvarNew Delhi (Sahitya Akademi)1979Verse—SelectionsTranslated select couplets from all the three books of the Kural text. Second edition was published in 1982.How can he be possessed of grace,
who, to swell his own flesh,
eats the flesh of others!
S. M. Diaz Aphorisms of Valluvar: Commentary and Comparative StudyMadras: International Society for the Investigation of Ancient Civilizations1982Complete—VerseIt is inconsistent with the way of living compassion,
To fatten oneself on the flesh of a fellow-creature.
P. S. Sundaram Tiruvalluvar: The KuralNew Delhi (Penguin Books India Limited)1987Complete–VerseReprinted in 1989, 1991, 1992, and 2000 by International Tamil Language Foundation, Illinois How can he be kindly
Who fattens himself on others' fat?
T. S. Ramalingam Pillai1987
K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar Tirukkural Calcutta (M. P. Birla Foundation)1988Complete–Verse
M. Karunanidhi/K. ChellappanKural—Portraits: Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi's Kuralovium, a Translation from Tamil by K. Chellappan Annamalai Nagar: Annamalai University 1989
M. Swaminathan1991
T. R. Kallapiran1995
D. V. G. RamarathinamTirukkural(Thiyaga Durgam)1995Complete–Prose
J. NarayanasamyTirukkural Coimbatore 1998Complete–MixedMore in prose than in verse. Reprinted in 1999.Hardly any mercy is left in the minds of those who build their bodies with the flesh of other beings.
K. Kalia PerumalWonders of Tirukkural Thanjavur (Jayam Publications)1999Complete–Verse
C. B. Acharya1999
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniya Swami ThirukuralNew Delhi (Abhinav Publications)1979Partial—VerseTranslated only Books I and IIHow can he practice true compassion
Who eats the flesh of an animal to fatten his own flesh?
C. R. SundarBook Divine Tirukkural Chennai (Vignesh Pathippakam)2001Complete–Verse
V. PadmanabhanThirukkural with English Explanation Chennai (Manimekalai Prasuram)2003Complete–ProseHow can you consider the person eating the flesh of other creatures to strengthen his own, as merciful?
O. R. KrishnaswamiThe Wisdom of Tirukkural—A Guide to Living Mumbai (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan)2004Partial–ProseTranslated Books I and II only
M. D. Jayabalan Cheyyar (Mavanna Publications)2005Partial–VerseTranslated only 321 couplets
David Pratap SinghTirukkural Madurai (Master Pathippakam)2006Complete–Verse
S. RatnakumarTirukkural: A Guide to Effective LivingSingapore (Tamils Representative Council)2006Complete–Prose
V. MuruganThirukkural in English Chennai (Arivu Pathippagam)2009Complete–VerseHow will compassion hold him under its reign
Who feeds on others' flesh to fatten his own?
M. RajaramThirukkural: Pearls of InspirationNew Delhi (Rupa Publication)2009Complete—VerseHow could one ever be compassionate
If one fattens on animal meat?
M. RajaramThirukkural: Pearls of InspirationNew Delhi (Rupa Publication)2009Complete—ProseOne who fattens himself feeding on the animal flesh can never be kind to others.
N. E. RamalingamThirukkural Commentary in Tamil and English Chennai (Thiruvalluvar Pathippagam)2009Complete—Prose [34] How can one be kind hearted when he eats the flesh of other beings to increase his own flesh?
R. ViswanathanThirukkural: Universal Tamil Scripture: Alongwith the Commentary of Parimalazhagar in English Mumbai (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan)2011Complete—Prose ISBN   978-81-7276-448-7
A. GopalakrishnanTirukkural—Thiruvalluvar Karutthurai Chidambaram (Meiyappan Padhippagam)2012Complete—ProseAuthored both Tamil commentary and English translationHow can one possess kindness towards the living beings; when he himself eats the flesh of other living beings to increase his own flesh?
Singaravelu SachithananthamKarya Etika Tamil Berjudul ThirukkuṛaḷMalaysia (Uma Publications)2013Complete—VerseTrilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator.How would one, who kills the body of another being, and eats the meat of that being to enlarge one's own body, become one, who nurtures Arul ('compassion')?
S. P. GuruparanThirukkural: English Translation Chennai (Mayilavan Padhippagam)2014Complete—Verse(a) If one eats the flesh of another (creature) to fatten his body
