|Part of a series on|
As of 2020, there were at least four translations of the Tirukkural available in Arabic. The Kural text is the first, and so far the only, Tamil work to be translated directly into Arabic. It is also the first Tamil work to be released in the Arabian soil.
The first translation of the Kural text was made by Muhammad Yousuf Kokan, the then professor and head of the Department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu of Jamalia Arabic College, Chennai.He made the prose translation from an English translation of the original work and published it around 1976 and 1980 under the title "Sacred Verses" (الابيات المقدسة), which is almost a literal translation of the word Tirukkural. The word Kural actually means "couplet" and not "verse".
The second Arabic translation, and the first by a native speaker, was completed by Amar Hasan from Syria in 2015.The work is not a literal translation and maintains the original verse form completed in full for all the 1330 couplets of the Kural text.
In 2014, K. M. A. Ahamed Zubair made a partial translations of about 50 couplets, including the chapters on Glory of Rain (couplets 11 to 20), Speaking Pleasantly (couplets 91 to 100), Learning (couplets 391 to 400), Embracing the Kin (couplets 521 to 530), and In Praise of Love (couplets 1121 to 1130), which were published in his book on translating Tamil poetry into Arabic with special reference to Thirukkural, published in 2017.
A. Jahir Hussain, an assistant professor in the Department of Arabic, Persian and Urdu at the University of Madras, made a complete translation, who presented it at the Kuwait International Book Fair on 30 November 2019.[ citation needed ] In March 2015, the translation was presented at the four-day Arab International Poet's Conference organised by Society for Culture and Art, affiliated to Saudi Ministry of Culture, held at Dammam city in Saudi Arabia after being vetted by the Ministry of Culture. Beginning in 2011 as a Tamil Nadu state government project and completed in 2013, the translation was published by the International Institute of Tamil Studies and officially released on 4 September 2020. Unlike Kokan, Hussain made his translation directly from the Tamil original of the Kural text, drawing on Mu. Varadarajan's commentary.
|Translation||Chapter 26, ترك اللحم|
|Kural 254 (Couplet 26:4)||Kural 258 (Couplet 26:8)|
|Muhammad Yousuf Kokan, 1976||ذبح الحيوانات يدل على قسوة قلب الذابح ولكن أكل اللحم يدل على ظلم وجور آكله||إن الذين حرروا أنفسهم من الوهم والجهل لن يأكلوا لحما فصل من جسم الحيوان|
|Amar Hasan, 2015|
|K. M. A. Ahamed Zubair, 2017||Not translated||Not translated|
Parimelalhagar, sometimes spelled Parimelazhagar, born Vanduvarai Perumal, was a Tamil poet and scholar known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. He was the last among the canon of ten medieval commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five oldest commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Manakkudavar, Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, and Paridhi. Of all the ancient commentaries available of the Kural literature, Parimelalhagar's commentary is considered by scholars as the best both in textual and literary aspects. The codification of the writings of Valluvar is attributed to Parimelalhagar. Parimelalhagar also remains the most reviewed, in terms of both praise and criticism, of all the medieval Kural commentators. Praised for its literary richness and clarity, Parimelalhagar's commentary is considered highly complex and exquisite in its own right that it has several scholarly commentaries appearing over the centuries to elucidate it. Along with the Kural text, Parimelalhagar's commentary has been widely published that it is in itself regarded a Tamil classic.
The Tirukkuṟaḷ, or shortly theKural, is a classic Tamil language text consisting of 1,330 short couplets, or kurals, of seven words each. The text is divided into three books with aphoristic teachings on virtue (aram), wealth (porul) and love (inbam), respectively. Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, it is widely acknowledged for its universality and secular nature. Its authorship is traditionally attributed to Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE and that it was composed after the Sangam period.
The Tirukkural, shortly known as the Kural, is a classic Tamil sangam treatise on the art of living. Consisting of 133 chapters with 1330 couplets or kurals, it deals with the everyday virtues of an individual. Authored by Valluvar between the first century BCE and 5th century CE, it is considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality and is praised for its universality and non-denominational nature.
Tirukkural, also known as the Kural, an ancient Indian treatise on the ethics and morality of the commoner, is one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. Authored by the ancient Tamil poet-philosopher Thiruvalluvar, it has been translated into at least 42 world languages, with about 57 different renderings in the English language alone.
Tirukkural remains one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. As of 2014, there were at least 57 versions available in the English language alone. English, thus, continues to remain the language with most number of translations available of the Kural text.
Hindi perhaps has many translations of the Tirukkural. As of 2000, there were at least 19 translations of the Kural text available in Hindi. Many of these translations are in verse form.
Kannada has at least eight translations of the Tirukkural available as of 2014. Both prose and verse translations have been made in Kannada.
Among the European languages, German has the third highest number of translations of the Tirukkural, after English and French. As of 2015, there were at least eight translations of the Kural text available in German.
As of 2015, the Chinese language had two translations available of the Tirukkural.
Malayalam has seen the most number of Tirukkural translations than that of any other language in India. As of 2007, there are at least 21 translations of the Kural text available in Malayalam. Malayalam also has the distinction of producing the first ever translation of the Kural text among the languages in India and the world at large. The Annual Report of the Cochin Archeological Department for the year 1933–34 reported an unpublished manuscript of a Malayalam translation of the Tirukkural made in 1595.
Telugu is one of the Indian languages that has had the earliest Tirukkural translations in modern times. As of 2000, there were at least 14 translations of the Kural text available in Telugu.
As of 2015, there were at least three Gujarati translations available of the Tirukkural.
As of 2015, Urdu has at least two translations available of the Tirukkural.
As of 2015, Konkani has two translations available of the Tirukkural.
Manakkudavar was a Tamil scholar and commentator known for his commentary on the Tirukkural. His is the earliest of the available commentaries on the Kural text, and hence considered to bear closest semblance with the original work by Valluvar. He was among the canon of Ten Medieval Commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, Paridhi, and Parimelalhagar.
Pari Perumal, also known as Kaviperumal, was a Tamil scholar and commentator known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. He was among the canon of Ten Medieval Commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Manakkudavar, Kaalingar, Paridhi, and Parimelalhagar.
Paridhi, also referred to as Paridhiyaar, was a Tamil literary commentator known for his commentary on the Thirukkural. He was among the canon of ten medieval commentators of the Kural text most highly esteemed by scholars. He was also among the five ancient commentators whose commentaries had been preserved and made available to the Modern era, the others being Manakkudavar, Pari Perumal, Kaalingar, and Parimelalhagar.
Korean has at least two translations of the Tirukkural available as of 2017.
E. S. Ariel, also referred to as Monsieur Ariel by his contemporaries, was a 19th-century French translator known for his French translation of the ancient Indian philosophical text of the Tirukkural. He translated select couplets of the Tirukkural into French in 1848 and published it in Paris under the title Kural de Thiruvalluvar . Although the first French translation of the Kural text was made by an unknown author in 1767, which Ariel had mentioned in his work, it was Ariel's translation that brought the ancient work to the French world.
Soibam Rebika Devi is an Indian translator who is best known for translating the Tirukkural into Meitei.