Trite planiceps

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Trite planiceps
Trite.planiceps.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Salticidae
Subfamily: Salticinae
Genus: Trite
Species:
T. planiceps
Binomial name
Trite planiceps
Simon, 1899
Synonyms

Salticus minax
Trite minax

Trite planiceps, commonly known as the black-headed jumping spider, is a common jumping spider (Salticidae) endemic to New Zealand and one of about 150 species of jumping spiders in New Zealand.

Contents

Taxonomy

Trite planiceps was first described in 1873 as Salticus minax from specimens collected from Riccarton Bush, Governor Bay and the North Island. [1] Trite planiceps was later described again in 1899 as its current name by Eugene Simon. [2] In 2011, T. planiceps was redescribed after DNA sequences were used to provide molecular evidence for the taxonomy of this species [3]

The holotypes were stored at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle but are thought to have been lost. [3]

Description

Males and females range in body length from 6 to 13.5 mm. [3] The cephalothorax and first pair of legs are jet black. The elongated abdomen is golden brown, with a central yellow stripe, and sometimes has a greenish sheen. [4] In males, the first pair of legs is elongated, there is a row of dark hairs above the frontal eyes, and the chelicerae (mouthparts) are more robust.

Behaviour

Hunting

While most jumping spider rely mostly on their very acute eyesight, T. planiceps has been shown to seize on prey in the dark, probably by means of vibratory signals. Unlike typical jumping spiders, they do not make nightly web shelters. As T. planiceps lives in low altitudes, this could be an adaptation to cool overcast winters, where they need to survive within the dim recesses of rolled-up leaves of New Zealand flax ( Phormium tenax ) and similar plants. [5] These leaves are typically one to two meters long and 5 to 10 cm wide.

Courtship

They also change from vision-based courtship in the open to vibratory courtship when mating inside a rolled-up leaf. If an immature female is within about ten days of maturing, the male will live with her for this time and then mate inside the leaf. The two are in physical contact for a while after mating, and communicate using tactile signals. Upon entering a rolled-up leaf, both sexes will tap the leaf surface with the first pair of legs and vibrate their abdomen. [6]

Nest building

Juveniles and subadults build flat, tubular silk cocoons with a door at each end inside rolled up leaves. Adult females build a silk platform 50% longer and two to three times wider than their own size before laying up to seven egg batches with 8 to 40 eggs each. Each batch is enclosed in its own silk casing. Males normally do not build nests.[ citation needed ]

A wide array of behavioral patterns has been observed, among others ritualized male duels.[ citation needed ]

Interactions with humans

Due to their docile nature, bites from Trite planiceps are very rare (members of the public frequently handle them without getting bitten). Bites from T. planiceps only occur when the spider is acting defensively as a last resort. One case study of a T. planiceps bite reported that an individual was bitten when he rolled over while in bed and was unaware of a single T. planiceps in his shirt. The bite caused a stinging like sensation in his lower shoulder blades and left two puncture marks 1mm apart. After four hours, the skin surrounding the puncture mark had formed a red halo. The swelling and tenderness settled shortly after and the redness faded after 72 hours. [7]

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<i>Maratus volans</i> Species of spider

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<i>Cosmophasis umbratica</i> Species of spider

Cosmophasis umbratica is a species of jumping spider found in South and Southeast Asia. These spiders are known for their brilliant, shiny ultraviolet light. They are members of the family Salticidae and the genus Cosmophasis. They are commonly spotted on green vegetation. C. umbratica shows extreme dimorphism when viewed under UV light: males reflect UV on all body parts that are displayed during intraspecific interaction, while females and juveniles do not reflect UV at all. It seems that C. umbratica uses this in sexual signaling. A similar phenomenon is found in some butterflies. For example, several species of Colias and Gonepteryx, both of the family Pieridae, also display sexual signaling.

<i>Porrhothele antipodiana</i> Black tunnelweb spider from New Zealand

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<i>Maevia inclemens</i> Species of spider

Maevia inclemens is a relatively common and colorful jumping spider of North America. In the males there are two forms, a very rare phenomenon in zoology. These use different courting displays, and differ in appearance: the "tufted" morph has a black body and pedipalps ("palps"), three black tufts across its "head", and pale legs; and the "gray" morph has black and white stripes all over its body and legs, orange palps, and no tufts. However, each form accounts for 50% of the adult males, and they are equally successful in mating. A female of Maevia inclemens is 6.5 to 8.0 millimetres long, while males are 4.75 to 6.50 millimetres long.