How can he be a charitable person?
(b) To strengthen his body if another body is eaten by one
How can he be a compassionate one?!!
Gopalkrishna Gandhi Tiruvalluvar—The Tirukkural: A New English VersionNew Delhi (Aleph Classics)2015Complete—VerseHow can one not see the ugliness of eating meat?
How can one made of flesh another's flesh eat?
R. VenkatachalamThirukkural—Translation—Explanation: A Life Skills Coaching Approach Gurgaon (Partridge Publishing India)2015Complete—Verse
V. K. Parameswaran PillaiKuralMadras
Madurai BabarajThirukkural—Virtue Chennai (B. Vasantha)2018Partial—ProseHow can one be merciful if one eats flesh of animals to develop his corporeal frame?
R. JayaprakasamThirukkural: Text in English & Tamil Chennai (Porselvi Pathippagam)2019Complete—Prose [35] How could he who eat the flesh for proliferation of his own flesh and body be enough compassionate?
Pattu M. BhoopathiThus Blossoms Love: A Transcreation of Kamattupal in Modern Verse Chennai (Sandhya Publications)2019Partial—VerseTranslated Book III alone in modern verse form [36] Not translated
Thomas Hitoshi PruiksmaThe Kural: Tiruvalluvar's Tirukkural Boston (Beacon Press)2021
J. S. Anantha KrishnanThiruvalluvar's Thirukkural Kollam (Dream Bookbindery)2021Complete—Verse
Meena Kandasamy The Book of Desire New Delhi (Penguin Random House India)2023Partial—ProseTranslated Book III alone in feministic viewpoint [37] Not translated
R. NatarajanThe Kural: English Translation of the Ancient Tamil Text Thirukkural Chennai (Rare Publications)2023Complete
10 Fijian Samuel L. BerwickNa Tirukurala Nadi, Fiji (Sri Ramakrishna Mission)1964Complete [38] [39] Loloma cava me tu tale vua,
Ke lewe ni manumanu e sa sagaa
Ena nona kocova wale ga
Me vakamatea me uro vua.
Paul GeraghtyTirukurali Na sere tabu Suva, Fiji (Reddy Group of Companies) [38] 2008CompleteE rawa vakacava ni yalololoma e dua ni dau kania na lewenimanumanu me ikuri ni lewe ni yogona.
11Finnish Pentti Aalto Kural—The Ancient Tamil Classic Helsinki (Societas Orientalis Fennica)1972 [31]
12 French AnonymousKural de Thiruvalluvar, SelectionsParis1767Selections
E. S. Ariel Kural de Thiruvalluvar (Traduits du Tamoul)Paris1848Selections
P. G. de Dumast 1854
Pierre-Eugène Lamairesse Thirukural in French Pondicherry 1867
Louis Jacolliot Paris (A Lacroix)1876
G. Barrigue de FontainieuLe Livre de l'amour de Thiruvalluva Paris (Lemerre)1889
Julien Vinson Pondicherry 1893
Alain Daniélou Thiruvallouvar Kural Pondicherry 1942
Gnanou Diagou Tirou Vallouvar Koural (Thirukural in French)Pondicherry (Sandhanam) [40]
New Delhi (Asian Educational Services)
1942Complete—ProseComment celui qui mange la chair d'un autre être animé,
pour engraisser la sienne, peut-il se laisser gagner par la miséricorde.
Antonio Sorrentino (Francois Gros. Greenhouse 2)1986
Mootoocoomaren SangeeleeTirouk Koural [40] (Editions de L'Ocean Indien)1988
François GrosLe Livre de l'AmourParis (Gallimard, Collection UNESCO)1992
S. Singh New Delhi (Richa Prakashan)2003
Rama Valayden Port Louis, Mauritius2007
T. Janakiraman KalladanKalladan, T. Janakiraman2016
13 Garo A. Antoni SelvadossRongtalgipa Poido Meghalaya 2000Complete—Verse
14 German August Friedrich Caemmerer Thirukural waith German Translation Leipzig 1803Wie kann er zutreffendes Mitleid üben, das das Fleisch eines Tieres ißt,
um sein eigenes Fleisch zu mästen?
Friedrich Rückert Thirukural, Selections Berlin 1847Selections
Karl Graul Der Kural des Tiruvalluver. Ein gnomisches Gedicht über die drei Strebeziele des Menschen. London (William & Norgate) and Leipzig (F. A. Brockhaus) [40] 1856CompletePublished as the third volume (220 pages) of the four-volume work Bibliotheca Tamulica sive Opera Praecipia TamuliensiumWer, das eigne Fleisch zu mehren, fremdes Fleisch geniesst, — wie wird Der der Huld pflegen?
Fenz Albrecht and K. LalithambalThirukural von Thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil Madurai 1877Ißt jemand Fleisch von anderen Kreaturen, um sein eigenes Fleisch zu vermehren – wie kann er Gnade erlangen?
Albert Schweitzer
Uwe Beissert Basel (Project Ohms [AUM])1990
15GreekΠώς μπορεί κάποιος, που τρώει τη σάρκα άλλων για να
