Toolebuc Formation

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Toolebuc Formation
Stratigraphic range: Albian
~109–103  Ma
Type Geological formation
Unit of Rolling Downs Group
Underlies Allaru Formation
Overlies Wallumbilla Formation
ThicknessUp to 65 m (213 ft)
Primary Limestone, mudstone
Other Shale
Coordinates 20°24′S144°24′E / 20.4°S 144.4°E / -20.4; 144.4 Coordinates: 20°24′S144°24′E / 20.4°S 144.4°E / -20.4; 144.4
Approximate paleocoordinates 52°42′S132°30′E / 52.7°S 132.5°E / -52.7; 132.5
Region Queensland
CountryFlag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Extent Eromanga Basin
Australia relief map.jpg
Green pog.svg
Toolebuc Formation (Australia)

The Toolebuc Formation is a geological formation that extends from Queensland across South Australia and the Northern Territory in Australia, whose strata date back to the Albian stage of the Early Cretaceous. Dinosaurs, [1] pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, protostegid turtles, sharks, chimaeroids and bony fish remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.



late Early Cretaceous (105 Ma) Scotese 105 ma.png
late Early Cretaceous (105 Ma)

Deposition occurred in a cool to temperate inland sea setting and the present lithology is dominantly made up of limey shales with abundant Inoceramus bivalve shells. Ichthyosaurs and protostegid turtles were the most common marine reptiles at this time in the Eromanga Sea, in contrast to older Aptian deposits such as the Bulldog Shale of South Australia, which show that plesiosaurs were previously more abundant and also more diverse. The Toolebuc Formation is one of the richest known sources of Mesozoic vertebrate fossils in Australia, with notable collecting areas situated around the towns of Richmond, Julia Creek, Hughenden and Boulia.

Fossil content

Possible indeterminate ankylosaurid remains are present in Queensland, Australia. [1] Indeterminate ornithopod remains have also been found in Queensland, Australia. [1]


Dinosaurs (including birds)
Kunbarrasaurus K. ieversiQueensland [1]
Minmi model Canberra email.jpg
Muttaburrasaurus IndeterminateQueensland [1]
Muttaburrasaurus skull aus.jpg
Nanantius N. eosQueensland"Tibiotarsi and vertebra" [1] [2]
Aussiedraco A. molnariQueensland
Mythunga M. camaraQueensland
Kronosaurus K. queenslandicusQueensland
Kronosaurus preying on Eromangasaurus Kronosaurus hunt1DB.jpg
Kronosaurus preying on Eromangasaurus
Eromangasaurus E. australisQueensland
Polycotylidae indet.Undescribed polycotylid (specimen QM F18041, nicknamed Penny)Queensland[ citation needed ]
Platypterygius P. australisQueensland
Platypterigius kiprjanov2.jpg
Bouliachelys B. suteriQueensland
Notochelone costata.jpg
Cratochelone C. berneyiQueensland
Notochelone N. costataQueensland

See also

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weishampel et al., 2004, pp.573-574
  2. "Table 11.1," in Weishampel et al., 2004, p.213