<i>Anasaitis canosa</i> Species of spider

Anasaitis canosa, previously of the genus Corythalia, is a small jumping spider that can typically be found atop leaf-litter or man-made structures such as fences and exterior walls. This species is more commonly known as the twin-flagged jumping spider due to the two pennant shaped markings on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax. Typical of the genus Anasaitis, this species has iridescent setae ("scales") which may appear white, green or pink which create the "flags" as well as patches on the male pedipalps used in courtship and intraspecific signaling. This species is roughly 5 to 6 mm in length. A. canosa ranges from Mexico to South Carolina along the Gulf of Mexico.

<i>Phidippus clarus</i> Species of spider

Phidippus clarus is a species of jumping spider found in old fields throughout eastern North America. It often waits upside down near the top of a plant, which may be useful for detecting prey, and then quickly jumps down before the prey can escape. The spider is one of 60 species in the genus Phidippus, and one of about 5,000 in the Salticidae, a family that accounts for about 10% of all spider species. P. clarus is a predator, mostly consuming insects, other spiders, and other terrestrial arthropods.

<i>Portia fimbriata</i> Species of spider

Portia fimbriata, sometimes called the fringed jumping spider, is a jumping spider found in Australia and Southeast Asia. Adult females have bodies 6.8 to 10.5 millimetres long, while those of adult males are 5.2 to 6.5 millimetres long. Both sexes have a generally dark brown carapace, reddish brown chelicerae ("fangs"), a brown underside, dark brown palps with white hairs, and dark brown abdomens with white spots on the upper side. Both sexes have fine, faint markings and soft fringes of hair, and the legs are spindly and fringed. However, specimens from New Guinea and Indonesia have orange-brown carapaces and yellowish abdomens. In all species of the genus Portia, the abdomen distends when the spider is well fed or producing eggs.

<i>Portia schultzi</i> Species of spider

Portia schultzi is a species of jumping spider which ranges from South Africa in the south to Kenya in the north, and also is found in West Africa and Madagascar. In this species, which is slightly smaller than some other species of the genus Portia, the bodies of females are 5 to 7 mm long, while those of males are 4 to 6 mm long. The carapaces of both sexes are orange-brown with dark brown mottling, and covered with dark brown and whitish hairs lying over the surface. Males have white tufts on their thoraces and a broad white band above the bases of the legs, and these features are less conspicuous in females. Both sexes have tufts of orange to dark orange above the eyes, which are fringed with pale orange hairs. Males' abdomens are yellow-orange to orange-brown with blackish mottling, and on the upper sides are black and light orange hairs, and nine white tufts. Those of females are pale yellow and have black markings with scattered white and orange-brown hairs on the upper side. P. schultzi has relatively longer legs than other Portia, and a "lolloping" gait.

<i>Trite auricoma</i> Species of spider

Trite auricoma, commonly known as the golden-brown jumping spider, is a species of jumping spider endemic to New Zealand.

Maratus vespa is a species of the peacock spider genus, Maratus, characterised by its distinctive courtship display. The male spiders are characterized by a bright abdomen, lateral flaps, and an elongated third pair of legs. When attempting to attract a mate, the male spider will raise its colorful abdomen and elongated third pair of legs and wave them, along with extending its lateral flaps. This complex display of courtship is analogous of that of a peacock, hence the common name of this spider species.

References

  1. Powell, L. (1873). On the spiders of New Zealand. Part I. Genus Salticus. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute5: 280–286.
  2. Simon, E. (1899b). Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abtheilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere12(4): 411–437.
  3. 1 2 3 Vink, Cor J., Dupérré, Nadine, McQuillan, Bryce N. (2011): The black headed jumping spider, Trite planiceps Simon, 1899 (Araneae: Salticidae): redescription including cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and paralogous 28S sequences. New Zealand Journal of Zoology38: 317–331.
  4. Early, John (2009). Know your New Zealand ... native insects & spiders. New Holland. p. 28. ISBN   9781869662530.
  5. Forster, Lyn M. (1982): Non-visual prey-capture in Trite planiceps, a jumping spider (Araneae, Salticidae). Journal of Arachnology10: 179–183. PDF
  6. Taylor, Phillip W. & Jackson, Robert R. (1999): Habitat-adapted communication in Trite planiceps, a New Zealand jumping spider (Araneae, Salticidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology26: 127–154. PDF Archived 3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Derraik, JGB, Sirvid, PJ and Rademaker, M. 2010. The first account of a bite by the New Zealand native spider Trite planiceps (Araneae: Salticidae). New Zealand Medical Journal, 123: 1–7.