φουσκώσει τη δική του σάρκα, να δείξει συμπόνοια;
16 Gujarati Najuklal ChoksiThirukural Ahmedabad(Sastu Sahitya)1931
Kantilal L. Kalani Thirukural in Gujarati Bombay (University Book Board of Gujarat State)1971SelectTranslated only 852 couplets (from all chapters). Republished in 1985 by Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidhya Nagar.
P. C. Kokila Thirukkural in Gujarathi Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil)2015Complete [41] સ્વમાંસ પોષણ હેતુ જે અન્ય (પ્રાણી)ના માંસનું કરે ભક્ષણ
દયાભાવ કેમ કરી હોય તેના (મન) માં?
17 Hindi Khenand RakarThirukural, Parts 1 and 2 Ajmer 1924Republished in 1969. [42]
Khan Chand Rahit1926
Govindaraj Shastri JainKural in Verse, First two partsNew Delhi1942
B. D. JainThirukural Thirupananthal 1952Republished in 1961.
S. Sankar Raju NaiduTamil Ved Madras (University of Madras Press)1958
M. G. VenkatakrishnanThirukural Trichy 1964CompleteRevised and enlarged edition published November 1998 by Sakthi Finance Ltd., Madrasमाँस-वृद्धि अपनी समझ, जो खाता पर माँस।
कैसे दयार्द्रता-सुगुण, रहता उसके पास॥
Uttar Ved1967
Rajan PillaiThirukural Lucknow 1976
K. SeshadriThirukural in Hindi Lucknow 1982
Satsai1982SelectionsTranslated 700 couplets
T. E. S. RaghavanThirukkural1990Complete—VerseRendered a poetic rendition in 'Venba' metre as in the source [43]
Ananda SandhidutKural Kavitā Valī2000
18 Indonesian A. S. KobalenTuntunan Bijak: Dari Masa ke Masa [Tirukural by Tiruwalluar]Complete—ProseBagaimana seseorang mungkin memiliki sifat iba, yang memiliki maksud menambah daging jasadnya sendiri, akan memakan daging hewan lain.
M. Pazhanichamy Medan, Indonesia
19 Irish Gabriel RosenstockTirukkural2023Complete [44] :40
20ItalianAntonio SorrentinoTirukkural. Le massime di Tiruvalluvar Napoli (Ist Universitario Orientale Studi asiatici. Serie tre (Dept. of Asiatic Studies))1986Complete226 pagesCome può esercitarsi nella pietà allineare che mangia la carne
di un animale per ingrassare la sua propria carne?
21 Japanese Shuzo Matsunaga Thirukkural Osaka 1981 (August) [45] 彼はいかに彼自身の肉を太らせるために動物の肉を食べる本当の同情を練習してもいいか。
Takanobu Takahashi Thirukkural: Sacred Verses of Ancient TamilTokyo (Heibonsha)1999
22 Kannada B. M. Srikanthaiah Kural (Selections in verses) Bangalore 1940Selections—Verse
L. Gundappa Thirukural Dharma Bhaga (Chapter on Virtue) Bangalore 1955PartialPublished a complete translation in 1960 under the title Thirukural (3 parts).
L. Gundappa Thirukural (3 parts) Madras 1960Complete
P. S. SrinivasThirukural with Original Couplets and Translations in KannadaMadurai1982Complete—Proseತನ್ನ ಮೈ ಮಾಂಸವನ್ನು ಬೆಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇತರ ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳ ಮೈಮಾಂಸವನ್ನು ತಿನ್ನುವವನು ಹೇಗೆ ತಾನೆ ಕರುಣೆಯಿಂದ ಬಾಳಬಲ್ಲನು?
N. MunusamyThirukural in Kannada1985 [42]
K. JayaramanThirukural with Original Couplets and Translations in Kannada Mysore 2001
S. Srinivasan Tirukkural in KannadaChennai2014Complete—Verse [46] ತನ್ನೊಡಲ ಬೆಳೆಸಲು ಉಣಲು ಬೇರೆ ಬಾಡನು
ತನ್ನೊಳು ಕರುಣೆ ಬರುವದೆಂತು?
23 Konkani Narayana Purushothama Mallaya Thirukkural in Konkani Kochi (Konkani Bhasha Prachar Sabha)2002Complete—VerseBegan translating in 1987. Translation released on 23 June 2002. [47] [48] अन्नदान करचाक तागेले मांस, कोण माम्स भक्षण कर्ता,।
कसले करुणायुक्त औदार्य, तसले मनुष्य अनुमान कर्ता?॥
Suresh Gundu Amonkar [49] [50]
Gowri R. Mallya Mangaluru 2023 [51]
24 Korean 그는 어떻게 그 자신의 살을 살찌기 위하여 동물의 살을 먹는
진실한 연민을 실행해서 좋은가?
Sri Saravana EnterprisesThirukkural Chennai (International Institute of Tamil Studies)2017Complete—Prose동물의 고기를 먹어 스스로 살찌우는 사람은 타인에게 결코 친절할 수 없다.
25 Latin Constanzo Beschi Thirukural (Books I and II)London1730Partial—ProseQui ut sua caro pinguoscat, alienas carnes comedit quinam eum
viveutibus lenitatem et clementiam exercere dicetur?
Karl Graul Kural of Tiruvalluver. High-Tamil Text with Translation into Common Tamil and Latin, Notes and Glossary Tranquebar 1865Published as the fourth volume (348 pages) of the four-volume work Bibliotheca Tamulica sive Opera Praecipia TamuliensiumQui ut suam earnem augeat, alienas carnes comedit, quomodo is benevolentia utetur?
26 Malay Ramily Bin Haji ThakirThirukural (in verses) Kuala Lumpur (Kural Ilakkam)1964
Hussein IsmailThirukural Sastera Kalasik Tamil Yang Kuala Lumpur (Jabatan Pengajian India)1967
G. SoosaiThirukkural dalam bahasa Melayu (Thirukkural Kitab Murni Tamil Nadu) Kuala Lumpur 1978Reprinted in 1991Insan maging menikmati kekejaman
Tanpa belasan mengemukakan badan.
NA(Persatuan Hindu Universiti, Malaysia)1997
M. Rajentheran/KumaranMalaysia (Uma Publications)2003
Singaravelu SachithananthamTirukkural translations into English (Thirukkural Tribahasa)Malaysia (Uma Publications)2013Complete—VerseTrilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator.Bagaimanakah orang, yang membunuh tubuh makhluk lain, dan makan daging makhluk itu untuk membesarkan badannya sendiri, akan menjadi orang, yang memelihara arul (belas kasihan)?
27 Malayalam I. V. Ramaswamy IyerMalayalathil Kural Trivandrum 1595First ever translation of the Kural text in any language.
Perunazhi Krishna VaidhyanKuralTrivandrum1863Partly translated. Republished in 1894. [42]
Azhakathu KurupThirukural in VersesTrivandrum1875Verse
A. Govinda PillaiThirukuralTrivandrum1899Translation currently unavailable
P. Damodaran PillaiThirukural ManikalTrivandrum1951
Sasthamangalam Ramakrishna PillaiRamakrishna TirukkuralTrivandrum1957Translation completed 1933 with comprehensive commentary and notes, but published September 1957 with abridged commentary
ParmeshramPartialTranslated only Books I and II
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup Thirukural Kottayam (Writers Co-operative Society)1957Partial—VerseReprinted in 1960 with translations for Books I and II in verse
K. Chellan NadarThirukural Tharmanaskantam Parassala 1962
Tiruvallam G. Bhaskaran Nair Bhasha Tirukkural (Dharmakandam)Trivandrum (Arul Nilayam)1962Partial—ProseTranslated only Book I. Published with the original Tamil verse transliterated in Malayalam and a Malayalam commentary in prose.
G. Balakrishnan Nair Kural with Commentary, Part ITrivandrum1963Partial
S. Ramesan NairThirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Trivandrum (Trust Publications)1998Translated into old Malayalam
V. V. Abdulla SahibThirukkural Erode (Gupta Press)2002തൻ ദേഹം നിലനിർത്താനായ് മറുദേഹം ഭുജിപ്പവൻ
K. G. Chandrasekaran NairThirukkural (Sampoornabhashyam) Thiruvananthapuram (All Kerala Tamizh Federation)2002ProsePublished by D. C. Books, Kottayam in 2003
M. R. R. VariarThirukkural2003
Shailaja RavindranThirukkural Kottayam (D. C. Books)2007
28 Manipuri Soibam Rebika Devi Tirukkural in Manipuri Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil)2014Complete—Prose [52] মশাবূ থাক্ননবা অতোপ্ত্রা জীবগী শদোঙ চাবা মীওই অদুগী মথম্মোইদা করন্না মীনুংশি ফাওগদৌরিবানা?
29 Marathi Sane Guruji Kavi Tiruvalluvar Kural Pune (Continental Publishers)1930Complete–ProseFirst published 1930. Officially published 1948. Third edition in 1960 and fourth edition in 1975. [53] [54] स्वतःची चरबी वाढावी म्हणून दुसन्या प्राण्यांचे जो मांस खातो; त्याला दया कशी बरे कधी वाटेल?
Narayana Govindarao Peshwe and Ganpath Govindarao Peshwe(Thirukkural) Belgaum (Dhananjay Press)1930Partial–ProseTranslated only the first 89 chapters. First appeared in Lokamitra journal. [55]
30 Norwegian Kevin Raja Kowsihaa Gowsegan Gowrithasan KroghThiruvalluvar sin Thirukkural på Norsk Oslo 2017Complete—Verse
31 Odia Chittaranjan DasKural (Oriya) Bhubaneswar (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan)1978
Kishrod Dash ChThirukuralu—In Oriya Language Sambalpur 1985Verse
Nityanada AcharyaTirukkural: Book of Sacred Couplets Balangir (Agragami Karyalaya)1992PartialBooks I and II only
G. N. DasVidyapuri Cuttack (Bidyapuri)1994Complete—Verse
Biswanath MisraTirukkural Bhubaneswar 1996
Balaram RoutThirukkuralDelhi (Sahitya Akademi)2017Complete
32 Punjabi Ram Murti SharmaThirukural Dhamma Granth of the Tamils Chandigarh 1983
Tarlochan Singh Bedi Tirukkural in Punjabi Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil)2012Complete—Verseਆਪਣਾ ਮਾਸ ਵਧਾਉਣ ਲਈ ਦੂਸਰੇ ਜੀਵਾਂ ਦਾ ਮਾਸ
ਖਾਣ ਵਾਲੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਇਆ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ
33 Polish Umadevi, Wandy DynowskiejTiruwalluwar: Tiru-KuralMadras (Biblioteka Polsko-Indyjska)1958Partial141 pages
Bohdan GębarskiTiruwalluwar "Tirukkural" ("Kural"). Święta księga południowych Indii Wrocław, Poland (Ossolineum)(Europa Publisher)1977Complete—Verse152 pages; published again in 1998.Pożeraczem żywego nie może być człowiek,
Co wyznaje zasady pokoju.
34 Rajasthani Kamala GurgThirukural Needhi Sastra Jaipur 1982
35 Russian J. J. Glazov and A. KrishnamurthiThirukural, a Book on Virtue, Politics and LoveMoscow (Yodatel'stvovostvo Enog Literatury)1963Complete—Prose [56] Как может испытывать сострадание пожирающий плоть других живых созданий ради наращивания своей собственной?
D. V. Burba1964Select–ProseTranslated the English translation of select couplets by C. Rajagopalachari, which contained 555 couplets from Book I and Book II.Not translated
Alif Ibragimov (Ibrahimov)Thirukural in Couplets with IllustrationsMoscow1974
Vithali FurnikiThirukkuralMoscow (Library of Popular Literature)1990Complete—ProseРазве может испытывать чувства сострадания человек,
который поедает плоть других живых существ для увеличения своей плоти?
36 Sanskrit Thyagasamudram Shri Chakrapani Iyer18th centuryVerse
Appa VajapeyinSuniti Kusuma Mala Kumbakonam (Gururajachariar)1922Verse
Sankara Subramanya SastriSugati Ratnaakaraa1937–1940VersePublished as "Sugati Ratnaakaraa" in the journal Sahridaya
Anonymous (perhaps Vidya Bhushanam Pandit Shri Govindaraya Shastri)Delhi1940VerseContains prose explanation in Hindi
Kaliyan Ramanuja Jeer Nanguneri 1956Verse
S. N. Sriramadesikan Thirukural in Sanskrit SlokasMadras1961Complete—VerseRevised edition published in 1968.पोषणार्थे स्वदेहस्य कृत्वा य: प्राणिहिंसनम्।
तन्मांसभक्षणपर: स दयावान् कथं भवेत्॥
H. A. Chakrapani IyerTiruvalluvar in Sanskrit1983Verse
V. Indrajithu Thirukural Sanskrit Translation Mangudi (Athirai Publication)2021Complete—Verseस्वमांसवर्धनार्थं यो मांसं खादति प्राणिनः।
स कथं करुणाशीलो भविष्यति महीतले॥
37 Santali Ref. Fr. Richard V. JoeTorjakmayic Thirukkural—Nerunji Ilakkiya IyakkamPartial (Book I)
38 Saurashtra S. Sankhu Ram Saurastra Thirukural Payiram—Pitika PragaranamMadurai (Siddhasramam)1980Complete—VersePublished posthumously. Republished in 1993.அபுல்தனு ஹொட்3வன்அப்லான் ஆஸிது3ஸ்தன் கா2த்தெனு
கோனக ஸவ்கன் த3யொ
39 Sinhalese Govokgada M. MisihamyThiruvalluvar's Kural Colombo (Anula Publishers)1961Completeතම සිරුර වඩනුව – අන්සතූ සිරුරු කන්නා
කරුණාව සිත තූළ – ඇති කරන්නේ කවර අයුරුද?
Charles De SilvaSirigiya (Thirukural in Sinhalese) Colombo (Sri Lanka Sahitya Mandalaya)1964
40 Spanish G. Arul1968 [23]
Sakthi Kumar/Kannan KumarKindle Edition [23]
41 Swedish Yngve FrykholmTirukkural sydindisk levnadsvisdom, statskunskap och kärlekskonst sammanfattad i 1330 epigram av tamilskalden Tiruvalluvar Uddevalla 1971Complete—ProseHur skall den kunna behärskas av godhet som äter andra varelsers kött för att hans eget kött må stärkas?
42 Telugu Venkatrama SrividyanandaswamiTrivarga Dipika Nellore 1877
Sakkam Narasimhalu NaiduTrivargamu1892Partial
VenkatramNīti Mañcari
Lakshminarayana SastriKural Chittoor 1906
P. Sriramulu ReddiTrivargamuPutthalapatti1948
Jagannatha Sastri, MudiganthiThiruvalluva Sookthalu West Godavari 1952
Challa Radhakrishna SarmaTamila VedhamuMadras1954
Sonti Sripati SastrySri Padula1966
Gurucharan Dutaluri JagannadhamTirukkural of Tiruvalluvar in Telugu Kuppam (Dravidian University)1986Verseబలియ గోరి తాను బలిజేయు జీవుల
నట్టి కెట్టు లమరు తరుణ
JayaprakashTirukkural in Telugu Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil)2014Complete–Proseతన శరీరంలోని కండలు పెంచుకోవడం కోసం వేరొక ప్రాణి శరీరాన్ని ఆహారంగా స్వీకరించేవారు ఏ విధంగా దయా స్వభావులవుతారు?
43 Thai 2019CompleteReleased in Bangkok by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 2 November 2019. Translated from the English version by M. Rajaram (2009).
44 Tok Pisin Subha Sasindran and Sasindran Muthuvel2023CompleteReleased in Papua New Guinea by Narendra Modi on 21 May 2023. [57] [58]
45 Urdu Hasarat SurawathiKural in UrduNew Delhi (Sahitya Akademi)1966ProseTranslated from an English translation.
Muhamad Yusuf KohanKural in Urdu and Arabic Madras 1976
Mukhtar BadriLafz lafz gohar Chennai (Nazir Book Depot)2001VerseTranslated from the Tamil original.
46 Vaagri Booli Kittu Sironmani [59]

See also


  1. Edward Jewitt Robinson (1873). Tamil Wisdom; Traditions Concerning Hindu Sages, and Selections from their writings. London: Wesleyan Conference Office.
  2. 1 2 Mukherjee, Sujit (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: One: Beginnings–1850. Vol. 1 (1 ed.). Hyderabad: Orient Longman. pp. 392–393. ISBN   81-250-1453-5.
  3. George, K. M. (1973). Tirukkural and Malayalam. In: First All India Tirukkural Seminar Papers (N. Sanjeevi, ed.) (2nd ed.). University of Madras. pp. 44–49.
  4. Mohan Lal (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN   978-81-260-1221-3.
  5. Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India. BRILL. p. 156. ISBN   978-90-04-03591-1.
  6. 1 2 3 Amaladass, Anand (2007). "Values in Leadership in the Tamil Tradition of Tirukkural Vs. Present-day Leadership Theories" (PDF). International Management Review. 3 (1): 9–16. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Ramasamy, V. (2001). On Translating Tirukkural (First ed.). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp. 28–47.
  8. Ebeling, Sascha (2010). Colonizing the Realm of Words: The Transformation of Tamil Literature in Nineteenth-Century South India. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. p. 24. ISBN   978-1-4384-3199-4.
  9. Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, p. 257
  10. A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Thiruvalluvar. It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. In the long inscription Ellis praises Thiruvalluvar and uses a couplet from Thirukkural to explain his actions during the drought. When he was in charge of the Madras treasury and mint, he also issued a gold coin bearing Thiruvalluvar's image. The Tamil inscription on his grave makes note of his commentary of Thirukkural. Mahadevan, Iravatham. "The Golden coin depicting Thiruvalluvar −2". Varalaaru.com (in Tamil). Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  11. The original inscription in Tamil written in the Asiriyapa meter and first person perspective: (The Kural he quotes is in Italics)
    சயங்கொண்ட தொண்டிய சாணுறு நாடெனும் | ஆழியில் இழைத்த வழகுறு மாமணி | குணகடன் முதலாக குட கடலளவு | நெடுநிலம் தாழ நிமிர்ந்திடு சென்னப் | பட்டணத்து எல்லீசன் என்பவன் யானே | பண்டாரகாரிய பாரம் சுமக்கையில் | புலவர்கள் பெருமான் மயிலையம் பதியான் | தெய்வப் புலமைத் திருவள்ளுவனார் | திருக்குறள் தன்னில் திருவுளம் பற்றிய் | இருபுனலும் வாய்த்த மலையும் வருபுனலும் | வல்லரணும் நாட்டிற் குறுப்பு | என்பதின் பொருளை என்னுள் ஆய்ந்து | ஸ்வஸ்திஸ்ரீ சாலிவாகன சகாப்த வரு | ..றாச் செல்லா நின்ற | இங்கிலிசு வரு 1818ம் ஆண்டில் | பிரபவாதி வருக்கு மேற் செல்லா நின்ற | பஹுதான்ய வரு த்தில் வார திதி | நக்ஷத்திர யோக கரணம் பார்த்து | சுப திநத்தி லிதனோ டிருபத்தேழு | துரவு கண்டு புண்ணியாஹவாசநம் | பண்ணுவித்தேன்.
  12. Blackburn, Stuart (2006). Print, folklore, and nationalism in colonial South India. Orient Blackswan. pp. 92–95. ISBN   978-81-7824-149-4.
  13. Zvelebil, Kamil (1992). Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature. Brill. p. 3. ISBN   978-90-04-09365-2.
  14. Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.
  15. "Thirukkural translations in different languages of the world".
  16. "Thirukkural translations in different languages of the world" . Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  17. "102 மொழிகளில் திருக்குறள்: செம்மொழி நிறுவனம் முயற்சி". Dinamalar. Chennai. 20 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  18. Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The Smile of Murugan of Tamil Literature of South India. P. 169. ISBN   90-04-03591-5 . Retrieved 11 December 2010. ... It is almost impossible to truly appreciate the maxims of the Kural through a translation. Tirukkural must be read and re-read in Tamil.
  19. "Thirukkural's first English translation was a 'de-spiritualised': TN Guv". Deccan Herald. Chennai: Deccan Herald. 25 August 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
  20. The Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature. Vol. 1. Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai: Institute of Asian Studies.
  21. Zvelebil, K. V. (1975). Tamil Literature. Leiden/Cologne: E. J. Brill. ISBN   90-04-04190-7.
  22. Ashraf, N. V. K. ""تِروكـُّـرل" و "تِرووَلـّـووَر"". GeoCities. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  23. 1 2 3 4 "Thirukkural Translations in World Languages". ValaiTamil.com. n.d. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  24. "تروكرل المثنوي المقدس". الفارابي. دار الفارابي. 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  25. "Thirukkural now in Arabic". The Hindu. Chennai. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  26. Badsha, M. O. (28 November 2019). "The essence of Thirukkural in Arabic". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  27. "Thirukkural Now in Arabic". The New Indian Express. Chennai: Express Publications. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  28. Kolappan, B. (17 June 2015). "Saudis celebrate wisdom of Tirukkural". The Hindu. Chennai: Kasturi & Sons. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  29. "E-Newsletter (November–December 2014)" (PDF). sahitya-akademi.gov.in. Sahitya Akademi. 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  30. Rajaram, R. (19 June 2014). "Chinese translation of Tirukkural, Bharathi's poems ready". The Hindu. Chennai.
  31. 1 2 Sanjeevi, N. (1973). Bibliography on Tirukkural. In First All India Tirukkural Seminar Papers. University of Madras. p. 145.
  32. Kindersley, N. E. (1794). "Specimens Of Hindu Literature" . Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  33. Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, p. 518.
  34. N. E. Ramalingam (2009). Thirukkural Commentary in Tamil and English. Chennai: Thiruvalluvar Pathippagam.
  35. R. Jayaprakasam (2019). Thirukkural: Text in English & Tamil. Chennai: Porselvi Pathippagam. ISBN   978-81-926917-5-6.
  36. Bhoopathi, 2019.
  37. Narang, Gaurvi (15 February 2023). "'Only thing you read to your lover in bed'—Meena Kandasamy's modern book on ancient Tamil text". The Print. New Delhi. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  38. 1 2 Dev Nadkarni and Padmini Gaunder (10 July 2009). "And Now, Thirukkural in Fijian". The Indian Weekender. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  39. S. L. Berwick (1964). Na Tirukurala. Nadi: Sri Ramakrishna Mission.
  40. 1 2 3 Editions of "Tirukkuṟaḷ". BnF Data. n.d. via data.bnf.fr.
  41. Press Information Bureau (16 January 2015). "PM releases Gujarati translation of Thirukkural, on 'Thiruvalluvar Day'". New Delhi: Government of India, Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  42. 1 2 3 Polhilan et al. (Ed.) (2019). Tiruvalluvar 2050 (in Tamil) (1 ed.). Chennai: Periyariya Unarvalargal Koottamaippu. p. 680.
  43. "Translator wants Tirukkural couplets to be displayed in planes, trains". The Hindu. Chennai: Kasturi & Sons. 23 September 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  44. "Irish moliyil Tirukkural" [Tirukkural in Irish]. குறள் வழி. November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023 via Issuu.[ clarification needed ]
  45. Kannadasan, Akila (24 June 2012). "Friendship that has withstood time". The Hindu. Coimbatore: Kasturi & Sons. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  46. Srinivasan, S. (2014). Tirukkural in Kannada (in Tamil and Kannada). Vol. 1 (1 ed.). Chennai: Central Institute of Classical Tamil. pp. i–xxiv, 410 pages. ISBN   978-93-81744-05-5.
  47. "'Thirukkural' in Konkani". The Hindu . 24 June 2002. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  48. "Thirukkural translated into Konkani". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. The Times of India. 15 June 2002. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  49. "Amonkar on Goa University Library". Goa University Library. 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  50. "Goa's Padmashree Dr. Suresh Gundu Amonkar on Dr. Jose Pereira and Hinduism". Gmane. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  51. "Thirukkural translated to Konkani". The Times of India. Mangaluru: The Times Group. 1 September 2023. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
  52. "திருக்குறளை மணிப்பூர் மொழியில் மொழி பெயர்த்து வெளியிட்ட மணிப்பூர் மங்கை ரேபிகா தேவி". Valai Tamil.com (in Tamil). ValaiTamil.com. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  53. Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, pp. 518–520.
  54. Sanjeevi, 1973, pp. 50–55.
  55. Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, p. 520.
  56. "Translations" (PDF). Russian State University for the Humanities. n.d. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  57. Akhilesh Sharma, Samiran Mishra (21 May 2023). ""You Are Causing Me A Real Problem...": Biden To PM On Upcoming US Trip". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  58. Press Trust of India (22 May 2023). "PM Modi releases Tamil classic 'Thirukkural' in Papua New Guinea language". Business Standard. Port Moresby. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
  59. The Hindu, 25 March 2013.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thiruvalluvar</span> Tamil poet and philosopher

Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was an Indian poet and philosopher. He is best known as the author of the Tirukkuṟaḷ, a collection of couplets on ethics, political and economic matters, and love. The text is considered an exceptional and widely cherished work of Tamil literature.

Parimelalhagar, sometimes spelled Parimelazhagar, born Vanduvarai Perumal, was a Tamil poet and scholar known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. He was the last among the canon of ten medieval commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five oldest commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Manakkudavar, Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, and Paridhi. Of all the ancient commentaries available of the Kural literature, Parimelalhagar's commentary is considered by scholars as the best both in textual and literary aspects. The codification of the writings of Valluvar is attributed to Parimelalhagar. Parimelalhagar also remains the most reviewed, in terms of both praise and criticism, of all the medieval Kural commentators. Praised for its literary richness and clarity, Parimelalhagar's commentary is considered highly complex and exquisite in its own right that it has several scholarly commentaries appearing over the centuries to elucidate it. Along with the Kural text, Parimelalhagar's commentary has been widely published that it is in itself regarded a Tamil classic.

<i>Kural</i> Ancient Tamil composition on personal ethics and morality

The Tirukkuṟaḷ, or shortly theKural, is a classic Tamil language text consisting of 1,330 short couplets, or kurals, of seven words each. The text is divided into three books with aphoristic teachings on virtue (aram), wealth (porul) and love (inbam), respectively. Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, it is widely acknowledged for its universality and secular nature. Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE and that it was composed after the Sangam period.

The Tirukkural, shortly known as the Kural, is a classic Tamil sangam treatise on the art of living. Consisting of 133 chapters with 1330 couplets or kurals, it deals with the everyday virtues of an individual. Authored by Valluvar between the first century BCE and 5th century CE, it is considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality and is praised for its universality and non-denominational nature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tirukkural translations into English</span>

Tirukkural remains one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. As of 2014, there were at least 57 versions available in the English language alone. English, thus, continues to remain the language with most number of translations available of the Kural text.

<i>Tirukkuṟaḷ</i> translations into Latin

Latin is the first foreign language into which the Tirukkuṟaḷ was translated. There are three known translations of the Kural text available in Latin.

Hindi perhaps has many translations of the Tirukkural. As of 2000, there were at least 19 translations of the Kural text available in Hindi. Many of these translations are in verse form.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tirukkural translations into German</span>

Among the European languages, German has the third highest number of translations of the Tirukkural, after English and French. As of 2015, there were at least eight translations of the Kural text available in German.

Malayalam has seen the most number of Tirukkural translations than that of any other language in India. As of 2007, there are at least 21 translations of the Kural text available in Malayalam. Malayalam also has the distinction of producing the first ever translation of the Kural text among the languages in India and the world at large. The Annual Report of the Cochin Archeological Department for the year 1933–34 reported an unpublished manuscript of a Malayalam translation of the Tirukkural made in 1595.

As of 2015, there were at least three Gujarati translations available of the Tirukkural.

As of 2015, Tirukkural has been translated into Sinhalese at least twice.

As of 2015, Marathi has at least two translation available of the Tirukkural, of which one is complete.

Manakkudavar was a Tamil scholar and commentator known for his commentary on the Tirukkural. His is the earliest of the available commentaries on the Kural text, and hence considered to bear closest semblance with the original work by Valluvar. He was among the canon of Ten Medieval Commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, Paridhi, and Parimelalhagar.

The Ten Medieval Commentators were a canonical group of Tamil scholars whose commentaries on the ancient Indian didactic work of the Kural are esteemed by later scholars as worthy of critical analysis. These scholars lived in the Medieval era between the 10th and 13th centuries CE. Among these medieval commentaries, the commentaries of Manakkudavar, Kaalingar, and Parimelalhagar are considered pioneer by modern scholars.

E. S. Ariel, also referred to as Monsieur Ariel by his contemporaries, was a 19th-century French translator known for his French translation of the ancient Indian philosophical text of the Tirukkural. He translated select couplets of the Tirukkural into French in 1848 and published it in Paris under the title Kural de Thiruvalluvar . Although the first French translation of the Kural text was made by an unknown author in 1767, which Ariel had mentioned in his work, it was Ariel's translation that brought the ancient work to the French world.

The Book ofAṟam, in full Aṟattuppāl, also known as the Book of Virtue, the First Book or Book One in translated versions, is the first of the three books or parts of the Kural literature, a didactic work authored by the ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar. Written in High Tamil distich form, it has 38 chapters each containing 10 kurals or couplets, making a total of 380 couplets, all dealing with the fundamental virtues of an individual. Aṟam, the Tamil term that loosely corresponds to the English term 'virtue', correlates with the first of the four ancient Indian values of dharma, artha, kama and moksha. The Book of Aṟam exclusively deals with virtues independent of the surroundings, including the vital principles of non-violence, moral vegetarianism, veracity, and righteousness.

Tirukkural, or the Kural, an ancient Indian treatise on common moralities, has been given by various names ever since its writing between the first century BCE and the 5th century CE. Originally referred to as Muppāl, perhaps as presented by its author Valluvar himself at the ruler's court, the work remains unique among ancient works in that it was not given any title by its author himself. All the names that the work is referred by today are given by later days' scholars over the millennia. The work is known by an estimated 44 names excluding variants, although some scholars list even more. E. S. Ariel, a French scholar of the 19th century who translated the work into French, famously said of the Kural thus: Ce livre sans nom, par un autre sans nom.

The Book of Poruḷ, in full Poruṭpāl, also known as the Book of Wealth, Book of Polity, the Second Book or Book Two in translated versions, is the second of the three books or parts of the Kural literature, authored by the ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar. Written in High Tamil distich form, it has 70 chapters each containing 10 kurals or couplets, making a total of 700 couplets all dealing with statecraft. Poruḷ, which means both 'wealth' and 'meaning', correlates with the second of the four ancient Indian values of dharma, artha, kama and moksha. The Book of Poruḷ deals with polity, or virtues of an individual with respect to the surroundings, including the stately qualities of administration, wisdom, prudence, nobility, diplomacy, citizenship, geniality, industry, chastity, sobriety and teetotalism, that is expected of every individual, keeping aṟam or dharma as the base.

The Book of Inbam, in full Iṉbattuppāl, or in a more sanskritized term Kāmattuppāl, also known as the Book of Love, the Third Book or Book Three in translated versions, is the third of the three books or parts of the Kural literature, authored by the ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar. Written in High Tamil distich form, it has 25 chapters each containing 10 kurals or couplets, making a total of 250 couplets all dealing with human love. The term inbam or kamam, which means 'pleasure', correlates with the third of the four ancient Indian values of dharma, artha, kama and moksha. However, unlike Kamasutra, which deals with different methods of lovemaking, the Book of Inbam expounds the virtues and emotions involved in conjugal love between a man and a woman, or virtues of an individual within the walls of intimacy, keeping aṟam or dharma as the base.

The dating of the Tirukkural, and by extension the period of its author Valluvar, has been a subject of intense debate among scholars for centuries, and it continues to remain so. The Kural is variously dated between 300 BCE and 5th century CE. According to Blackburn, the "current scholarly consensus" dates the text and the author to approximately 500 CE. The Tamil Nadu government has ratified 31 BCE as the year of birth of Valluvar. Still the precise date as to when Valluvar completed writing the Kural text remains murky. This article speaks about various dates arrived at by various scholars over time.


Further reading